Micropropagation of calla lily (Zantedeschia albomaculata) via in vitro shoot tip proliferation

  • H. S. Chang
  • D. Charkabarty
  • E. J. Hahn
  • K. Y. PaekEmail author


A method for the micropropagation of Zantedeschia albomaculata is presented using shoot tip proliferation onto Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different plant growth regulator concentrations and combinations. Of the four cytokinins tested, 6-benzyladenine (BA) and thidiazuron (TDZ) were found to be more effective. An optimal concentration of BA (8.87 μM) or TDZ (4.54 μM) developed an average of 3.8 and 3.2 shoots per explant, respectively, but increasing concentrations of cytokinins often led to lower proliferation rate and stunted growth. Addition of auxins to the MS medium supplemented with 8.87 μM BA slightly enhanced multiple shoot formation in the explants. Multiplication of six cultivars of Zantedeschia genus comprising different flower types and colors were tested and achieved using only one regeneration medium (MS+8.87 μMBA+2.46 μM IBA). Different MS medium strength, air temperature (15, 20, 25, and 30°C) and light quality [fluorescent, red + blue, red and blue light provided by a LED (light-emitting diode) system] were used (without phytohormone) with the aim of stimulating in vitro shoot and root development. Half-strength MS or MS and cultures maintained at 25°C were found to be equally suitable for shoot tip culture of Z. albomaculata. Shoot elongation as well as fresh and dry weight were significantly increased when cultures were kept under red or blue light.

Key words

LEDs (light-emitting diodes) mass propagation calla lily Zantedeschia albomaculata light quality 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ahroni, A.; Zukur, A.; Rozen, Y.; Shejtman, H.; Vain Stein, A. An efficient method for adventious shoot regeneration from stem segment explants of gypsophila. Plant Cell Tiss. Organ Cult. 49:101–106; 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akoyunoglou, G.; Anni, H. Blue light effect on chloroplast development in higher plants. In: Senger, H., ed. Blue light effects in biological systems. Berlin: Springer-Verlag; 1984:397–406.Google Scholar
  3. Appelgren, M. Effects of light quality on stem elongation of Pelargonium in vitro. Sci. Hortic. 45:345–351; 1991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ballare, C. L.; Scopel, A. L.; Sanchez, R. A. Photocontrol of stem elongation in plant neighborhoods: effects of photon fluence rate under natural conditions of radiation. Plant Cell Environ. 14:57–65; 1991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brown, C. S.; Schuerger, A. C.; Sager, J. C. Growth and photomorphogenesis of pepper plants under red light-emitting diodes with supplemental blue or far-red lighting. J. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 120:808–813; 1995.Google Scholar
  6. Bruyn, M. H. D.; Ferreira, D. I.; Slabbert, M. M.: Pretorius, J. In vitro propagation of Amryllis belladonna. Plant Cell Tiss. Organ Cult. 31:179–184; 1992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bula, R. J.; Morrow, R. C.; Tibbitts, T. W.; Ignatius, R. W.; Martin, T. S.; Barta, D. J. Light emitting diodes as a radiation source for plants. HortScience 26:203–205; 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Chakrabarty, D.; Mandal, A. K. A.; Datta, S. K. Management of chimera through direct shoot regeneration from florets of chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.). J. Hort. Sci. Biotechnol. 74:293–296, 1999.Google Scholar
  9. Chen, J. J.; Liu, M. C.; Ho, Y. H. Size of in vitro plantlets affects subsequent tuber production of acclimated calla lily. HortScience 35:290–292; 2000.Google Scholar
  10. Chen, Y. Q.; Piluex, C. Effects of thidiazuron and N6-benzylaminopurine on shoot regeneration of Phalaenopsis. Plant Growth Reg. 16:99–101; 1995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Clemens, J.; Welsh, T. E.; An overview of the New Zealand calla industry. research direction and year round tuber production. Acta Hort. 337:161–166; 1993.Google Scholar
  12. Cohen, D. Micropropagation of Zantedeschia hybrids. Comb. Proc. Int. Plant Prop. Soc. 31:312–316; 1981.Google Scholar
  13. Economou, A. S.; Read, P. E. Light treatments to improve efficiency of in vitro propagation systems. HortScience 22:751–754; 1937.Google Scholar
  14. Fang, W. L.; Xiong, L.; Qu, Y. H.; Qu, S. P. Tissue culture of colored common calla lily. J. South West Agri. Univ. 21:423–426; 1999.Google Scholar
  15. Hanson, H. C. Leal structure as related to environment. Am. J. Bot. 4:533–560; 1917.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Höel, B. O.; Solihang, K. A. Effect of irradiance on chlorophyll estimation with the Minolta SPAD-502 leaf chlorophyll meter. Ann. Bot. 82:389–392; 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Huetteman, C. A.; Preece, J. E. Thidiazuron: a potent cytokinin for woody plant tissue culture. Plant Cell Tiss. Organ Cult. 33:105–119; 1993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kritzinger, E. M.; Vuuren, R. J. V.; Woodward, B.; Rong, I. H.; Spreeth, M. H.; Slabbert, M. M. Elimination of external and internal contaminants in rhizomes of Zantedeschia aethiopica with commercial fungicides and antibiotics. Plant Cell Tiss. Organ Cult. 52:61–65; 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kuehny, J. S. Calla history and culture. Hort. Technol. 10:267–274; 2000.Google Scholar
  20. Lian, M. L.; Murthy, H. N.; Paek, K. Y. Effects of light emitting diodes on the in vitro induction and growth of bulblets of Lilium oriental hybrid ‘Pesaro’. Sci. Hortic. 94:365–370; 2002.Google Scholar
  21. Morgan, D. C.; Smith, H. Non-photosynthetic responses to light quality. In: Pirson, A.; Zimmerman, M. H., eds. Encyclopedia of plant physiology. New series 12A. Berlin: Springer-Verlag: 1981: 109–134.Google Scholar
  22. Murashige, T.; Skoog, F. A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol. Plant. 15:473–497; 1962.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Robin, C.; Hay, M. J. M.; Newton, P. C. D.; Greer, D. Effect of light quality (red: far-red ratio) at the apical bud of the main stolon on morphogenesis of Trifolium repens L. Ann. Bot. 72:119–123; 1994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ruiz, S. G.; Rosa, M. E.; Flores, O. C. E. Zantedeschia aethiopica propagation by tissue culture. J. Agri. Uni. Puerto-Rico. 80:193–194; 1996.Google Scholar
  25. Saebo, A.; Krekling, T.; Appelgren, M. Light quality affects photosynthesis and leaf anatomy of brich plantlets in vitro. Plant Cell Tiss. Organ Cult. 41:177–185; 1995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Seabrook, J. E. A.; Cumming, B. G.; Dionne, L. A. The in vitro induction of adventitious shoot and root apices on Narcissus cultivars tissue. Can. J. Bot. 54:813–819; 1976.Google Scholar
  27. Senger, H. The effect of blue light on plants and microorganisms. Phytochem Photobiol. 35:911–920; 1982.Google Scholar
  28. Sims, D. A.; Pearcy, R. W. Response of leaf anatomy and photosynthetic capacity in Alocasia macrorrhiza (Araceae) to a transfer from low to high light. Am. J. Bot. 79:449–455; 1992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sriskandarjah, S.; Skirvin, R. M.; Abu-Qaoud, H. The effect of some macronutrients on adventitious root development on scion apple cultivars in vitro. Plant Cell Tiss. Organ Cult. 21:185–189; 1990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Tanaka, M.; Takamura, T.; Watanabe, H.; Endo, M.; Yanagi, T.; Okamoto, K. In vitro growth of Cymbidium plantlets cultured under superbright red and blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs). J. Hort. Sci. Biotechnol. 73;39–44; 1998.Google Scholar
  31. Tennessen, D. J.; Singsaas, E. L.; Sharkey, T. D. Light emitting diodes as a light source for photosynthesis research. Photosyn. Res. 39:85–92; 1994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Tjia, B. Zantedeschia. In: Halevy, A. H., ed. Handbook of flowering. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 1989:697–702.Google Scholar
  33. Welsh, T. E.; Clemens, J. Protected cropping of Zantedeschia tubers and cutflowers in New Zealand. Acta Hort. 319:335–340; 1992.Google Scholar
  34. Zuker, A.; Ahroni, A.; Shejtman, H.; Vain Stein, A. Adventitious shoot generation from leaf explants of Gypsophila paniculata L. Plant Cell Rep. 16:775–778; 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Society for In Vitro Biology 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. S. Chang
    • 1
  • D. Charkabarty
    • 1
  • E. J. Hahn
    • 1
  • K. Y. Paek
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Research Center for the Development of Advanced Horticultural TechnologyChungbuk National UniversityCheong-juKorea

Personalised recommendations