Advertisement

Attractiveness of some food baits to the melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

  • T. Elaiya BharathiEmail author
  • V. K. R. Sathiyanandam
  • P. M. M. David
Article

Abstract

The attraction of the melon fly, Bactrocera Cucurbitae (Coq.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) to soybean hydrolysate, fishmeal, beef extract, banana/grapes, bread and dog biscuit was evaluated in snakegourd (Trichosanthes anguina L.) gardens during 2000–2001. Vinegar and beer were added as the ‘bait components’ to the above ‘base baits’ to enhance their attractiveness. Edible oils, glycerine and petroleum jelly were tested as the ‘controlled releasers’ to sustain the attractiveness. The results indicated that banana and soybean hydrolysate were 85–95% more attractive to adult B. Cucurbitae than fishmeal, beef extract, bread and dog biscuit. Among the fruit pulps, grapes and banana appeared to be more attractive than pineapple. The attractiveness of baits with palm oil lasted longer (up to 5 days) than that of baits without any controlled releaser (2–3 days). Grapes + beer + palm oil was found to be 37% more attractive than the other admixtures. The fruit flies were attracted towards the baits more intensively between 0600 and 0800 h and between 1600 and 1800 h.

Key words

Bactrocera Cucurbitae food attractants attractiveness 

Résumé

L’attraction de la mouche de melon, Bactrocera Cucurbitae (Coq.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) par l’hydrolysat de soja, la farine de poisson. l’extrait de boeuf, de la purée de bananes, de raisins ou d’ananas, du pain et des biscuits pour chien a été évaluée dans un potager de calebasses serpents (Trichosanthes anguina L.). en 2000–2001. Du vinaigre et de la bière ont été ajoutés aux différents appâts mentionnés ci-dessus afin de les rendre plus attractifs. Des huiles comestibles, de la glycérine et de la vaseline ont été testées afin de prolonger l’attractivité. Les résultats indiquent que la banane et l’hydrolisat de soja attirent 85–95% plus de mouches du melon que la farine de poisson, l’extrait de boeuf, le pain et les biscuits pour chien. Les purées de bananes et de raisins sont plus attractives que celle d’ananas. L’attractivité des appâts avec de l’huile de palme est plus longue (jusq’à 5 jours) que cells des appâts sans aucun additif. L’appâts à base de raisin, bière et huile de palme attire 37% plus que les autres mélanges. Les mouches sont plus attirées par les appâts 6–8 heures et 16–18 heures après le lâcher.

Mots clés

Bactrocera Cucurbitae attirantes nourritures attractions 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Angioy A. M., Liscia A. and Pertra P. (1978) The electrophysiological response of labellar and tarsal hairs of Dacus oleae to salt and sugar stimulation. Boll. Soc. Ital. Biol. Sper. 51, 2115–2121.Google Scholar
  2. Barrows W. M. (1907) The reactions of the pomace fly, Drosophila ampelophila Loew. to odorous substances. J. Exp. Zool. 4, 515–537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bateman M. A., Insunza V. and Aretz P. (1973) The eradication of the Queensland fruit fly from Easter Island. FAO Plant Prot. Bull. 21, 114.Google Scholar
  4. Beroza M., Alexander B. H., Steiner L. F., Mitchell W. C. and Miyashita D. H. (1960) New synthetic lure for the male melon fly. Science 131, 1044–1045.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bose T. K. and Mitra S. K. (1990) Fruits: Tropical and Subtropical Naya Prakash, Calcutta, India. 838 pp.Google Scholar
  6. Chambers D. L. (1977) Attractants for fruit fly survey and control, pp. 327–344. In Chemical Control of Insect Behaviour (Edited by H. H. Shorey and J. J. McKelvey). Wiley-Interscience, New York.Google Scholar
  7. Cornelius M. L., Duah J. J. and Messing R. H. (1999) Capture of Oriental fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) by protein baited traps and fruit-mimicking visual traps in a guava orchard. Environ. Entomol. 28, 1140–1144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cunningham R. T. (1989) Parapheromones, pp. 221–230. In Fruit Flies: Their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control (Edited by A. S. Robinson and G. Hooper). vol. 3A. Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  9. Daane K. M., Dahlsten D. L. and Dreistadt S. H. (1990) Effects of Mediterranean fruit fly malathion bait spray on the longevity and oviposition of parasitoids of linden and tulip tree aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae). Environ. Entomol. 19, 1130–1134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fletcher B. S. and Kitching W. (1995) Chemistry of fruit flies. Chem. Rev. 95, 789–828.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gazit Y., Nancy Y. and Epsky D. (1998) Trapping females of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Israel: comparison of lures and trap type. J. Econ. Entomol. 91, 1335–1359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gow P. A. (1954) Proteinaceous bait for the oriental fruit fly. J. Econ. Entomol. 47, 153–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hoy J. B. and Dahlsten D. L. (1984) Effects of malathion and Staley’s bait on the behaviour and survival of parasitic Hymenoptera. Environ. Entomol. 13, 1483–1486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jang E. B. and Light D. M. (1996) Olfactory semiochemicals of tephritids, pp. 73–90. In Fruit Fly Pest: A World Assessment of their Biology and Management (Edited by B. A. McPheron and G. J. Steck). St. Lucie Press, Florida.Google Scholar
  15. Kapoor V. C. (1993) Indian Fruit Flies (Insecta: Diptera: Tephritidae). Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi. 228 pp.Google Scholar
  16. Kinney R. (1993) Florida commens regarding fruit fly research. In Fruit Flies: Biology and Management (Edited by M. Aluja and P. Liedo). Springier-Verlag, New York. 492 pp.Google Scholar
  17. Koyama J., Teruya T. and Tanaka K. (1984) Eradication of the oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) from the Okinawa Islands by a male annihilating method. J. Econ. Entomol. 77, 468–472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kuba H. (1991) Sex pheromones and mating behaviour of Dacinae, pp. 223–232. In Proceedings of the International Symposium on the Biology and Control of Fruit Flies, held at Ginowan, Okinawa, Japan, 2–4 September (Edited by O. KawasakiK Iwahashi and K. Y. Kaneshiko).Google Scholar
  19. Lall H. and Singh S. (1969) Studies on the biology and control of melon fly Dacus Cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae). J. Sci. Tech. 7B, 148–153.Google Scholar
  20. Landolt P. J. and Heath R. R. (1996) Development of pheromone based trapping systems for monitoring and controlling tephritid fruit flies in Florida, pp. 197–207. In Pest Management in the Subtropics: Integrated Pest Management—A Florida Perspective (Edited by D. Rosen, F. D. Bennett and J. L. Capinera). Intercept Ltd., Andover, UK.Google Scholar
  21. Landolt P. I. and Averill A. L. (1999) Fruit flies, pp. 3–25. In Pheromones of Non-Lepidoptern Insects Associated with Agricultural Plants (Edited by J. Hardie and A. K. Minles). CABI publishing, New York.Google Scholar
  22. Langford G. S., Johnson W. T. and Harding W. C. (1954) Bait studies for fly control. J. Econ. Entomol. 47, 438–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. McPhail M. (1937) Relation of time of day, temperature, and evaporation to attractiveness of fermenting sugar solution to Mexican fruit fly. J. Econ. Entomol. 30, 793–799.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Metcalf R. L. (1990) Chemical ecology of Dacinae fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 83, 1017–1030.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Morton T. C. and Bateman M. A. (1981) Chemical studies of proteinaceous attractant for fruit flies, including the identification of volatile constituents. Austr. J. Agr. Res. 32, 905–916.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Nation J. L. (1977) Pheromone research in tephritid fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae). Proceedings of the International Society of Citriculture 2, 481–485.Google Scholar
  27. Pawar C., Sithanantham S., Sharma H. C., Taneja S. L., Amin P. W., Leuschner K. and Reed W. (1984) Use and development of insect traps at ICRISAT, In: Use of Traps for Pest/Vector Research and Control. Proc. Nat. Seminar, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidhyalaya, West Bengal 174 pp.Google Scholar
  28. Penrose R. (1993) The 1989/1990 Mediterranean fruit fly eradication program in California, pp. 492–497. In Fruit Fies: Biology and Management (Edited by M. Aluja and P. Liedo). Springier-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  29. Prokopy R. J. (1975) Oviposition-deterring fruit marking pheromone in Rhagoletis fausta. Environ. Entomol. 4, 298–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Prokopy R. J. and Roitberg B. D. (1992) Fruit fly foraging behaviour, pp. 293–306. In Fruit Flies: Their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control (Edited by A. S. Robinson and G. Hooper). vol. 3A. Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  31. Prokopy R. J., Papaj D. R., Hendrichs J. and Wong T.T.Y. (1992) Behavioral responses of Ceratitis capitata flies to bait spray droplets and natural food. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 64, 247–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Prokopy R. J., Hsu C. L. and Vargas R. I. (1993) Effect of source and condition of animal excrement on attractiveness to adults of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Taphritidae). Environ. Entomol. 22, 453–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Putruele G., Abbiati N. N. and Yaccaro N. C. (1993) Soybean protein hydrolysate bait for medfly control, pp. 369–373. In Fruit Flies: Biology and Management (Edited by M. Aluja and P. Liedo). Springer-Verlag, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Quereshi Z. A., Bughio A. R. and Siddiqui Q. H. (1981) Population suppression of fruit fly Dacus zonatus (Saunders) (Diptera: Tephritidae) by male annihilation technique and its impact on fruit infestation. J. Appl. Entomol. 91, 521–524.Google Scholar
  35. Reed M. R. (1938) The olfactory responses of Drosophila melanogaster Meigen to the products of fermenting banana. Physiol. Zool. 11, 317–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ripley L. B. and Hepburn G. A. (1929) Studies on reaction of the Natal fruit fly to fermenting baits. Union. State Dept. Agr. Ent. Mem. 8, 19–53.Google Scholar
  37. Robinson A. S. and Hooper G. (Eds) (1989) World Crop Pests, Fruit Flies, Their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. vol. 3A. Elsevier, New York, 372 pp.Google Scholar
  38. Sankaram A. (1999) Integrated pest management: Looking back and forward. Curr. Sci. 77, 26–32.Google Scholar
  39. Sharp J. L. and Chambers D. L. (1983) Aggregation response of Anastrepha suspensa to proteins and amino acids. Environ. Entomol. 12, 923–928.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Sharp J. L. and Chambers D. L. (1984) Consumption of carbohydrates, proteins and amino acids by Anastrepha suspensa in the laboratory. Environ. Entomol. 13, 768–773.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Sivinski J. M. and Calkins C. O. (1986) Pheromones and parapheromones in the control of tephritids. Florida Entomologist 73, 123–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Soundar Rajan K., Dhandapani N. and Chezhiyan N. (1996) A low cost technology to control fruit fly Dacus Cucurbitae of chow-chow. Pestology 20, 15–16.Google Scholar
  43. Steiner L. F. (1952a) Methyl eugenol as an attractant for oriental fruit fly. J. Econ. Entomol. 45, 241–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Steiner L. F. (1952b) Fruit fly control in Hawaii with poison bait sprays containing protein hydrolysates. J. Econ. Entomol. 45, 838–843.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Steiner L. F., Mitchell W. and Ohinata K. (1958) Fruit fly control with poisoned-bait sprays in Hawaii. USDA. Agric. Res. Service, 1–4.Google Scholar
  46. Steiner L. F., Rohwer G. G., Ayers E. L. and Christenson L. D. (1961) The role of attractants in the recent Mediterranean fruit fly eradication program in Florida. J. Econ. Entomol. 54, 30–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Steiner L. F., Mitchell W. C., Harris E. J., Kozuma T. T. and Fujimoto M. S. (1965) Oriental fruit fly eradication by male annihilation. J. Econ. Entomol. 58, 961–964.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Taneja S. L., Reddy K.V.S. and Leuschner K. (1986) Monitoring of shoot fly population in sorghum. Indian J. Pl. Prot. 14, 29–36.Google Scholar
  49. Tsitsipis J. A. (1989) Nutrition requirements, pp. 103–116. In World Crop Pests, Fruit Flies: Their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control (Edited by A. S. Robinson and G. Hooper). vol. 3A. Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  50. Vargas R. I., Stark J. P. and Nishida T. (1989) Abundance, distribution and dispersion indices of the oriental fruit fly and melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) on Kauai, Hawaiian Islands. J. Econ. Entomol. 82, 1609–1615.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Vijaysegaran S. (1993) Control of fruit flies in tropical regions of Asia. In Fruit Flies: Biology and Management (Edited by M. Aluja and P. Liedo). Springler-Verlag, New York, 492 pp.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© ICIPE 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. Elaiya Bharathi
    • 1
    Email author
  • V. K. R. Sathiyanandam
    • 1
  • P. M. M. David
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Agricultural EntomologyAgricultural College and Research InstituteVallanadIndia

Personalised recommendations