Advertisement

International Journal of Tropical Insect Science

, Volume 25, Issue 3, pp 198–207 | Cite as

External morphology of antennal and rostral sensillae in four hemipteran insects and their possible role in host plant selection

  • Pathipati Usha RaniEmail author
  • Sunkara Sakuntala Madhavendra
Article

Abstract

The sensory receptors on the antennal flagellar segments and on the rostral tip of four adult hemipteran insects were identified and compared using scanning electron microscopy in order to better understand the role of sensillae in the process of host plant selection and the structural adaptations of feeding organs for phytophagy. The species studied are Riptortus pedestris Fabricius (Alydidae), Elasmolomus sordidus (Fabricius) (Lygaeidae), Cyclopelta siccifolia Westwood (Pentatomidae) and Chrysocoris purpurea (Westwood) (Pentatomidae). Differences in the distribution and arrangement of sensory receptors in the hemipteran families were noted, especially in the shape of the antennal apices, which are of taxonomical significance. A large array of trichoid basiconic and coeloconic sensillae is distributed on the antennal surface. Distal antennal segments have more sensillae and more types of sensillae than the proximal segments, indicating their prominent role in host plant surface exploration. There is only a slight variation in the shape of the stylets owing to the similarity in feeding habits. The mandibular tips are straight and sharp and do not contain any hooks or barbs as in carnivorous species.

Key words

morphology rostral and antennal sensillae Hemiptera Heteroptera host plant selection Riptortus Elasmolomus Cyclopelta Chrysocoris 

Résumé

Les récepteurs sensoriels présents sur le flagelle antennaire et sur l’extrémité du rostre de quatre insectes hémiptères adultes, Riptortus pedestris Fabricius (Alydidae), Elasmolomus sordidus (Fabricius) (Lygaeidae), Cyclopelta siccifolia Westwood et Chrysocoris purpurea (Westwood) (Pentatomidae) ont été identifiés et comparés à l’aide de la microscopie électronique à balayage. L’objectif de l’étude est de comprendre le rôle de l’équipement sensoriel lors de la sélection de plante hôte et l’adaptation structurale des pièces buccales pour la prise de nourriture. La morphologie des divers types de sensilles présentes est décrite. Nous avons constaté des différences dans la distribution et l’arrangement des récepteurs sensoriels selon les espèces. La surface de l’antenne est équipée d’une vaste zone de sensilles trichoïdes basiconiques et coeloconiques. Les segments antennaires distaux possèdent un plus grand nombre de sensilles de différents types que les segments proximaux, suggérant leur rôle dans l’exploration de la surface de la plante hôte. La forme des stylets apparaît peu variable probablement à cause de la similitude des comportements alimentaires. Les extrémités mandibulaires sont droites et pointues et ne sont équipées d’aucun crochet ou arrête comme chez les espèces carnivores.

Mots clés

morphologie sensilles du rostre et de l’antenne Hemiptera Heteroptera comportement de sélection de la plante hôte Riptortus, Elasmolomus Cyclopelta Chrysocoris 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ananthakrishnan T. N. (1988) Insect-plant interactions - Problems and perspectives, pp. 1–11. In Dynamics of Insect-Plant Interactions (Edited by Ananthakrishnan T. N. and Raman A.). Oxford and IBH Publishing Co., New Delhi.Google Scholar
  2. Avé D., Frazier J. L. and Hatfield L. D. (1978) Contact chemoreception in the tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 24, 217–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Backus E. A. (1988) Sensory systems and behaviours which mediate hemipteran plant feeding: A taxonomic overview. Journal of Insect Physiology 34, 151–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Backus E. A. and McLean D. L. (1982) The sensory systems and feeding behavior of leafhoppers 1. The aster leafhopper, Macrosteles fascifrons Stål (Homoptera, Cicadellidae). Journal of Morphology 172, 361–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Backus E. A. and McLean D. L. (1985) Behavioral evidence that the precibarial sensilla of leafhoppers are chemosensory and function in host discrimination. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 37, 219–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bromely A. K., Dunn J. A. and Anderson M. (1980) Ultrastructure of the antennal sensilla of aphids. II. Trichoid, chordotonal and companiform sensilla. Cell and Tissue Research 205, 493–511.Google Scholar
  7. Chapman R. E (1982) Chemoreception: The significance of receptor populations. Advances in Insect Physiology 16, 247–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cobben R. H. (1978) Evolutionary trends in Heteroptera. Part II. Mouthpart structures and feeding strategies. Mededelingen Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen 1, 78–85.Google Scholar
  9. Cobben R. H. (1979) On the original feeding habits of the Hemiptera (Insecta). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 72, 711–715.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cohen A. C. (1990) Feeding adaptations of some predaceous Hemiptera. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 83, 1215–1223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dethier V. G. (1971) A surfeit of stimuli: A paucity of receptors. American Scientist 59, 706–715.Google Scholar
  12. Dethier V. G. (1982) Mechanism of host plant recognition. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 31, 49–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dethier V. G., Larsen J. R. and Adams J. R. (1963) The fine structure of the olfactory receptors of the blowfly. In Proceedings of an International Symposium on Olfaction and Taste at the Wenner-Gren. Centre, Stockholm (Edited by Zotterman Y.). MacMillan Co., New York. 105–110 pp.Google Scholar
  14. Dickens J. C., Callahan E. E., Wergin W. R and Erbe E. E (1995) Olfaction in a hemimetabolous insect: Antennal specific protein in adult Lygus lineolaris (Heteroptera: Miridae). Journal of Insect Physiology 41, 857–867.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Foster S., Goodman L. J. and Duckett J. G. (1983) Ultrastructure of sensory receptors on the labium of the rice brown plant hopper. Cell and Tissue Research 230, 353–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gaffai K. P. (1981) Terminal sensilla on the labium of Dysdercus intermedius distant (Heteroptera: Pyrrhocoridae). International Journal of Insect Morphology and Embryology 10, 1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gaffal K. P. and Hansen K. (1972) Mecanorezeptive strukturen der antennalen haar sensillen der baumwoll wanze, Dysdercus intermedius. Zeitschrift für Zellforschung and Mikroskopische Anatomie 123, 79–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Harbach R. I. and Larsen J. R. (1976) Ultrastructure of sensilla on the distal antennal segment of adult Oncopeltus fasciatus (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Miridae). International Journal of Insect Morphology and Embryology 5, 23–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Harbach R. E. and Larsen J. R. (1977) Fine structure of antennal sensilla of the adult mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). International Journal of Insect Morphology and Embryology 6, 41–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hatfield L. D. and Frazier J. L. (1980) Ultrastructure of the labial tip sensilla of the tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (P. de Beauvois) (Hemiptera: Miridae). International Journal of Insect Morphology and Embryology 6, 41–60.Google Scholar
  21. Honda I. Y, Ishikawa Y and Matsumoto Y (1984) Morphological studies on the antennal sensilla of the onion fly, Hylemya antiqua Meigen (Diptera: Anthomyiidae). Applied Entomology and Zoology 18, 170–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Levinson H. Z., Levinson A. R., Muller B. and Steinbrecht R. A. (1974) Structure of sensilla, olfactory perception and behavior of the bedbug, Cimex lectularius in response to its alarm pheromone. Journal of Insect Physiology 20, 1231–1248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Powell G., Mardie J. and Pickett J. A. (1995) Behavioral evidence for detection of the repellent polygodial by aphid antennal tip sensilla. Physiological Entomology 20, 141–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Schafer R. (1971) Antennal sense organs of the cockroach Leucophaea maderae. Journal of Morphology 134, 91–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Schneider D. and Steinbrecht R. A. (1968) Checklist of insect olfactory sensilla. Symposia of the Zoological Society of London 23, 279–297.Google Scholar
  26. Schoonhoven L. M. and Henstra S. (1972) Morphology of some rostrum receptors in Dysdercus spp. Netherlands Journal of Zoology 22, 343–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Slifer E. H. and Sekhon S. S. (1963) Sense organs on the antennal flagellum of the small milkweed bug, Lygaeus kalmii Stal (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae). Journal of Morphology 112, 165–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Slifer E. H, Prestage J. T. and Beams H. W. (1959) The chemoreceptors and other sense organs on the antennal flagellum of the grasshopper (Orthoptera; Acrididae). Journal of Morphology 105, 145–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Usha Rani P. and Madhavendra S. S. (1995) Morphology and distribution of antennal sense organs and diversity of mouthpart structures in Odontopus nigricornis (Stall) [sic] and Nezara viridula L. (Hemiptera). International Journal of Insect Morphology and Embryology 24, 119–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Usha Rani P., Wakamura S. and Asaoka K. (1994) Rostral tip appendages in carnivorous stink bug, Eocanthecona furcellata (Wolff) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). Journal of Entomological Research 18, 199–202.Google Scholar
  31. Whitehead A. T. (1981) Ultrastructure of sensilla of the female mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). International Journal of Insect Morphology and Embryology 10, 19–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ICIPE 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pathipati Usha Rani
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sunkara Sakuntala Madhavendra
    • 1
  1. 1.Biology and Biotechnology DivisionIndian Institute of Chemical Technology TaranakaHyderabadIndia

Personalised recommendations