Australasian Plant Pathology

, Volume 38, Issue 6, pp 558–570

Estimating disease losses to the Australian wheat industry

Article

Abstract

The incidence, severity and yield loss caused by 41 pathogens were assessed from a survey of 18 wheat pathologists covering the wheat-growing areas of Australia. The survey provided data on the frequency of years that each pathogen developed to its maximum extent, the proportion of the crop then affected in each growing area, and the yield loss that resulted in the affected crops with and without current control measures. These data were combined with crop production and quality data to estimate the value of the losses aggregated to the Northern, Southern and Western production regions. Pathogens were estimated to cause a current average loss of $913 × 106/year or 19.5% of the average annual value of the wheat crop in the decade from 1998–99 to 2007–08. Nationally, the three most important pathogens were Pyrenophora tritici-repentis, Puccinia striiformis and Phaeosphaeria nodorum with current average annual losses of $212 × 106, $127 × 106 and $108 × 106, respectively. If current controls were not used, losses would be far higher with potential average annual losses from the three most important pathogens, P. striiformis, P. triticirepentis and Heterodera avenae, being $994 × 106, $676 × 106 and $572 × 106, respectively. The average value of control practices exceeded $100 × 106/year for 12 pathogens. Cultural methods (rotation, paddock preparation) were the only controls used for 10 pathogens and contributed more than 50% of the control for a further eight pathogens. Breeding and the use of resistant cultivars contributed more than 50% of control for seven pathogens and pesticides for three pathogens. The relative importance of pathogens varied between regions and zones.

Additional keywords

bacteria crop loss assessment fungi nematodes rust Septoria tan spot viruses 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Brennan JP, Murray GM (1988) Australian wheat diseases: assessing their economic importance. Agricultural Science 1(2), 26–35.Google Scholar
  2. Brennan JP, Murray GM (1998) ‘Economic importance of wheat diseases in Australia.’ (NSW Agriculture: Wagga Wagga)Google Scholar
  3. Brown JF (1975) Diseases of wheat — their incidence and control. In ‘Australian field crops. Vol. I. Wheat and other temperate cereals’. (Eds A Lazenby, EM Matheson) pp. 304–363. (Angus and Robertson: Sydney)Google Scholar
  4. Dubin HJ, Van Ginkel M (1990) The status of wheat diseases and disease research in warmer areas. In ‘Wheat for the non-traditional warm areas: a proceedings of the international conference’. (Ed. DA Saunders) pp. 125–145. (Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo: Mexico DF, Mexico)Google Scholar
  5. GRDC (Grains Research and Development Corporation) (2009) GRDC agroecological zones. Available at http://www.grdc.com.au/director/apply/agroecologicalzones [accessed August 2009]Google Scholar
  6. Hardwick NV, Jones DR, Slough JE (2001) Factors affecting diseases of winter wheat in England and Wales, 1989–98. Plant Pathology 50, 453–462. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-3059.2001.00596.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. James WC (1974) Assessment of plant diseases and losses. Annual Review of Phytopathology 12, 27–48. doi: 10.1146/annurev.py.12.090174.000331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Murray GM, Brown JF (1987) The incidence and relative importance of wheat diseases in Australia. Australasian Plant Pathology 16, 34–37. doi: 10.1071/APP9870034CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Murray GM, Ellison PJ, Watson A, Cullis BR (1994) The relationship between wheat yield and stripe rust as affected by length of epidemic and temperature at the grain development stage of crop growth. Plant Pathology 43, 397–405. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3059.1994.tb02701.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. NACMA (National Agricultural Commodities Marketing Association) (2009) Available at http://www.nacma.com.au/__data/page/117/Section_2_-_Wheat_Receival_Standards_200809_23_October_08.pdf [accessed January 2009]Google Scholar
  11. Park RF (2007) Stem rust of wheat in Australia. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 58, 558–566. doi: 10.1071/AR07117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Wallwork H (2000a) ‘Cereal leaf and stem diseases.’ (Grains Research and Development Corporation: Canberra)Google Scholar
  13. Wallwork H (2000b) ‘Cereal root and crown diseases.’ (Grains Research and Development Corporation: Canberra)Google Scholar
  14. Zadoks JC, Schein RD (1979) ‘Epidemiology and plant disease management.’ (Oxford University Press: New York)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Australasian Plant Pathology Society 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Wagga WaggaAustralia
  2. 2.Coolamaine Economic ResearchCastlemaineAustralia

Personalised recommendations