Associations of cigarette smoking with viral immune and cognitive function in human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive women
- 132 Downloads
Cigarette smoking alters the immune system and may improve cognitive deficits in neuropsychiatric disorders. Smoking prevalence is high in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)—infected patients; however, its effect on HIV-associated cognitive impairment remains unknown in the era of antiretroviral treatment. The authors examined associations of smoking with viral immune profile and cognitive function in a cohort of HIV-seropositive women. This observational cross-sectional study included 56 women (36 HIV-seropositive and 20 HIV-seronegative) surveyed with a tobacco questionnaire: the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependency. Viral immune status was obtained 6 to 12 months before questioned. Neurocognitive testing (NP) assessed verbal memory, frontal/executive function, psychomotor speed, and motor speed. A reference group of HIV-seronegative women was used to calculate standardized z-scores. Cognitive impairment was classified using a modified American Academy of Neurology criteria, adding an asymptomatic group based on NP tests. Statistics included parametric and nonparametric tests. HIV-seropositive women were more likely to report a history of smoking (P = 0.028). Among them, current smoking correlated with higher plasma viral load (P = 0.048), and history of smoking correlated with lower CD4 cell count (P = 0.027). The authors observed no associations between cognitive impairment and either current or past history of smoking and no differences in neurocognitive domain scores between HIV-seropositive and -seronegative women or between those with and without a history of smoking. However, restricting analysis to HIV-seropositives showed a significant better performance on the frontal/executive domain in those with history of smoking. In summary, history of smoking correlated with better frontal/executive cognitive domain performance in HIV-seropositive women and with worse viral immune profile.
Keywordscigarette smoking cognitive impairment HIV nicotine viral immune profile women
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- American Academy of Neurology AIDS Task Force (1991). Nomenclature and research case definitions for neurologic manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Report of a Working Group of the American Academy of Neurology AIDS Task Force. Neurology 41: 778–785.Google Scholar
- American Academy of Neurology AIDS Task Force (1996). Clinical confirmation of the American Academy of Neurology algorithm for HIV-1-associated cognitive/motor disorder. The Dana Consortium on Therapy for HIV Dementia and Related Cognitive Disorders. Neurology 47: 1247–1253.Google Scholar
- CDC (2006). HIV/AIDS among Youth. http://www.cdc. gov/hiv/resourses/factsheets/youth.htm.Google Scholar
- Feldman JG, Minkoff H, Schneider MF, Gange SJ, Cohen M, Watts DH, Gandhi M, Mocharnuk RS, Anastos K (2006). Association of cigarette smoking with hiv prognosis among women in the HAART era: a report from the Women’s Interagency HIV Study. Am J Public Health 96: 1060–1065.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- MMWR (2006). Use of cessation methods among smokers aged 16–24 years—United States, 2003. MMWR Mort Morb Wkly Rep 55: 1351–1354.Google Scholar
- Olincy A, Harris JG, Johnson LL, Pender V, Kongs S, Allensworth D, Ellis J, Zerbe GO, Leonard S, Stevens KE, Stevens JO, Martin L, Adler LE, Soti F, Kem WR, Freedman R (2006). Proof-of-concept trial of an alpha7 nicotinic agonist in schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 63: 630–638.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sacco KA, Termine A, Seyal A, Dudas MM, Vessicchio JC, Krishnan-Sarin S, Jatlow PI, Wexler BE, George TP (2005). Effects of cigarette smoking on spatial working memory and attentional deficits in schizophrenia: involvement of nicotinic receptor mechanisms. Arch Gen Psychiatry 62: 649–659.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Williams, J (2002). Women and smoking: sensory factors, attitudes about weight, phase of menstrual cycle all key to quitting. NIDA notes.Google Scholar
- Wojna V, Skolasky R, Hechavarria R, Mayo R, Selnes O, McArthur JC, Melendez L, Maldonado E, Zorrilla C, Garcia H, Kraiselburd E, Nath A (2006). Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus-associated cognitive impairment in a group of Hispanic women at risk for neurological impairment. J NeuroVirol 12: 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar