Three new Phaeoacremonium species on grapevines in New Zealand
- 137 Downloads
Three new species of Phaeoacremonium (Pm.) found in discoloured wood of grapevine are described and named Pm. armeniacum, Pm. globosum and Pm. occidentale. Phaeomoniella chlamydospora was isolated from the same vines, but no other Phaeoacremonium spp. were present. Phaeoacremonium spp. have been associated with Petri and esca diseases in grapevine. In pathogenicity trials, the new Phaeoacremonium spp. consistently caused brown discolouration in the inoculated wood. All species caused mortality of cv. 101–14 rootstock cuttings, 22–60% of cuttings surviving 10 weeks after inoculation. Rootstock cv. 5C was less susceptible, with 80–100% of cuttings surviving. The three new species of Phaeoacremonium are genetically distinct from all those previously described and also show subtle morphological differences in the structure and size of the phialides and conidia. Phylogenetic analysis of b-tubulin and actin genes showed that the new species Pm. globosum and Pm. armeniacum are closely related to Pm. argentinense from Argentina, while Pm. occidentale is more closely related to Pm. mortoniae from vineyards in the northern hemisphere. The new species were isolated from rootstock imported into New Zealand ∼25 years ago from California. They are not closely related to species known from grape in California, and no conclusion can be made about whether they were imported in the recent past on infected plants, or if they are indigenous to New Zealand. Many Phaeoacremonium species have a broad host range, and more intensive surveys of the native New Zealand flora and vineyards are needed before their origin can be determined. Additional keywords: Togninia, Vitis vinifera.
KeywordsInternal Transcribe Spacer Australasian Plant Pathology Malt Extract Agar Aerial Mycelium Conidiogenous Cell
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Edwards J, Cunnington J, Salib S, Pascoe IG (2006) Basidiomycetes associated with heart rot of grapevines in Australia. In ‘Fifth international workshop on Grapevine trunk diseases’. Department of Plant Pathology, UC Davis, California, Sept. 21–23, 2006. Abstracts, p. 35.Google Scholar
- Fischer M (2006) Biodiversity and geographic distribution of basidiomycetes causing esca-associated white rot in grapevine: a worldwide perspective. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 45, S30-S42.Google Scholar
- ba]Kornerup A, Wanscher JH (1963) ‘Methuen handbook of colour.’ (Methuen and Co.: London)Google Scholar
- Moore DS, McCabe GP (1996) ‘Introduction to the practice of statistics.’ (WH Freeman & Co.: New York)Google Scholar
- Réblová M, Mostert L, Gams W, Crous PW (2004) New genera in the Calosphaeriales: Togniniella and its anamorph Phaeocrella, and Calosphaeriophora as anamorph of Calosphaeria. Studies in Mycology 50, 533–550.Google Scholar
- Reed-Graham AB (2006) The quality of grafted grapevines grown in a New Zealand nursery. Doctoral Thesis, The University of Auckland.Google Scholar
- Swofford DL (2002) ‘PAUP*. Phylogenetic analysis using parsimony (*and other methods). Version 4.’ (Sinauer Associates: Sunderland, MA)Google Scholar
- White TJ, Bruns T, Lee S, Taylor JW (1990) Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. In ‘PCR protocols: a guide to methods and applications’. (Eds MA Innis, DH Gelfand, JJ Sninsky, TJ White) pp. 315–322. (Academic Press, Inc.: New York)Google Scholar
- Weir BS, Graham AB (2008) Development of an advanced PCR technique to detect grapevine trunk diseases. The Australian & New Zealand Grapegrower & Winemaker 532, 27–29.Google Scholar