Efficient plant regeneration through direct somatic embryogenesis from leaf explants of Phalaenopsis ‘Little Steve’

  • Huei-Lan Kuo
  • Jen-Tsung Chen
  • Wei-Chin ChangEmail author


Leaf segments of the orchid sp. Phalaenopsis ‘Little Steve’ were used as explants testing the effects of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D; 0.45, 2.26, 4.52 μM), 6-furfurylaminopurine (kinetin; 2.32, 4.65, 13.95 μM), N6-benzyladenine (BA; 2.22, 4.44, 13.32 μM), and 1-phenyl-3-(1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-yl)-urea (TDZ; 2.27, 4.54, 13.62μM) on the induction of direct somatic embryogenesis. After 20–30 d of culture in darkness, clusters of somatic embryos formed from leaf surfaces and wounded regions of explants on half-strength Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with BA and TDZ. However, kinetin had no response on direct embryo induction. In addition, 2,4-D highly retarded the frequency of embryogenesis that was induced by TDZ. Generally, adaxial surfaces near wounded regions had the highest embryogenic competency compared to other regions of explants. Histological sections revealed that somatic embryos mostly arose from epidermal cell layers of the explants. Secondary embryogenesis occurred at basal parts of embryos, and originated from outer cell layers. Following transfer of regenerated embryos onto growth regulator-free medium for 3.5–4 mo., plantlets with three to four leaves and several roots were obtained. This protocol provides a simple way to regenerate plants through direct somatic embryogenesis, and is suitable for further studies on embryo development and genetic transformation of Phalaenopsis.

Key words

direct somatic embryogenesis leaf explant moth orchid 


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Copyright information

© Society for In Vitro Biology 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of BotanyAcademia SinicaTaipeiTaiwan, Republic of China

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