Advertisement

Australasian Plant Pathology

, Volume 35, Issue 4, pp 427–433 | Cite as

Quambalaria leaf and shoot blight on Eucalyptus nitens in South Africa

  • J. RouxEmail author
  • Z. L. Mthalane
  • Z. W. de Beer
  • B. Eisenberg
  • M. J. Wingfield
Article

Abstract

Quambalaria spp. cause leaf and shoot dieback diseases on young Eucalyptus trees in Australia, Thailand, South America and South Africa. The disease was first recorded in South Africa in the early 1990s but has been restricted to nurseries in the subtropical north-east coastal area of the country, without resulting in great effect. Recent disease surveys in the Mpumalanga Province of South Africa have revealed extensive shoot and leaf dieback, as well as stem cankers on 1-year-old E. nitens trees. Some symptoms of the disease resembled Quambalaria leaf and shoot blight. However, this was the first time it had occurred on the stems of larger trees, on E. nitens or in the cold temperate region of the country. The aim of this study was to identify the causal agent of the disease and to test different Eucalyptus spp. and clones of relevance to the South African forestry industry for their susceptibility to the pathogen. Comparisons of DNA sequence data for the ITS and 5.8S regions were used to identify the fungus. Results showed that the pathogen represented Q. eucalypti. Inoculation trials showed that all the material tested was susceptible to infection by Q. eucalypti. This study shows that Q. eucalypti has become elevated from a relatively minor nursery pathogen to one that can cause significant damage on a wide range of Eucalyptus spp. in both temperate and sub-tropical areas of South Africa.

Additional keywords

plantation forestry selection 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alfenas AC, Jeng R, Hubbes M (1983) Virulence of Cryphonectria cubensis on Eucalyptus species differing in resistance. European Journal of Forest Pathology 13, 197–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alfenas AC, Zauza EAV, Rosa OPP, Assi TF (2001) Sporothrix eucalypti, a new pathogen of Eucalyptus in Brazil. Fitopatologia Brasiliera 26, 221.Google Scholar
  3. Begerow D, Bauer R, Oberwinkler F (2001) Muribasidiospora: Microstromatales or Exobasidiales? Mycological Research 105, 798–810. doi: 10.1017/S0953756201004208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Braun U (1998) ‘A monograph of Cercosporella, Ramularia and allied genera (Phytopathogenic Hyphomycetes). Vol. 2.’ (IHW Verlag: München)Google Scholar
  5. Cass Smith WP (1970) Stem canker disease of red flowering gums. Journal of the Department of Agriculture, Western Australia 11, 33–39.Google Scholar
  6. De Beer ZW, Begerow D, Bauer R, Pegg GS, Crous PW, Wingfield MJ (2006) Phylogeny of Quambalariaceae fam. nov., including important Eucalyptus pathogens from South Africa and Australia. Studies in Mycology 55, 289–298.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Felsenstein J (1988) ‘DNABOOT-Bootstrap Confidence Intervals on DNA parsimony 3.1.’ (University of Washington DC: Seattle)Google Scholar
  8. Hodge GR, Dvorak WS (2000) Differential response of Central American and Mexican pine species and Pinus radiata to infection by the pitch canker fungus. New Forests 19, 241–258. doi: 10.1023/A:1006613021996CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kumar S, Tamura K, Nei M (2004) MEGA3: Integrated Software for Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis and Sequence Alignment. Briefings in Bioinformatics 5, 150–163. doi: 10.1093/bib/5.2.150CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Möller EM, Bahnweg G, Sandermann H, Geiger HH (1992) A simple and efficient protocol for isolation of high molecular weight DNA from filamentous fungi, fruit bodies, and infected plant tissues. Nucleic Acids Research 20, 6115–6116.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Nakabonge G, Gryzenhout M, Roux J, Wingfield MJ (2006) Celoporthe dispersa gen. et sp. nov., from native Myrtales in South Africa. Studies in Mycology 55, 259–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Pegg GS, Drenth A, Wingfield MJ (2005) Quambalaria pitereka on spotted gum plantations in Queensland and northern NewSouthWales, Australia. Proceedings of the XXII IUFROWorld Congress, 8–13 August 2005, Brisbane, Australia. International Forestry Review 7, 337.Google Scholar
  13. Roux J, van Wyk M, Hatting H, Wingfield MJ (2004) Ceratocystis species infecting stem wounds on Eucalyptus grandis in South Africa. Plant Pathology 53, 414–421. doi: 10.1111/j.0032-0862.2004.01014.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Simpson JA (2000) Quambalaria, a new genus of Eucalypt pathogens. Australian Mycologist 19, 57–62.Google Scholar
  15. Van Zyl LM, Wingfield MJ (1999) Wound response of Eucalyptus clones after inoculation with Cryphonectria cubensis. European Journal of Forest Pathology 29, 161–167.Google Scholar
  16. Walker J, Bertus AL (1971) Shoot blight of Eucalyptus spp. caused by an undescribed species of Ramularia. Proceedings of the Linnaean Society of New South Wales, Ser. 2 96, 108–115.Google Scholar
  17. White TJ, Bruns T, Lee S, Taylor J (1990) Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. In ‘PCR protocols: a guide to methods and applications’. (Eds MA Innis, DH Gelfand, JJ Sninsky, TJ White) pp. 315–322. (Academic Press: San Diego)Google Scholar
  18. Wingfield MJ, Crous PW, Swart WJ (1993) Sporothrix eucalypti (sp. nov.), a shoot and leaf pathogen of Eucalyptus in South Africa. Mycopathologia 123, 159–164. doi: 10.1007/BF01111267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Zauza EAZ, AlfenasAC, Langrell SRH,Tommerup IC (2003) Detection and identification of Quambalaria species in Eucalyptus nurseries and plantations. In ‘Proceedings of the 8th International Congress of Plant Pathology, 2–7 February, Christchurch, New Zealand’. p. 113.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Australasian Plant Pathology Society 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Roux
    • 1
    Email author
  • Z. L. Mthalane
    • 1
  • Z. W. de Beer
    • 1
  • B. Eisenberg
    • 1
  • M. J. Wingfield
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, Tree Protection Co-operative Programme (TPCP), Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute (FABI)University of PretoriaPretoriaSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations