Seasonal trend of flight activity of the pearl millet stemborer Coniesta ignefusalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) as indicated by pheromone trap catches and its relationship with weather factors at Samaru, Nigeria

  • Kaleson Wesley GwadiEmail author
  • Michael Chidozie Dike
  • Christopher I. Amatobi


A water — oil based pheromone trap was used to monitor seasonal population changes of Coniesta ignefusalis Hampson in millet-based cropping systems at Samaru, Zaria, Nigeria for three consecutive seasons (1997, 1998 and 1999). Daily meteorological data were obtained from the Meteorological Unit of the Institute for Agricultural Research, Samaru, Zaria, for the monitoring period. Two population peaks were observed in early August and September in 1997 and 1998. The first population peak in August 1997 was earlier and bigger than the one in 1998. A delayed emergence of the insects was observed in 1999 when only one population peak occurred and this was smaller than those in 1997 and 1998. Using step-wise multiple regression analyses, the relationship between pheromone trap catches of male moths and weather factors was assessed separately for each year to determine which of the weather factors contributed most to the insect population changes. Solar radiation in the preceding 10 days and minimum air temperature in the preceding 40 and 50 days explained 84.9% of the variance in population changes and flight activity of male moths in 1997. Wind direction and speed in the preceding 20 and 60 days respectively accounted for 80.6% of the variance in 1998, while maximum air temperature and relative humidity in the preceding 40 and 20 days respectively explained 99.9% of the variance in 1999. The functional regression equations developed involving these weather factors adequately predicted the changes in each year.

Key words

pearl millet stemborer Coniesta ignefusalis pheromone traps trap catches flight activity weather factors seasonal changes 


Un piège à phéromones à base d’eau et d’huile a été utilisé pour surveiller la dynamique saisonnière des populations de Coniesta ignefusalis Hampson, dans des systèmes culturaux à base de mil chandelle à Samaru, Zaria, au Nigéria pendant trois saisons consécutives (1997, 1998 et 1999). Les données météorologiques journalières ont été fournies par la station météorologique de l’Institut de Recherche Agricole de Samaru, Zaria pendant toute la durée de l’expérimentation Deux pics de population ont été observés au début des mois d’août et septembre en 1997 et 1998. Le premier pic de population en août 1997 était plus précoce et plus important que celui de 1998. Un retard dans l’émergence des insectes a été observé en 1999 avec un seul pic de population enregistré, plus petit que celui de 1997 et 1998. La relation entre les captures de papillons mâles et les facteurs climatiques a été établit chaque année à l’aide d’une analyse de régressions multiples afin de déterminer quels facteurs climatiques influencent le plus la dynamique des populations. Les radiations solaires pendant les 10 jours précédents ainsi que la température minimale de l’air pendant les 40 à 50 jours précédents expliquent 84,9% de la variance de la dynamique des populations et de l’activité de vol des mâles en 1997. La direction et la vitesse du vent, respectivement pendant les 20 et 60 jours précédents, expliquent 80,6% de la variance en 1998, alors que l’humidité relative et la température maximale de l’air, respectivement pendant les 20 et 40 jours précédents, expliquent 99,9% de la variance. Les équations de régression incluant ces facteurs climatiques prédisent correctement les variations pour chaque année.

Mots Clés

mil chandelle foreur de tige Coniesta ignefusalis piège à phéromones activité de vol facteurs climatiques changements saisonniers 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adesiyun A. A. (1993) Seasonal abundance and life history of the millet stemborer C. ignefusalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in Samaru, Nigeria. Insect Science and Its Application 14, 589–593.Google Scholar
  2. Ajayi O. (1990) Possibilities for integrated control of millet stemborer Acigona ignefusalis Hampson (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in Nigeria. Insect Sceince and Its Application 11, 109–117.Google Scholar
  3. Ajayi O. and Prabhakar V. R. (1998) A preliminary model for predicting incidence of millet stemborer C. ignefusalis Hampson (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Entomological Society of Nigeria. Occasional Publication 31, 145–152.Google Scholar
  4. Ajayi O. and Uvah I. I. (1989) Review of research on millet entomology in Nigeria 1987–1997, pp. 21–30. In Proceedings of the Regional Pearl Millet Improvement Workshop, 15–19 August 1988 (Edited by L. K. Fussel and J. Werder). ICRISAT Sahelian Centre, Niamey, Niger.Google Scholar
  5. Ajayi O., Dike M. C., Youm O., Birnin-Kudu U., Gupta S. C. and Zarafi A. B. (2002) Evaluation of pearl millet varieties for resistance to millet stemborer, Coniesta ignefusalis Hampson (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in Nigeria. Samaru Journal of Agricultural Research 18, 55–66.Google Scholar
  6. Dent D. (1991) Insect Pest Management. CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon. 604 pp.Google Scholar
  7. Dike M. C., Ajiboye T. O. and Ajayi O. (1999) Survey of millet stemborer C. ignefusalis Hamps and other insects on late maturing millet in Nigeria. Journal of Arid Agriculture 9, 1–8.Google Scholar
  8. Douthwaite R. J. (1978) Some effects of weather and moonlight on light trap catches of the armyworm, Spodoptera exempta (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) at Muguga, Kenya. Bulletin of Entomological Research 68, 533–542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Elemo A. K. (1989) Pearl millet under small-scale traditional farming systems in Nigeria, pp. 62–67. In Proceedings of the Regional Pearl Millet Improvement Workshop, 15–19 August 1988 (Edited by L. K. Fussel and J. Werder). ICRISAT Sahelian Centre, Niamey, Niger.Google Scholar
  10. Elemo K. A. and Ajayi O. (1989) Effects of nitrogen on stemborer damage on sorghum/millet mixture. Insect Science and Its Application 10, 601–605.Google Scholar
  11. Gahukar R. T. (1988) Problems and perspectives of pest management in the Sahel: A case study of pearl millet. Tropical Pest Management 34, 35–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Graham H. M., Glick P. A. and Martin D. F. (1964) Nocturnal activity of adults of six lepidopterous pests of cotton as indicated by light trap collection. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 57, 328–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gwadi K. W., Nkama I., Bibinu A. T. S., Iheanacho A. C., Yakubu Y. and Ndahi W. B. (2003) Millet production trends: Pests, diseases, economics and utilization. Journal of Arid Agriculture 13, 1–17.Google Scholar
  14. Gwadi K. W., Dike M. C. and Amatobi C. I. (2004a) Infestation intensity levels of lepidopterous stemborers in millet and their effects in millet cropping systems in the Nigeria Guinea Savanna. Journal of Arid Agriculture, 14 (in press).Google Scholar
  15. Gwadi K. W., Dike M. C. and Amatobi C. I. (2004b) Effect of intercropping pearl millet with cowpea, groundnut and sorghum on millet stemborer Coniesta ignefusalis Hampson (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) infestation and grain yield. Samaru Journal of Agricutural Research 20 (in press).Google Scholar
  16. Haggis M. J. (1971)Light trap catches of Spodotera exempta (Wlk) in relation to wind direction. East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal 137, 100–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Harris K. M. (1962) Lepidopterous stem borers of cereals in Nigeria. Bulletin of Entomological Research 53, 139–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lukefhar M. J. Mamalo A. K. Klaij M. C. (1989) Survival of the millet stem borer, Coniesta (Acigona) ignefusalis during the non-growing season, pp. 31–34. In Proceedings of the Regional Millet Workshop, 15–19 August 1988. IAR-ABU/ICRISAT, Zaria, Nigeria.Google Scholar
  19. Mahadevan N. R. and Chelliah S. (1986) Influence of season and weather factors on the occurrence of the sorghum stem borer, Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) in Tamil Nadu. Tropical Pest Management 32, 212–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ndoye M. and Gahukar R. T. (1987) Insect pests of pearl millet in west Africa and their control, pp. 195–205. In Proceedings of the International Pearl Millet Workshop, 7–11 April 1986. ICRISAT Centre, India.Google Scholar
  21. Nwanze K. F. (1989) Insect pests of pearl millet in Sahelian West Africa. 1. Acigona ignefusalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): Distribution, population dynamics and assessment of crop damage. Tropical Pest Management 35, 137–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Nwanze K. F. and Harris K. M. (1992) Insect pests of pearl millet in West Africa. Review of Agricultural Entomology 80, 1134–1155.Google Scholar
  23. Sampson M. A. and Kumar R. (1983) Population dynamics of the stemborer complex on sugarcane in southern Ghana. Insect Science and Its Application 4, 25–32.Google Scholar
  24. SAS Institute (1990) SAS/STAT Users Guide version 6.0, fouth edition. Cary, North Carolina, SAS Institute Inc. 1686 pp.Google Scholar
  25. Sivakumar M. V. K. and Baidu-Forson J. (1995) Environmental and socio-economic variables in the development of sustainable IPM strategies for sorghum and millet, pp. 273–284. In Panicle Insect Pests of Sorghum and Pearl Millet. Proceedings of an International Consultative Workshop, 4–7 October 1993. ICRISAT Sahelian Centre, Niamey, Niger (Edited by K. F. Nwanze and O. Youm). ICRISAT, Patancheru, India.Google Scholar
  26. Srivastava C. P. and Srivastava R. P. (1989) Comparison of Heliothis armigera (Hubner) male moth catches in light and pheromone traps at Udiapur, Rajasthan India. Insect Science and Its Application 10, 565–568.Google Scholar
  27. Srivastava C. P., Pimbert M. P. and Reed W. (1992) Monitoring of Helicoverpa (=Heliothis) armigera (Hubner) moths with light and pheromone traps in India. Insect Science and Its Application 13, 205–210.Google Scholar
  28. Youm O. and Beevor P. S. (1995) Field evaluation of pheromone baited traps for Coniesta ignefusalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in Niger. Journal of Economic Entomology 88, 65–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Youm O. and Gilstrap F. E. (1994) Habitat site selection, crop damage and oviposition preference by Coniesta (=Haimbachia) ignefusalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). International Journal of Pest Management 40, 231–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Youm O., Beevor P. S. and Hall D. R. (1993a) Trap design studies with pheromones of Coniesta ignefusalis (Hampson). International Organisation for Biological Control of Noxious Animals and Plants. Western Palearctic Regional Section (IOBC/WPRS) Bulletin, 58–173.Google Scholar
  31. Youm O., Mamalo A. K. and Nwanze K. F. (1993b) Bio-ecology and integrated management of the millet stemborer (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): A review and highlights of current research at the ICRISAT Sahelian Centre, pp. 55–63. In Proceedings of the Regional Pearl Millet Workshop, 19–21 September 1990 (Edited by O. Youm and K. A. Kumar). 1990. ICRISAT Sahelian Centre, Niamey, Niger.Google Scholar
  32. Youm O., Harris K. M. and Nwanze K. F. (1996) Coniesta ignefusalis (Hampson), the millet stemborer. A handbook of information. Information Bulletin No. 46. ICRISAT, Patancheru, India. 60 pp.Google Scholar
  33. Youm O., Russel D. and Hall D. R. (1998) Use ofPheromone Traps for Monitoring the Millet Stemborer, Coniesta ignefusalis. Information Bulletin No. 40. International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics/India and Natural Resource Institute, Patancheru/Kent, UK. 14 pp.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© ICIPE 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kaleson Wesley Gwadi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Michael Chidozie Dike
    • 2
  • Christopher I. Amatobi
    • 2
  1. 1.Lake Chad Research InstituteMaiduguriNigeria
  2. 2.Institute for Agricultural ResearchSamaru, ZariaNigeria

Personalised recommendations