Journal of NeuroVirology

, Volume 12, Issue 1, pp 34–38 | Cite as

Screening for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) dementia in an HIV clade C-infected population in India

  • D. Riedel
  • M. Ghate
  • M. Nene
  • R. S. Paranjape
  • S. M. Mehendale
  • R. C. Bollinger
  • N. Sacktor
  • J. C. McArthur
  • A. Nath
Article

Abstract

Although human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) clade C virus infects the largest populations worldwide, to date there are no prospective studies reported thus far to determine the incidence or prevalence of HIV dementia in this population. HIV clade C virus is a CCR5-tropic virus and thus predominantly infects macrophages, which are the key cells implicated in the pathogenesis of HIV dementia. However, HIV dementia has only rarely been reported in these populations. The authors thus used a recently developed International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS) to screen a well-characterized cohort of HIV-infected discordant couples in Pune, India. 48 HIV+ subjects with CD4 cell count <200 cells/mm3 and 48 HIV− subjects were studied. The HIV+ subjects had significantly lower IHDS scores compared to the HIV− subjects. 35% of the HIV+ subjects and 15% of the HIV− subjects scored <10 on the IHDS. These observations suggest that the prevalence of HIV dementia may be higher in this population than previously reported. More importantly, it demonstrates that the IHDS can be used as a screening tool in the Indian population.

Keywords

AIDS brain cognition dementia HIV 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Albright AV, Shieh JTC, Itoh T, Lee B, Pleasure D, O’Connor MJ, Doms RW, Gonzalez-Scarano F (1999). Microglia express CCR5, CXCR4, and CCR3, but of these, CCR5 is the principal coreceptor for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 dementia isolates. J Virol 73: 205–213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Chiesi A, Seeber AC, Dally LG, Floridia M, Rezza G, Vella S (1996). AIDS dementia complex in the Italian National AIDS Registry: temporal trends (1987–93) and differential incidence according to mode of transmission of HIV-1 infection. J Neurol Sci 144: 107–113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. McArthur J, Brew B, Nath A (2005). Neurological complications of HIV infection. Lancet Neurol 4: 543–555.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. McArthur JC, Haughey N, Gartner S, Conant K, Pardo C, Nath A, Sacktor N (2003). Human immunodeficiency virus-associated dementia: an evolving disease. J NeuroVirol 9: 205–221.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Power C, Selnes OA, Grim JA, McArthur JC (1995). HIV Dementia Scale: a rapid screening test. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 8: 273–278.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Sacktor N (2002). The epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus-associated neurological disease in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. J Neurovirol 8(Suppl 2): 115–121.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Sacktor N, Lyles RH, Skolasky R, Kleeberger C, Selnes OA, Miller EN, Becker JT, Cohen B, McArthur JC (2001). HIV-associated neurologic disease incidence changes: Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, 1990–1998. Neurology 56: 257–260.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Sacktor N, McDermott MP, Marder K, Schifitto G, Selnes OA, McArthur JC, Stern Y, Albert S, Palumbo D, Kieburtz K, De Marcaida JA, Cohen B, Epstein L (2002). HIV-associated cognitive impairment before and after the advent of combination therapy. J Neurovirol 8: 136–142.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Sacktor NC, Wong M, Nakasujja N, Skolasky RL, Selnes OA, Musisi S, Robertson K, McArthur JC, Ronald A, Katabira E (2005). The International HIV Dementia Scale: a new rapid screening test for HIV dementia. AIDS 19: 1367–1374.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Shankar SK, Mahadevan A, Satishchandra P, Kumar RU, Yasha TC, Santosh V, Chandramuki A, Ravi V, Nath A (2005). Neuropathology of HIV/AIDS with an overview of the Indian scene. Indian J Med Res 121: 468–488.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Spira S, Wainberg MA, Loemba H, Turner D, Brenner BG (2003). Impact of clade diversity on HIV-1 virulence, antiretroviral drug sensitivity and drug resistance. J Antimicrob Chemother 51: 229–240.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Teja VD, Talasila SR, Vemu L (2005). Neurologic manifestations of HIV infection: an Indian hospital-based study. AIDS Read 15: 139–143, C3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Tozzi V, Balestra P, Murri R, Galgani S, Bellagamba R, Narciso P, Antinori A, Giulianelli M, Tosi G, Fantoni M, Sampaolesi A, Noto P, Ippolito G, Wu AW (2004). Neurocognitive impairment influences quality of life in HIV-infected patients receiving HAART. Int J STD AIDS 15: 254–259.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Wadia RS, Pujari SN, Kothari S, Udhar M, Kulkarni S, Bhagat S, Nanivadekar A (2001). Neurological manifestations of HIV disease. J Assoc Physicians India 49: 343–348.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Journal of NeuroVirology, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Riedel
    • 1
  • M. Ghate
    • 1
  • M. Nene
    • 1
  • R. S. Paranjape
    • 1
  • S. M. Mehendale
    • 1
  • R. C. Bollinger
    • 1
  • N. Sacktor
    • 1
  • J. C. McArthur
    • 1
  • A. Nath
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of NeurologyJohns Hopkins UniversityBaltimoreUSA

Personalised recommendations