Australasian Plant Pathology

, Volume 37, Issue 4, pp 319–334 | Cite as

Pitch canker caused by Fusarium circinatum — a growing threat to pine plantations and forests worldwide

  • M. J. Wingfield
  • A. Hammerbacher
  • R. J. Ganley
  • E. T. Steenkamp
  • T. R. Gordon
  • B. D. Wingfield
  • T. A. Coutinho
Intived Review

Abstract

Pitch canker, caused by the fungus Fusarium circinatum, is one of the most important pathogens of Pinus species. Sporadic outbreaks and epidemics caused by this fungus have been reported from numerous countries. Symptoms differ depending on the host species, geographical region, climatic conditions and associated insects. Pitch canker represents a significant threat to countries where non-native and susceptible Pinus spp. are grown intensively in plantations.Athorough understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of the causal agent is an important prerequisite to managing this threat. The aim of this review is to summarise contemporary knowledge relating to the pitch canker pathogen, with a particular focus on its threat to plantation forestry.

Additional keywords

environmental influences genetic diversity host interactions insect associations symptoms taxonomy and identification 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adams D (1989) ‘Incidence of pine pitch canker in California, 1988–1989.’ (Californian Department of Forestry and Fire Protection: Sacramento, CA)Google Scholar
  2. Aegerter BJ, Gordon TR (2006) Rates of pitch canker induced seedling mortality among Pinus radiata families varying in levels of genetic resistance to Gibberella circinata (anamorph Fusarium circinatum). Forest Ecology and Management 235, 14–17. doi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2006.07.011Google Scholar
  3. Anderson RL (1986) New method of assessing contamination of slash and loblolly pine seeds by Fusarium moniliforme var. subglutinans. Plant Disease 70, 452–453.Google Scholar
  4. Arvanitis LG, Godbee JF Jr, Porta I (1984) Pitch canker impact on volume growth: a case study in slash pine plantations. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry 8, 43–47.Google Scholar
  5. Barnard EL, Blakeslee GM (1980) Pitch canker of slash pine seedlings: a new disease in forest tree nurseries. Plant Disease 64, 695–696.Google Scholar
  6. Barrows-Broaddus J (1990) Colonisation of cones and seed of loblolly pine following inoculation with Fusarium subglutinans. Plant Disease 74, 1002–1005. doi: 10.1094/PD-74-1002Google Scholar
  7. Barrows-Broaddus J, Dwinell LD (1979) Variation in virulence of diverse sources of Fusarium moniliforme var. subglutinans on Virginia and loblolly pine. Phytopathology 69, 525.Google Scholar
  8. Barrows-Broaddus J, Dwinell LD (1980) Decay and colonization of gladiolus corms by the pine pitch canker fungus. Phytopathology 70, 847–850.Google Scholar
  9. Barrows-Broaddus J, Dwinell LD (1983) Histopathology of Fusarium moniliforme var. subglutinans in four species of southern pines. Phytopathology 73, 882–889.Google Scholar
  10. Barrows-Broaddus J, Dwinell LD (1984) Variation in susceptibility to the pitch canker fungus among half-sib families of Virginia pine. Phytopathology 74, 438–444.Google Scholar
  11. Barrows-Broaddus J, Dwinell LD (1985a) Branch dieback and cone and seed infection caused by Fusarium moniliforme var. subglutinans in a loblolly pine seed orchard in South Carolina. Phytopathology 75, 1104–1108.Google Scholar
  12. Barrows-Broaddus J, Dwinell LD (1985b) Evaluation of Arthrobacter sp. for biological control of the pitch canker fungus (Fusarium moniliforme var. subglutinans) on slash pines. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 31, 888–892.Google Scholar
  13. Barrows-Broaddus J, Kerr TJ (1981) Inhibition of Fusarium moniliforme var. subglutinans, the causal agent of pine pitch canker, by the soil bacterium Arthrobacter sp. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 27, 20–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bethune JE, Hepting GH (1963) Pitch canker damage to south Florida slash pine. Journal of Forestry 61, 517–522.Google Scholar
  15. Blakeslee GM, Foltz JL (1981) The deodar weevil, a vector and wounding agent associated with pitch canker of slash pine. Phytopathology 71, 861.Google Scholar
  16. Blakeslee GM, Oak SW (1979) Significant mortality associated with pitch canker infection of slash pine in Florida. Plant Disease Reporter 63, 1023–1025.Google Scholar
  17. Blakeslee GM, Rockwood DL (1999) Variation in resistance to pitch canker in slash and loblolly pines. In ‘Current and potential impacts of pitch canker in radiata pine. Proceedings of the IMPACT Monterey workshop, California, USA, 30 November to 3 December 1998’. Forestry and Forest Products No. 112. (Eds ME Devey, AC Matheson, TR Gordon) pp. 35–39. (CSIRO: Canberra)Google Scholar
  18. Blakeslee GM, Oak SW, Gregory W, Moses CS (1978) Natural associations of Fusarium moniliforme var. subglutinans with Pissodes nemorensis. Phytopathology 12, 208.Google Scholar
  19. Blakeslee GM, Dorset RD, Oak SW (1979) Inoculum dispersal of the pine pitch canker fungus Fusarium moniliforme var. subglutinans. Phytopathology 69, 1022.Google Scholar
  20. Blakeslee GM, Dwinell LD, Anderson RL (1980) Pitch canker of southern pines: identification and management considerations. USDA Forest Service, Southeastern Area, State and Private Forestry Report No. SAFR 11, 15 pp.Google Scholar
  21. Blakeslee GM, Lante WD, Allen JE (1982) Influence of periodic water stress on pitch canker disease in resistant and susceptible slash pine families. Phytopathology 82, 1096.Google Scholar
  22. Blakeslee GM, Jokela EJ, Hollis CH, Wilson DS, Lante WD, Allen JE (1999) Pitch canker in young loblolly pines: influence of precommerical thinning and fertilization on disease incidence and severity. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry 23, 139–143.Google Scholar
  23. Bonello P, Gordon TR, Storer AJ (2001a) Systemic induced resistance in Monterey pine. Forest Pathology 31, 99–106. doi: 10.1046/j.1439-0329.2001.00230.xGoogle Scholar
  24. Bonello P, McNee WR, Storer AJ, Wood DL, Gordon TR (2001b) The role of olfactory stimuli in the location of weakened hosts by twig-infesting Pityophthorus spp. Ecological Entomology 26, 8–15. doi: 10.1046/ j.1365-2311.2001.00288.xGoogle Scholar
  25. Britz H, Wingfield MJ, Coutinho TA, Marasas WFO, Leslie JF (1998) Female fertility and mating type distribution in a South African population of Fusarium subglutinans f. sp. pini. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 64, 2094–2095.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Britz H, Coutinho TA, Wingfield MJ, Marasas WFO, Gordon TR (1999) Fusarium subglutinans f. sp. pini represents a distinct mating population in the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 65, 1198–1201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Britz H, Coutinho TA, Gordon TR, Wingfield MJ (2001) Characterisation of the pitch canker fungus, Fusarium circinatum, from Mexico. South African Journal of Botany 67, 609–614.Google Scholar
  28. Britz H, Wingfield BD, Coutinho TA, Wingfield MJ (2002) Sequence characterized amplified polymorphic markers for the pitch canker fungus, Fusarium circinatum. Molecular Ecology Notes 2, 577–580. doi: 10.1046/j.1471-8286.2002.00324.xGoogle Scholar
  29. Britz H, Coutinho TA, Wingfield BD, Marasas WFO, Wingfield MJ (2005) Diversity and differentiation in two populations of Gibberella circinatum in South Africa. Plant Pathology 54, 46–52. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3059.2005.01108.xGoogle Scholar
  30. Bronson MR, Li YA, Dixon RK, Runion GB, Kelly WD, Peterson CM (1992) In vitro host pathogen interactions of Pinus elliottii calli and Fusarium moniliforme var. subglutinans. European Journal of Plant Pathology 22, 432–440.Google Scholar
  31. Carey WA, Kelly WD (1994) First report of Fusarium subglutinans as a cause of late season mortality in longleaf pine nurseries. Plant Disease 78, 754.Google Scholar
  32. Carlucci A, Colatruglio L, Frisullo S (2007) First report of pitch canker caused by Fusarium circinatum on Pinus halepensis and P. pinea in Apulia (Southern Italy). Plant Disease 91, 1683.Google Scholar
  33. Clark SL, Gordon TR (1999) Susceptibility of eleven California conifers to pitch canker caused by Fusarium subglutinans f. sp. pini. Current and potential impacts of pitch canker in radiata pine. In ‘Proceedings of the IMPACT Monterey workshop, California, USA, 30 November to 3 December 1998’. Forestry and Forest Products No. 112. (Eds ME Devey, AC Matheson, TR Gordon) pp. 76–77. (CSIRO: Canberra)Google Scholar
  34. Correll JC, Gordon TR, McCain AH, Fox JW, Koehler CS, Wood DL, Schultz ME (1991) Pitch canker disease in California: pathogenicity, distribution, and canker development on Monterey pine (Pinus radiata). Plant Disease 75, 676–682.Google Scholar
  35. Correll JC, Gordon TR, McCain AH (1992) Genetic diversity in California and Florida populations of the pitch pine canker fungus Fusarium subglutinans var. pini. Phytopathology 82, 415–420. doi: 10.1094/Phyto-82-415Google Scholar
  36. Coutinho TA, Steenkamp ET, Mongwaketsi K, Wilmot M, Wingfield MJ (2007) First outbreak of pitch canker in a South African pine plantation. Australasian Plant Pathology 36, 256–261. doi: 10.1071/AP07017Google Scholar
  37. Covert SF, Briley A, Wallace MM, McKinney VT (1999) Partial MAT-2 gene structure and the influence of temperature on mating success in Gibberella circinata. Fungal Genetics and Biology 28, 43–54. doi: 10.1006/fgbi.1999.1161PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. De Vos L, Myburg AA, Wingfield MJ, Desjardins AE, Gordon TR, Wingfield BD (2007) Complete genetic linkage maps from an interspecific cross between Fusarium circinatum and Fusarium subglutinans. Fungal Genetics and Biology 44, 701–714. doi: 10.1016/j.fgb.2007.02.007PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Dick MA (1998) Pine pitch canker — the threat to New Zealand. New Zealand Forestry 42, 30–34.Google Scholar
  40. Dumroese RK, James RL, Wenny DL, Gilligan CJ (1988) Douglas-fir seed treatments: effects on seed germination and seedborne organisms. In ‘Proceedings of the combined meeting of the western forest nursery associations, 8–11 August 1988’. (Ed. RC Shearer) pp. 155–160. (USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: Fort Collins, CO)Google Scholar
  41. Dwinell LD, Phelps WR (1977) Pitch canker of slash pine in Florida. Journal of Forestry 75, 488–489.Google Scholar
  42. Dwinell LD, Barrows-Broaddus J (1979) Susceptibility of half-sib families of slash and loblolly pine to the pitch canker fungus, Fusarium moniliforme var. subglutinans. Phytopathology 69, 527.Google Scholar
  43. Dwinell LD, Barrows-Broaddus J (1981) Pitch canker in seed orchards. In ‘Proceedings of the Sixteenth Southern Tree Improvement Conference, 27–28 May 1981’. Sponsored Publication 38. pp. 234–241. (Southern Forest Tree Improvement Committee: Blacksburg, VA)Google Scholar
  44. Dwinell LD, Barrows-Broaddus JB (1982) Pitch canker in southern pine seed orchards. Phytopathology 72, 979.Google Scholar
  45. Dwinell LD, Fraedrich SW (1999) Contamination of pine seeds by the pitch canker fungus. In ‘National Proceedings of the Forest and Conservation Nursery Associations, 1998’. pp. 41–42. USDA, Forest Service, Southern Research Station, General Technical Report SRS-25.Google Scholar
  46. Dwinell LD, Barrows-Broaddus J (1978) Recovery of the pine pitch canker fungus from pine plantations and seed orchard soil. Phytopathology News 12, 207.Google Scholar
  47. Dwinell LD, Barrows-Broaddus J, Kuhlman EG (1985) Pitch canker: a disease complex of southern pines. Plant Disease 69, 270–276. doi: 10.1094/PD-69-270Google Scholar
  48. Dwinell LD, Fraedrich SW, Adams D (2001) Diseases of pines caused by the pitch canker fungus. In ‘Fusarium: Paul E. Nelson Memorial Symposium’. (Eds BA Summerell, JF Leslie, D Backhouse, WL Bryden, LW Burgess) pp. 225–232. (The American Phytopathological Society: St Paul, MN)Google Scholar
  49. Enebak SA, Carey WA (2003) Pitch canker caused by Fusarium circinatum identified on spruce pine in Alabama. Plant Disease 87, 449. doi: 10.1094/PDIS.2003.87.4.449CGoogle Scholar
  50. Enebak SA, Stanosz GR (2003) Responses of conifer species of the Great Lakes region of North America to inoculation with the pitch canker pathogen Fusarium circinatum. Forest Pathology 33, 333–338. doi: 10.1046/j.1439-0329.2003.00334.xGoogle Scholar
  51. Erbilgin N, Storer AJ, Wood DL, Gordon TR (2005) Colonization of cut branches of five coniferous hosts of the pitch canker fungus by Pityophthorus spp. (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in central, coastal California. Canadian Entomologist 137, 337–349.Google Scholar
  52. Fisher RF, Garbett WS, Underhill EM (1981) Effects of fertilization on healthy and pitch-canker infected pines. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry 5, 77–79.Google Scholar
  53. Fox JW, Wood DL, Koehler CS (1990) Distribution and abundance of engraver beetles (Scolytidae: Ips species) on Monterey pines infected with pitch canker. Canadian Entomologist 122, 1157–1166.Google Scholar
  54. Fox JW, Wood DL, Koehler CS, O’Keefe ST (1991) Engraver beetles (Scolytidae: Ips species) as vectors of the pitch canker fungus, Fusarium subglutinans. Canadian Entomologist 123, 1355–1367.Google Scholar
  55. Fraedrich BR, Dwinell LD (1997) Mortality of longleaf pine seedlings caused by Fusarium subglutinans and an evaluation of potential inoculum sources. In ‘Proceedings of the 3rd meeting of the IUFRO working group S7.03.04, diseases and insects in forest nurseries, 29-24 May 1994’. Northern Region Report 97-4. (Ed. R James) pp. 48–54. (US Department of Agriculture, Forest Services, Forest Heath Protection)Google Scholar
  56. Fraedrich BR, Witcher W (1982) Influence of fertilization on pitch canker development on three southern pine species. Plant Disease 66, 938–940.Google Scholar
  57. Friel CJ, Desjardins AE, Kirkpatrick SC, Gordon TR (2007) Evidence for recombination and segregation of virulence to pine in a hybrid cross between Gibberella circinata and G. subglutinans. Mycological Research 111, 827–831. doi: 10.1016/j.mycres.2007.05.004PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Furniss RL, Carolin VM (1977) Western forest insects. USDA Forest Service. Miscellaneous Publication No. 1339, Washington, DC. 654 pp.Google Scholar
  59. Gadgil P, Dick M, Simpson J, Bejakovich D, Ross M, Bain J, Horgan G, Wylie R (2003) Management plan response to an incursion of pine pitch canker in Australia and New Zealand. Department of Communications, Information and the Arts, Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra. 99 p.Google Scholar
  60. Gebeyehu S, Wingfield MJ (2003) Pine weevil Pissodes nemorensis: threat to South Africa pine plantations and options for control. South African Journal of Science 99, 531–536.Google Scholar
  61. Gordon TR (2006) Pitch canker disease of pines. Phytopathology 96, 657–659. doi: 10.1094/PHYTO-96-0657PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Gordon TR, Storer AJ, Okamoto D (1996) Population structure of the pitch canker pathogen, Fusarium subglutinans f. sp. pini, in California. Mycological Research 100, 850–854.Google Scholar
  63. Gordon TR, Okamoto D, Storer AJ, Wood DL (1998a) Susceptibility of five landscape pines to pitch canker disease, caused by Fusarium subglutinans f. sp. pini. HortScience 33, 868–871.Google Scholar
  64. Gordon TR, Wikler KR, Clark SL, Okamoto D, Storer AJ, Bonello P (1998b) Resistance to pitch canker disease, caused by Fusarium subglutinans f. sp. pini, in Monterey pine (Pinus radiata). Plant Pathology 47, 706–711.Google Scholar
  65. Gordon TR, Storer AJ, Wood DL (2001) The pitch canker epidemic in California. Plant Disease 85, 1128–1139. doi: 10.1094/ PDIS.2001.85.11.1128Google Scholar
  66. Gordon TR, Kirkpatrick SC, Petersen JC, Friel CJ (2006a) Potential diversity in vegetative compatibility groupings in the California population of Gibberella circinata. Mycological Research 110, 936–940. doi: 10.1016/j.mycres.2006.05.001PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Gordon TR, Kirkpatrick SC, Aegerter BJ, Wood DL, Storer AJ (2006b) Susceptibility of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) to pitch canker, caused by Gibberella circinata (anamorph = Fusarium circinatum). Plant Pathology 55, 231–237. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3059.2006.01351.xGoogle Scholar
  68. Guerra-Santos JJ (1999) Pitch canker on Monterey pine in Mexico. In ‘Current and potential impacts of pitch canker in radiata pine. Proceedings of the IMPACT Monterey workshop, California, USA, 30 November to 3 December 1998’. Forestry and Forest Products No. 112. (Eds ME Devey, AC Matheson, TR Gordon) pp. 58–61. (CSIRO: Canberra)Google Scholar
  69. Hepting GH, Roth ER (1946) Pitch canker, a new disease of some southern pines. Journal of Forestry 44, 724–744.Google Scholar
  70. Hepting GH, Roth ER(1953) Host relations and spread of the pine pitch canker disease. Phytopathology 43, 475.Google Scholar
  71. Hodge GR, Dvorak WS (2000) Differential responses of Central American and Mexican pine species and Pinus radiata to infection by the pitch canker fungus. New Forests 19, 241–258. doi: 10.1023/A:1006613021996Google Scholar
  72. Hodge GR, Dvorak WS (2007) Variation in pitch canker resistance among provenances of Pinus patula and Pinus tecunumanii from Mexico and Central America. New Forests 33, 193–206. doi: 10.1007/s11056-006-9023-6Google Scholar
  73. Hoover K, Wood DL, Fox JW, Bros WE (1995) Quantitative and seasonal association of the pitch canker fungus, Fusarium subglutinans f. sp. pini with Conophthorus radiatae (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) and Ernobius punctulatus (Coleoptera: Anobiidae) which infest Pinus radiata. Canadian Entomologist 127, 79–91.Google Scholar
  74. Hoover K, Wood DL, Storer AJ, Fox JW, Bros WE (1996) Transmission of the pitch canker fungus, Fusarium subglutinans f. sp. pini, to Monterey pine. Canadian Entomologist 128, 981–994.Google Scholar
  75. Hurley BP, Govender P, Coutinho TA, Wingfield BD, Govender P, Wingfield MJ (2007a) Fungus gnats and other Diptera in South African forestry nurseries and their possible association with the pitch canker fungus. South African Journal of Science 103, 43–46.Google Scholar
  76. Hurley BP, Slippers B, Coutinho TA, Wingfield BD, Govender P, Wingfield MJ (2007b) Molecular detection of fungi carried by Bradysia difformis (Sciaridae: Diptera) in South African forestry nurseries. South African Journal of Science 69, 103–109.Google Scholar
  77. Huss MJ, Campbell CL, Jennings BD, Leslie JF (1996) Isozyme variation among biological species in the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex (Fusarium section Liseola). Applied and Environmental Microbiology 63, 3750–3756.Google Scholar
  78. Inman AR, Kirkpatrick SC, Gordon TR, Shaw DV (2008) Limiting effects of low temperature on growth and spore germination in Gibberella circinata, the cause of pitch canker in pine species. Plant Disease 92, 542–545. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-92-4-0542Google Scholar
  79. Kayihan GC, Huber DA, Morse AM, White TL, Davis JM (2005) Genetic dissection of fusiform rust and pitch canker disease traits in loblolly pine. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 110, 948–958. doi: 10.1007/s00122-004-1915-2PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Kelley WD, Williams JC (1982) Incidence of pitch canker among clones of loblolly pine in seed orchards. Plant Disease 66, 1171–1173.Google Scholar
  81. Kobayashi T, Muramoto M (1989) Pitch canker of Pinus luchuensis, a new disease of Japanese forests. Forest Pests 40, 169–173.Google Scholar
  82. Kratka SH, Blakeslee GM, Dorset RD, Oak SW (1979) Seasonal development of sporodochia of the pitch canker fungus, Fusarium moniliforme var. subglutinans, on diseased slash pines in Florida. Phytopathology 69, 1034.Google Scholar
  83. Kuhlman EG (1982) Varieties of Gibberella fujikuroi with anamorphs in Fusarium section Liseola. Mycologia 74, 759–768. doi: 10.2307/ 3792862Google Scholar
  84. Kuhlman EG (1987) Effects of inoculation treatment with Fusarium moniliforme var. subgluntinans on dieback of loblolly and slash pine seedlings. Plant Disease 71, 161–162. doi: 10.1094/PD-71-0161Google Scholar
  85. Kuhlman EG, Dwinell LD, Nelson PE, Booth C (1978) Characterization of the Fusarium causing pitch canker of southern pines. Mycologia 70, 1131–1143. doi: 10.2307/3759311Google Scholar
  86. Kuhlman EG, Dianis SD, Smith TK (1982) Epidemiology of pitch canker disease in a loblolly pine seed orchard in North Carolina. Phytopathology 72, 1212–1216.Google Scholar
  87. Landeras E, Garcia P, Fern’andez Y, Braña M, Fern’andez-Alonso O, et al. (2005) Outbreak of pitch canker caused by Fusarium circinatum on Pinus spp. in northern Spain. Plant Disease 89, 1015. doi: 10.1094/PD-89-1015AGoogle Scholar
  88. Leslie JF (1993) Fungal vegetative compatibility. Annual Review of Phytopathology 31, 127–151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Leslie JF (1995) Gibberella fujikuroi: available populations and variable traits. Canadian Journal of Botany 73, S282-S295.Google Scholar
  90. Leslie JF, Klein KK (1996) Female fertility and mating type effects on effective population size and evolution in filamentous fungi. Genetics 144, 557–567.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Leslie JF, Summerell BA (2006) ‘The Fusariumlaboratory manual.’ (Blackwell Publishing Ltd: Oxford)Google Scholar
  92. Lopez-Zamora I, Bliss C, Jokela EJ, Comerford NB, Grunwald S, Barnard EL, Vasquez GM (2007) Spatial relationships between nitrogen status and pitch canker disease in slash pine planted adjacent to a poultry operation. Environmental Pollution 147, 101–111. doi: 10.1016/j. envpol.2006.08.025PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Matheson AC, Devey ME, Gordon TR, Werner W, Vogler DR, Balocchi C, Carson MJ (2006) Heritability of response to inoculation by pine pitch canker of seedlings of radiata pine. Australian Forestry Journal 70, 101–106.Google Scholar
  94. Matthews FR (1962) Pitch canker-tip moth damage association on slash pine seedlings. Journal of Forestry 60, 825–826.Google Scholar
  95. Cain AH, Koehler CS, Tjosvold SA (1987) Pitch canker threatens California pines. California Agriculture 41, 22–23.Google Scholar
  96. McNee WR, Wood DL, Storer AJ, Gordon TR (2002) Incidence of the pitch canker pathogen and associated insects in intact and chipped Monterey pine branches. Canadian Entomologist 134, 47–58.Google Scholar
  97. Mead DJ (2000) An assessment of pine pitch canker in Radiata pine. New Zealand Journal of Forestry 44, 40–42.Google Scholar
  98. Meeker J, Johnson W, Starkey D (2005) A discussion of recent and unusual cases of pitch canker disease in Mississippi and Louisiana. In ‘Conference Proceedings of the Southwide Forest Disease Workshop, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA’.Google Scholar
  99. Mitchell RG, Zwolinski JJ, Jones J, Coutinho TA (2004) The effects of applying prophylactic measures on the post-planting survival of Pinus patula in South Africa. Southern African Forestry Journal 200, 51–58.Google Scholar
  100. Morse AM, Nelson CD, Covert SF, Holliday AG, Smith KE, Davis JM (2004) Pine genes regulated by the necrotrophic pathogen Fusarium circinatum. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 109, 922–932. doi: 10.1007/s00122-004-1719-4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Muramoto H, Dwinell LD (1990) Pitch canker of Pinus luchuensis in Japan. Plant Disease 74, 530. doi: 10.1094/PD-74-0530BGoogle Scholar
  102. Muramoto M, Tashiro T, Minamihashi H (1993) Distribution of Fusarium moniliforme var. subglutinans in Kagoshima Prefecture and its pathogenicity to pines. Journal of the Japanese Forestry Society 75, 1–9.Google Scholar
  103. Nelson PE, Toussoun TA, Marasas WFO (1983) ‘Fusarium species: an illustrated manual for identification.’ (Pennsylvania State University Press: University Park, PA)Google Scholar
  104. Nirenberg HI, O’Donnell K (1998) New Fusarium species and combinations within the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex. Mycologia 90, 434–458. doi: 10.2307/3761403Google Scholar
  105. O’Donnell K, Cigelnik E, Nirenberg HI (1998) Molecular systematics and phylogeography of the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex. Mycologia 90, 465–493. doi: 10.2307/3761407Google Scholar
  106. O’Donnell K, Nirenberg HI, Aoki T, Cigelnik E (2000) A multigene phylogeny of the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex: detection of additional phylogenetically distinct species. Mycoscience 41, 61–78. doi: 10.1007/BF02464387Google Scholar
  107. Ohmart CP (1979) The within-tree distributions of Ips paraconfusus (Coleoptera: Scolyidae) and its insect associates in Monterey pine (Pinus radiata). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 72, 607–609.Google Scholar
  108. Owen D, Adams D (2001) Impact of pitch canker on ornamental Monterey pines in Santa Cruz County, California, U.S., 1987–2000. Journal of Arboriculture 27, 298–305.Google Scholar
  109. P’erez-Sierra A, Landeras E, Le’on M, Berbegal M, Garcia-Jim’enez J, Armengol J (2007) Characterization of Fusarium circinatum from Pinus spp. in northern Spain. Mycological Research 111, 832–839. doi: 10.1016/j.mycres.2007.05.009Google Scholar
  110. Petersen JC, Gordon TR (2005) Spontaneous changes in vegetative compatibility in the ascomycete Gibberella circinata. Phytopathology 95, S83.Google Scholar
  111. Ridley GS, Dick MA (2000) Pine pitch canker disease: the casual fungus and its distribution. Australasian Plant Pathology 29, 263–266. doi: 10.1071/ AP00049Google Scholar
  112. Rockwood DL, Blakeslee GM, Lowerts GA, Underhill EM, Oak SW (1988) Genetic strategies for reducing pitch canker incidence in slash pine. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry 12, 28–32.Google Scholar
  113. Rom’on P, Iturrondobeitia JC, Gibson K, Lindgren BS, Goldarazena A (2007) Quantitative association of bark beetles with pitch canker fungus and effects of verbenone on their semiochemical communication in Monterey pine forests in northern Spain. Environmental Entomology 36, 743–750. doi: 10.1603/0046-225X(2007)36[743:QAOBBW]2.0.CO;2Google Scholar
  114. Roux J, Eisenberg B, Kanzler A, Nel A, Coetzee V, Kietzka E, Wingfield MJ (2007) Testing of selected South African Pinus hybrids and families for tolerance to the pitch canker pathogen, Fusarium circinatum.New Forests 33, 109–123. doi: 10.1007/s11056-006-9017-4Google Scholar
  115. Runion GB, Bruck RI (1985) Associations of the pine tip moth with pitch canker of loblolly pine. Phytopathology 75, 1339.Google Scholar
  116. Runion GB, Bruck RI (1986) The influence of half-sib family and tree spacing on incidence of pitch canker in loblolly pine plantations in eastern North Carolina. Phytopathology 76, 1113.Google Scholar
  117. Runion GB, Bruck RI (1988a) Effects of thiabendazole-DMSO treatment of longleaf pine seed contaminated with Fusarium subglutinans on germination and seedling survival. Plant Disease 72, 872–874. doi: 10.1094/PD-72-0872Google Scholar
  118. Runion GB, Bruck RI (1988b) The effects of thiabendazole on Fusarium subglutinans, the casual agent of pitch canker of loblolly pines. Plant Disease 72, 297–300. doi: 10.1094/PD-72-0297Google Scholar
  119. Runion GB, Cade SC, Bruck RI (1993) Effects of carbofuran and thiabendazole on incidence of pitch canker of loblolly pine. Plant Disease 77, 166–169.Google Scholar
  120. Sakamoto JM, Gordon TR (2006) Factors influencing infection of mechanical wounds by Fusarium circinatum on Monterey pines (Pinus radiata). Plant Pathology 55, 130–136. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3059.2005.01310.xGoogle Scholar
  121. Sakamoto JM, Gordon TR, Storer AJ, Wood DL (2007) The role of Pityophthorus spp. as vectors of pitch canker affecting Monterey pine, Pinus radiata. Canadian Entomologist 139, 864–871.Google Scholar
  122. Santos JJG, Tovar DB (1991) Algunos aspectos sobre el cancro resinoso de los pinos. In ‘VI Simposio Nacional Sobre Parasitologia Forestal, October 1991’. p. 31. (Unidad de Xcongresos del Colegio de Postgraduados Montecillos: Edo, Mexico)Google Scholar
  123. Schweigkofler W, O’Donnell K, Garbelotto M (2004) Detection and quantification of Fusarium circinatum, the casual agent of pine pitch canker, from two California sites by using a real-time PCR approach combined with a simple spore trapping method. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 70, 3512–3520. doi: 10.1128/ AEM.70.6.3512-3520.2004PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Snyder WC, Toole ER, Hepting GH (1949) Fusaria associated with mimosa wilt, sumac wilt and pine pitch canker. Journal of Agricultural Research 78, 365–382.Google Scholar
  125. Steenkamp ET, Wingfield BD, Coutinho TA, Wingfield MJ, Marasas WFO (1999) Differentiation of Fusarium subglutinans f. sp. pini by histone gene sequence data. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 65, 3401–3406.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Steenkamp ET, Wingfield BD, Coutinho TA, Zeller KA, Wingfield MJ, Marasas WFO, Leslie JF (2000) PCR-based identification of MAT-1 and MAT-2 in the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 66, 4378–4382. doi: 10.1128/ AEM.66.10.4378-4382.2000PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Storer AJ, Gordon TR, Dallara PL, Wood DL (1994) Pitch canker kills pines, spreads to new species and regions. California Agriculture 48, 9–13.Google Scholar
  128. Storer AJ, Gordon TR, Wood DL, Dallara PL (1995) Pitch canker in California. California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection, No. 97, Sacramento.Google Scholar
  129. Storer AJ, Gordon TR, Wood DL, Bonello P (1997) Pitch canker disease of pines: current and future impacts. Journal of Forestry 95, 21–26.Google Scholar
  130. Storer AJ, Gordon TR, Clark SL (1998a) Association of the pitch canker fungus, Fusarium subglutinans f. sp. pini with Monterey pine seeds, and seedlings in California. Plant Pathology 47, 649–656. doi: 10.1046/ j.1365-3059.1998.00288.xGoogle Scholar
  131. Storer AJ, Wood DL, Wikler KR, Gordon TR (1998b) Association between a native spittlebug (Homoptera: Cercopidae) on Monterey pine and an introduced tree pathogen which causes pitch canker disease. Canadian Entomologist 130, 783–792.Google Scholar
  132. Storer AJ, Bonello P, Gordon TR, Wood DL (1999a) Evidence of resistance to the pitch canker pathogen (Fusarium circinatum) in native stands of Monterey pine (Pinus monticola). Forest Science 45, 500–505.Google Scholar
  133. Storer AJ, Wood DL, Gordon TR (1999b) Modification of coevolved insectplant interactions by an exotic plant pathogen. Ecological Entomology 24, 238–243. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2311.1999.00187.xGoogle Scholar
  134. Storer AJ, Wood DL, Gordon TR (2002a) Effects of pitch canker pathogen on gallery excavation and oviposition by Ips paraconfusus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Canadian Entomologist 134, 519–528.Google Scholar
  135. Storer AJ, Wood DL, Gordon TR (2002b) Theepidemiology of pitch canker of Monterey pine in California. Forest Science 48, 694–700.Google Scholar
  136. Storer AJ, Wood DL, Gordon TR (2004) Twig beetles, Pityophthorus spp. (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), as vectors of the pitch canker pathogen in California. Canadian Entomologist 136, 685–693.Google Scholar
  137. Viljoen A, Wingfield MJ, Marasas WFO (1994) First report of Fusarium subglutinans f. sp. pini on seedlings in South Africa. Plant Disease 78, 309–312.Google Scholar
  138. Viljoen A, Wingfield MJ, Marasas WFO, Coutinho TA (1995a) Characterization of Fusarium isolates from Gladiolus corms pathogenic to pines. Plant Disease 79, 1240–1244.Google Scholar
  139. Viljoen A, Wingfield MJ, Kemp GHJ, Marasas WFO (1995b) Susceptibility of pines in South Africa to the pitch canker fungus Fusarium subglutinans f. sp. pini. Plant Pathology 44, 877–882. doi: 10.1111/ j.1365-3059.1995.tb02747.xGoogle Scholar
  140. Viljoen A, Marasas WFO, Wingfield MJ, Viljoen CD (1997a) Characterization of Fusarium subglutinans f. sp. pini causing root disease of Pinus patula seedlings in South Africa. Mycological Research 101, 437–445. doi: 10.1017/S0953756296002778Google Scholar
  141. Viljoen A, Wingfield MJ, Gordon TR, Marasas WFO (1997b) Genotypic diversity in a South African population of the pitch canker fungus Fusarium subglutinans f. sp. pini. Plant Pathology 46, 590–593. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-3059.1997.d01-46.xGoogle Scholar
  142. Vogler DR, Gordon TR, Aegerter BJ, Kirkpatrick SC (2004) First report of the pitch canker fungus (Fusarium circinatum) in the Sierra Nevada of California. Plant Disease 88, 772.Google Scholar
  143. Webber JF (1984) The transmission of Dutch elm disease: a study of the processes involved. In ‘Invertebrate — microbial interactions’. (Eds JM tAnderson, ADM Rayner, D Walton) pp. 271–306. (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge)Google Scholar
  144. Wikler KR, Gordon TR (2000) An initial assessment of genetic relationships among populations of Fusarium circinatum in different parts of the world. Canadian Journal of Botany 78, 709–717. doi: 10.1139/cjb-78-6-709Google Scholar
  145. Wikler KR, Gordon TR, Clark SL (2000) Potential for outcrossing in an apparently asexual population of Fusarium circinatum, the casual agent of pitch canker disease. Mycologia 92, 1085–1090. doi: 10.2307/3761476Google Scholar
  146. Wikler KR, Storer AJ, Newman W, Gordon TR, Wood DL (2003) The dynamics of an introduced pathogen in a native Monterey pine (Pinus radiata) forest. Forest Ecology and Management 179, 209–221. doi: 10.1016/S0378-1127(02)00524-8Google Scholar
  147. Wingfield MJ, Coutinho TA, Roux J, Wingfield BD (2002a) The future of exotic plantation forestry in the tropics and southern hemisphere: lessons from pitch canker. Southern African Forestry Journal 195, 79–82.Google Scholar
  148. Wingfield MJ, Jacobs A, Coutinho TA, Ahumada R, Wingfield BD (2002b) First report of the pitch canker fungus, Fusarium circinatum, on pines in Chile. Plant Pathology 51, 397. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-3059.2002.00710.xGoogle Scholar
  149. Yan K, Dickman MB (1993) Sensitivity of field strains of Gibberella fujikuroi (Fusarium section Liseola) to benomyl and hygromycin B. Mycologia 85, 206–213. doi: 10.2307/3760458Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Australasian Plant Pathology Society 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. J. Wingfield
    • 1
  • A. Hammerbacher
    • 1
  • R. J. Ganley
    • 3
  • E. T. Steenkamp
    • 1
  • T. R. Gordon
    • 4
  • B. D. Wingfield
    • 2
  • T. A. Coutinho
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute (FABI)University of PretoriaHillcrestSouth Africa
  2. 2.Department of Genetics, Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute (FABI)University of PretoriaHillcrestSouth Africa
  3. 3.ScionNew Zealand Research Institute LtdRotoruaNew Zealand
  4. 4.Department of Plant PathologyUniversity of CaliforniaDavisUSA

Personalised recommendations