Factors influencing Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of monocotyledonous species

  • Ming Cheng
  • Brenda A. Lowe
  • T. Michael Spencer
  • Xudong Ye
  • Charles L. Armstrong
Invited Review


Since the success of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of rice in the early 1990s, significant advances in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of monocotyledonous plant species have been achieved. Transgenic plants obtained via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation have been regenerated in more than a dozen monocotyledonous species, ranging from the most important cereal crops to ornamental plant species. Efficient transformation protocols for agronomically important cereal crops such as rice, wheat, maize, barley, and sorghum have been developed and transformation for some of these species has become routine. Many factors influencing Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of monocotyledonous plants have been investigated and elucidated. These factors include plant genotype, explant type, Agrobacterium strain, and binary vector. In addition, a wide variety of inoculation and co-culture conditions have been shown to be important for the transformation of monocots. For example, antinecrotic treatments using antioxidants and bactericides, osmotic treatments, desiccation of explants before or after Agrobacterium infection, and inoculation and co-culture medium compositions have influenced the ability to recover transgenic monocols. The plant selectable markers used and the promoters driving these marker genes have also been recognized as important factors influencing stable transformation frequency. Extension of transformation protocols to elite genotypes and to more readily available explants in agronomically important crop species will be the challenge of the future. Further evaluation of genes stimulating plant cell division or T-DNA integration, and genes increasing competency of plant cells to Agrobacterium, may increase transformation efficiency in various systems. Understanding mechanisms by which treatments such as desiccation and antioxidants impact T-DNA delivery and stable transformation will facilitate development of efficient transformation systems.

Key words

Agrobacterium transformation monocotyledonous species transformation parameters 


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Copyright information

© Society for In Vitro Biology 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ming Cheng
    • 1
  • Brenda A. Lowe
    • 1
  • T. Michael Spencer
    • 1
  • Xudong Ye
    • 2
  • Charles L. Armstrong
    • 3
  1. 1.Monsanto, Mystic ResearchMystic
  2. 2.MonsantoMiddleton
  3. 3.MonsantoSt. Louis

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