Advertisement

Australasian Plant Pathology

, Volume 34, Issue 2, pp 213–220 | Cite as

Preliminary studies on Botryosphaeria species from Southern Hemisphere conifers in Australasia and South Africa

  • Bernard SlippersEmail author
  • Brett A. Summerel
  • Pedro W. Crous
  • Teresa A. Coutinho
  • Brenda D. Wingfield
  • Michael J. Wingfield
Article

Abstract

Wollemia nobilis is an ancient coniferous tree species that was recently discovered in eastern Australia. This tree is highly threatened due to its limited distribution. No genetic variation has been detected within the wild populations of ∼ 100 adult plants. A recent study has revealed that a species of Botryosphaeria is highly pathogenic to W. nobilis. The aim of the present study was to identify this fungus, as well as Botryosphaeria isolates of unknown identity from other Southern Hemisphere coniferous hosts, Araucaria from New Zealand and Widdringtonia from South Africa. To facilitate their identification, sequence data for the ITS rDNA, as well as the p-tubulin and translation elongation factor 1-α genes were combined to determine the phylogenetic relationship of these isolates with those of known Botryosphaeria spp. Isolates from W. nobilis included two Botryosphaeria spp. The first is closely related to B. ribis, but also shares some unique sequence polymorphisms with B. parva. One isolate grouped with B. australis, but also varied slightly from this taxon in the gene regions analysed. Additional isolates will be needed to determine whether these sequence variations represent speciation events or merely variation within populations of B. ribis and B. australis. In addition to this, B. parva was identified from Araucaria in New Zealand, and B. australis was found on Widdringtonia trees in South Africa. All three reports of these fungi are new records for their various hosts and could represent important pathogens of these trees.

Additional keywords

canker die-back Fusicoccurn gene genealogies pathogen phylogeny conidia new record 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bullock S, Summerell BA, Gunn LV (2000) Pathogens of the Wollemi Pine, Wollemia nobilis. Australasian Plant Pathology 29, 211–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Burgess T, Wingfield MJ (2002) Quarantine is important in restricting the spread of exotic seed-borne tree pathogens in the Southern Hemisphere. International Forestry Review 4, 56–65.Google Scholar
  3. Davis JI, Nixon KC (1992) Populations, genetic variation, and the delimitation of phylogenetic species. Systematic Biology 41, 421–435.Google Scholar
  4. Davison EM, Tay CS (1983) Twig, branch and upper trunk cankers of Eucalyptus marginata. Plant Disease 67, 1285–1287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Denman S, Crous PW, Groenewald JZ, Slippers B, Wingfield BD, Wingfield MJ (2003) Circumscription of Botryosphaeria species associated with Proteaceae on morphology and DNA sequence data. Mycologia 95, 294–307.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Denman S, Crous PW, Taylor IE, Kang JC, Pascoe I, Wingfield MJ (2000) An overview of the taxonomic history of Botryosphaeria and a re-evaluation of its anamorphs based on morphology and ITS rDNA phylogeny. Studies in Mycology 45, 129–140.Google Scholar
  7. Eriksson T (1998) Autodecay ver. 4.0 (program distributed by the author). (Department of Botany, Stockholm University: Stockholm)Google Scholar
  8. Farris JS, Kallersjo M, Kluge AG, Bult C (1994) Testing significance of incongruence. Cladistics 10, 315–319. doi: 10.1006/ clad. 1994.1021CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Felsenstein J (1985) Confidence intervals on phylogenetics: an approach using bootstrap. Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution 39, 783–791.Google Scholar
  10. Gilmore S, Hill KD (1997) Relationships of the Wol lemi pine ( Wollemia nobilis) and a molecular phylogeny of the Araucariaceae. Telopea 7, 275–291.Google Scholar
  11. Hill KD (1997) The Wollemi Pine — a recently discovered Australian genus of Araucariaceae. Botany 84, 202–203 [abstract].Google Scholar
  12. Hillis DM, Huelsenbeck JP (1992) Signal, noise, and reliability in molecular phylogenetic analyses. The Journal of Heredity 83, 189–195.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Hogbin PM, Peakall R, Sydes MA (2000) Achieving practical outcomes from genetic studies of rare Australian plants. Australian Journal of Botany 48, 375–382. doi: 10.1071/BT98080CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Huelsenbeck JP, Bull JJ, Cunningham CW (1996) Combining data in phylogenetic analysis. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 11, 152–158. doi: 10.1016/0169-5347(96)10006-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Jacobs KA, Rehner SA (1998) Comparison of cultural and morphological characters and ITS sequences in anamorphs of Botryosphaeria and related taxa. Mycologia 90, 601–610.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jones WG, Hill KD, Allen JM (1995) Wollemia nobilis, a new living Australian genus and species in the Araucariaceae. Telopea 6, 173–176.Google Scholar
  17. Mustart P, Bond W (1995) The decline of the Clanwilliam cedar — natural or man made? Africa — Environment & Wildlife 2, 80–81.Google Scholar
  18. Offord CA (1996) Conserving the Wollemi pine: an integrated approach. Danthonia 5, 12–14.Google Scholar
  19. Offord CA, Porter CL, Meagher PF, Errington G (1999) Sexual reproduction and early plant growth of the Wollemi pine (Wollemia nobilis), a rare and threatened Australian conifer. Annals of Botany 84, 1–9. doi: 10.1006/anbo. 1999.0882CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Old KM, Gibbs R, Craig I, Myers BJ, Yaun ZQ (1990) Effect of drought and defoliation on the susceptibility of Eucalyptus to cankers caused by Endothia gyrosa and Botryosphaeria ribis. Australian Journal of Botany 38, 571–581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Pauw CA, Linder HP (1997) Tropical African cedars (Widdringtonia, Cuppressaceae): systematics, ecology and conservation status. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 123, 297–319. doi: 0.1006/bojl. 1996.0091CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Peakall R, Ebert D, Scott LJ, Meagher PF, Offord CA (2003) Comparative genetic study confirms exceptionally low genetic variation in the ancient and endangered relictual conifer, Wollemia nobilis (Araucariaceae). Molecular Ecology 12, 2331–2343. doi: 10.1046/j.l365-294X.2003.01926.xCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Pennycook SR, Samuels GJ (1985) Botryosphaeria and Fusicoccum species associated with ripe fruit rot of Actinidia deliciosa (Kiwifruit) in New Zealand. Mycotaxon 24, 445–458.Google Scholar
  24. Phillips AJL, Fonseca F, Povoa V, Castilho R, Nolasco G (2002) A reassessment of the anamorphic fungus Fusicoccum luteum and description of its teleomorph Botryosphaeria lutea sp. nov. Sydowia 54, 59–77.Google Scholar
  25. Raeder U, Broda P (1985) Rapid preparation of DNA from filamentous fungi. Letters in Applied Microbiology 1, 17–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Shearer BL, Smith IW (2000) Diseases of eucalypts caused by Phytophthora and Pythium. In ‘Diseases and pathogens of Eucalyptus’. (Eds PJ Keane, GA Kile, FD Podger, BN Brown) (CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne, Australia)Google Scholar
  27. Shearer BL, Tippett JT, Bartle JR (1987) Botryosphaeria ribis infection associated with death of Eucalyptus radiata in species selection trials. Plant Disease 71, 140–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Slippers B (2003) The taxonomy, phylogeny and ecology of Botryosphaeriaceous fungi occurring on various woody hosts. PhD Thesis, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.Google Scholar
  29. Slippers B, Crous PW, Denman S, Coutinho TA, Wingfield BD, Wingfield MJ (2004a) Combined multiple gene genealogies and phenotypic characters differentiate several species previously identified as Botryosphaeria dothidea. Mycologia 96, 83–101.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Slippers B, Fourie G, Crous PW, Coutinho TA, Wingfield BD, Wingfield MJ (2004b) Multiple gene sequences delimit Botryosphaeria australis sp. nov. from B. lutea. Mycologia 96, 1028–1039.Google Scholar
  31. Slippers B, Fourie G, Crous PW, Coutinho TA, Wingfield BD, Carnegie A, Wingfield MJ (2004c) Speciation and distribution of Botryosphaeria spp. on native and introduced Eucalyptus trees. Studies in Mycology 50, 343–358.Google Scholar
  32. Slippers B, Johnston GI, Crous PW, Coutinho TA, Wingfield BD, Wingfield MJ (2005) Phylogenetic and morphological re-evaluation of the Botryosphaeria species causing diseases of Mangifera indica in Australia. Mycologia 97, 102–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Smith H, Crous PW, Wingfield MJ, Coutinho TA, Wingfield BD (2001) Botryosphaeria eucalyptorum sp. nov, a new species in the B. dothidea -complex on Eucalyptus in South Africa. Mycologia 93, 277–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Smith H, Wingfield MJ, Crous PW, Coutinho TA (1996) Sphaeropsis sapinea and Botryosphaeria dothidea endophytic in Pinus spp. and Eucalyptus spp. in South Africa. South African Journal of Botany 62, 86–88.Google Scholar
  35. Sutton BC, Dyko BJ (1989) Revision of Hendersonula. Mycological Research 93, 466–488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Swofford DL (1999) ‘PAUP*. Phylogenetic analysis using parsimony (*and other methods). Version 4’. (Sinauer Associates: Sunderland, Massachusetts)Google Scholar
  37. Wingfield MJ, Von Broembsen SL, Manders PT (1988) A preliminary assessment of the threat of diseases and pests to Widdringtonia cedarbergensis. SA Forestry Journal 147, 32–34.Google Scholar
  38. Young HE (1948) Hendersonula agathi n. sp., the cause of leaf cast of Kauri Pine in Queensland. Queensland Journal of Agricultural Science 5, 9–12.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Australasian Plant Pathology Society 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bernard Slippers
    • 1
    Email author
  • Brett A. Summerel
    • 3
  • Pedro W. Crous
    • 1
    • 4
  • Teresa A. Coutinho
    • 1
  • Brenda D. Wingfield
    • 2
  • Michael J. Wingfield
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural SciencesUniversity of PretoriaPretoriaSouth Africa
  2. 2.Department of Genetics, Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural SciencesUniversity of PretoriaPretoriaSouth Africa
  3. 3.Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain TrustSydneyAustralia
  4. 4.Centraalbureau voor SchimmelculturesUtrechtThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations