Journal of NeuroVirology

, Volume 14, Issue 6, pp 536–549 | Cite as

Neurobehavioral effects of human immunodeficiency virus infection among former plasma donors in rural China

  • Robert K. Heaton
  • Lucette A. Cysique
  • Hua Jin
  • Chuan Shi
  • Xin Yu
  • Scott Letendre
  • Donald R. Franklin
  • Christopher Ake
  • Ofilio Vigil
  • J. Hampton Atkinson
  • Thomas D. Marcotte
  • Igor Grant
  • Zunyou Wu
  • The San Diego HIV Neurobehavioral Research Center Group
Article

Abstract

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in China has expanded rapidly in recent years, but little is known about the prevalence and features of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs) in this part of the world. We administered a comprehensive Western neuropsychological (NP) test battery to 203 HIV+ and 198 HIV − former plasma donors in the rural area of Anhui province. They found that 26% of the HIV − samples, and 46% of the HIV+ samples, were infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), which can also have central nervous system (CNS) effects. To classify NP impairment, we developed demographically corrected test norms based upon individuals free of both infections (N=141). Using a global summary score, NP impairment was found in 34.2% of the HIV-monoinfected group and 39.7% of the coinfected group, as compared to 12.7% of the uninfected controls (P <.001). HIV+ participants with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were more likely to be impaired (43%) than non-AIDS individuals (29%; P <.05). Lastly, when all infection groups were combined, participants with NP impairment reported more cognitive complaints (P <.01) and increased dependence in everyday functioning (P=.01). In sum, NP impairment in this large rural Chinese sample was associated with both HIV and HCV infections, and the impairment’s prevalence, severity, and pattern were similar to those reported by Western studies. Clinical significance of NP impairment in this population is suggested by the participants’ reports of reduced everyday functioning. These findings indicate that HAND is likely to be an important feature of HIV infection in developing countries, underscoring the need for international efforts to develop CNS-relevant treatments.

Keywords

HIV HCV neurocognitive disorders China 

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Copyright information

© Journal of NeuroVirology, Inc. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert K. Heaton
    • 1
  • Lucette A. Cysique
    • 1
  • Hua Jin
    • 1
    • 2
  • Chuan Shi
    • 3
  • Xin Yu
    • 3
  • Scott Letendre
    • 1
  • Donald R. Franklin
    • 1
  • Christopher Ake
    • 1
  • Ofilio Vigil
    • 1
  • J. Hampton Atkinson
    • 1
  • Thomas D. Marcotte
    • 1
  • Igor Grant
    • 1
  • Zunyou Wu
    • 4
  • The San Diego HIV Neurobehavioral Research Center Group
  1. 1.HIV Neurobehavioral Research Center (HNRC), Department of PsychiatryUniversity of California at San DiegoSan DiegoUSA
  2. 2.VA San Diego Health Care SystemSan DiegoUSA
  3. 3.Institute of Mental HealthPeking UniversityBeijingChina
  4. 4.National Center for AIDS/STD Control & Prevention (NCAIDS)BeijingChina

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