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Parasitisme de Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) en cultures maraîchères en tropique sec nicaraguayen

  • Claudio Nunes
  • Éric LucasEmail author
  • Daniel Coderre
Article

Résumé

Le parasitismede lamouche blanche Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) a été évalué en zone tropicale sèche nicaraguayenne, sur trois cultures maraîchères: tomate, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., courge, Cucurbita argyrosperma Huber et poivron, Capsicum annuum L. L’objectif du travail était d’identifier les parasitoïdes natifs de B. tabaci et d’évaluer les taux de parasitisme apparent. L’étude a été réalisée en 2001–2002 durant la saison des pluies ainsi qu’au début de la saison sèche 2001. Le nombre de larves de B. tabaci par feuille a été compté hebdomadairement. Pendant la saison des pluies, les parasitoïdes dominants en cultures de courge et tomate sont Encarsia pergandiella Howard et E. nigricephala Dozier. Les taux moyens de parasitisme sont de 17 et 10%pour les cultures de courge et de tomate, respectivement. Sur poivron, les espèces rencontrées sont E. pergandiella, E. nigricephala, E. desantisi Viggiani et Amitus sp. avec un taux de parasitisme de 12%. Pendant la saison sèche, les parasitoïdes rencontrés sur courge sont E. pergandiella et E. nigricephala, avec un taux de parasitisme de 57%. Sur tomate, la seule espèce trouvée, E. pergandiella, est responsable d’un taux de parasitisme de 58%, tandis que sur le poivron, les espèces sont E. pergandiella et E. nigricephala, avecuntauxdeparasitismede 42%.Lenombredeparasitoïdes est resté stabledurant lesdeux saisons d’échantillonnage. Nos résultats suggèrent que le taux de parasitisme apparent est indépendant de la densité de B. tabaci. C’est la première fois que E. pergandiella, E. nigricephala, E. desantisi et Amitus sp. sont mentionnés comme parasitoïdes de B. tabaci au Nicaragua.

Mots Clés

Bemisia mouche blanche parasitoïde lutte biologique tomate courge poivron Nicaragua 

Abstract

The parasitism of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) was evaluated on three horticultural crops in the Nicaraguan dry tropic: tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill; squash, Cucurbita argyrosperma (Huber); and sweet pepper, Capsicum annuum L. Parasitoid species were identified and their abundance recorded on the three crops. The study was carried out during both the rainy and dry seasons between 2001 and 2002. The nymphs of B. tabaci were counted weekly and parasitism rates evaluated. During the rainy season, the predominant parasitoids in squash and tomato crops were Encarsia pergandiella Howard and E. nigricephala Dozier. Parasitism rates of 17 and 10% were recorded for squash and tomato, respectively. In sweet pepper, the parasitoid species were E. pergandiella, E. nigricephala, E. desantisi Viggiani and Amitus sp. with a parasitism rate of 12%. During the dry season, the parasitoids in squash were E. pergandiella and E. nigricephala with a parasitism rate of 57%. Encarsia pergandiella was the only species noted in tomato with a parasitism rate of 58%, while in sweet pepper the species noted were E. pergandiella and E. nigricephala, with a 42% rate of parasitism. The abundance of parasitoids remained stable during both sampling seasons. Our results suggest that the parasitism rate is independent of B. tabaci densities. This is the first mention of E. pergandiella, E. nigricephala, E. desantisi and Amitus sp. as parasitoids of B. tabaci in Nicaragua.

Key words

Bemisia whitefly parasitoid biological control tomato squash sweet pepper Nicaragua 

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© ICIPE 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Escuela de Agricultura y Ganadería de EstelíEstelíNicaragua
  2. 2.Département des Sciences Biologiques, Groupe de Recherche en Écologie Comportementale et AnimaleUniversité du Québec à MontréalCentre-villeCanada

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