Australasian Plant Pathology

, Volume 38, Issue 6, pp 584–593 | Cite as

Location of Xanthomonas translucens in pistachio trees

  • E. Facelli
  • C. Taylor
  • N. M. Williams
  • R. W. Emmett
  • M. Sedgley
  • C. K. Joyce
  • E. S. Scott
Article

Abstract

Xanthomonas translucens has been identified as the causal agent of pistachio dieback in Australia. Symptoms include decline, xylem staining, trunk and limb lesions, and excessive exudation of resin. Bacteria were previously isolated from stained wood in 2-year-old twigs but little was known about their presence in other parts of the tree. The pattern of staining and location of X. translucens were studied following felling and dissection of asymptomatic and diseased trees. Chestnut-coloured smears and specks occurred in the sapwood of diseased trees and were continuous from the trunk to 1–2-year-old twigs. X. translucens was isolated mainly from young sapwood (stained and unstained) of the main trunk, primary and younger branches and current season growth, less frequently from leaves and bunches, rarely from old, stained heartwood and not from roots and associated soil samples. Bacteria and pathogenic fungi were not found in the inner bark and cortex associated with lesions whereas the stained sapwood underlying the lesions yielded X. translucens. Scanning electron microscopy revealed bacteria in the main vessels of the xylem of stained tissue and tyloses in the proximity of colonised tissue. Information on the pattern of staining and location of the bacteria will facilitate pathogen detection, thereby improving the accuracy of disease diagnosis.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Agrios G (2005) ‘Plant pathology.’ (Elsevier Academic Press: Sydney)Google Scholar
  2. Du Plessis HJ (1990) Systemic invasion of plum seed and fruit by Xanthomonas campestris pv. pruni through stalks. Journal of Phytopathology 130, 37–45. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0434.1990.tb01151.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Edwards M, Taylor C (1998) Dieback and canker in Australian pistachios. Acta Horticulturae 470, 596–603.Google Scholar
  4. Epstein L, Beede R, Kaur S, Ferguson L (2004) Rootstock effects on pistachio trees grown in Verticillium dahliae-infested soil. Phytopathology 94, 388–395. doi: 10.1094/PHYTO.2004.94.4.388CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Facelli E, Taylor C, Scott E, Emmett R, Fegan M, Sedgley M (2002) First report of a bacterial disease of pistachios. Australasian Plant Pathology 31, 95–96. doi: 10.1071/AP01072CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Facelli E, Taylor C, Scott E, Fegan M, Huys G, Emmett R, Noble D, Swings J, Sedgley M (2005) Identification of the causal agent of pistachio dieback in Australia. European Journal of Plant Pathology 112, 155–165. doi: 10.1007/s10658-005-3120-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. John S, Scott E, Wicks T, Hunt J (2004) Interactions between Eutypa lata and Trichoderma harzianum. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 43, 95–104.Google Scholar
  8. Maggs DH (1982) ‘An introduction to pistachio growing in Australia.’ (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation: Adelaide)Google Scholar
  9. Marefat A, Ophel-Keller K, Scott E, Sedgley M (2006a) The use of ARMS PCR in detection and identification of xanthomonads associated with pistachio dieback in Australia. European Journal of Plant Pathology 116, 57–68. doi: 10.1007/s10658-006-9038-zCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Marefat A, Scott ES, Ophel-Keller K, Sedgley M (2006b) Genetic, phenotypic and pathogenic diversity among xanthomonads isolated from pistachio (Pistacia vera) in Australia. Plant Pathology 55, 639–649. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3059.2006.01437.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Miles WG, Daines RH, Rue JW (1977) Presymptomatic egress of Xanthomonas pruni from infected peach leaves. Phytopathology 67, 895–897. doi: 10.1094/Phyto-67-895CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Moffett M, Croft B (1983) Xanthomonas. In ‘Plant bacterial diseases. A diagnostic guide’. (Eds P Fahy, G Persley) pp. 189–228. (Academic Press: Sydney)Google Scholar
  13. Robinson B (1997) Pistachios. In ‘The new rural industries. A handbook for farmers and investors’. (Ed. K Hyde) pp. 436–443. (Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation: Canberra)Google Scholar
  14. Rosengarten F (2004) ‘The book of edible nuts.’ (Dover Publications: New York)Google Scholar
  15. Rudolph K (1993) Infection of the plant by Xanthomonas. In “Xanthomonas’. (Eds JG Swings, EL Civerolo) pp. 193–264. (Chapman & Hall: London)Google Scholar
  16. Schaad NW, Wilson EE (1970) Pathological anatomy of the bacterial phloem canker disease of Juglans regia. Canadian Journal of Botany 48, 1055–1060. doi: 10.1139/b70-152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Sedgley M, Scott E, Facelli E, Emmett R, Taylor C (2004) ‘Pistachio canker epidemiology.’ (Horticulture Australia Ltd: Sydney)Google Scholar
  18. Siegel S (1956) ‘Nonparametric statistics for the behavioral sciences.’ (McGraw-Hill: London)Google Scholar
  19. Stevenson JF, Matthews MA, Greve LC, Labavitch JM, Rost TL (2004) Grapevine susceptibility to Pierce’s disease II: Progression of anatomical symptoms. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 55, 238–245.Google Scholar
  20. Suhayda CG, Goodman RN (1981) Early proliferation and migration and subsequent xylem occlusion by Erwinia amylovora and the fate of its extracellular polysaccharide in apple shoots. Phytopathology 71, 697–707. doi: 10.1094/Phyto-71-697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Swings JG, Civerolo EL (1993) “Xanthomonas.’ (Chapman& Hall: London)Google Scholar
  22. Taylor C, Edwards M (2000) ‘Managing canker and dieback in pistachios.’ (Department of Natural Resources and Environment, Agriculture Victoria: Mildura)Google Scholar
  23. Teviotdale BL, Michailides TJ, Pscheidt JW (2002) ‘Compendium of nut crop diseases in temperate zones.’ (APS Press: St Paul, MN)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Australasian Plant Pathology Society 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. Facelli
    • 1
  • C. Taylor
    • 2
  • N. M. Williams
    • 1
  • R. W. Emmett
    • 2
  • M. Sedgley
    • 1
  • C. K. Joyce
    • 3
  • E. S. Scott
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Agriculture, Food and WineThe University of AdelaideGlen OsmondAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Primary IndustriesMilduraAustralia
  3. 3.Pistachio Growers Association IncorporatedRenmarkAustralia
  4. 4.Centre for Phytophthora Science and ManagementMurdoch UniversityMurdochAustralia
  5. 5.Faculty of Arts and SciencesThe University of New EnglandArmidaleAustralia

Personalised recommendations