Australasian Plant Pathology

, Volume 30, Issue 4, pp 343–351 | Cite as

Ability of phosphite applied in a glasshouse trial to control Phytophthora cinnamomi in five plant species native to Western Australia

  • C. J. Wilkinson
  • J. M. Holmes
  • K. M. Tynan
  • I. J. Colquhoun
  • J. A. McComb
  • G. E. St J. Hardy
  • B. Dell
Article

Abstract

The ability of phosphite to control Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands in five Western Australian native plant species was examined. Foliar application of phosphite slowed, but did not completely inhibit, colonisation of stems by P. cinnamomi. For example, in Banksia hookeriana Meisn. inoculated 2 weeks after phosphite application, 5 g phosphite/L inhibited the growth rate of P. cinnamomi by 57% compared with the non-phosphite-treated plants. The longevity of phosphite efficacy varied with plant species. Foliar application of 5 and 10 g phosphite/L decreased the growth rate of P. cinnamomi in Dryandra sessilis (Knight) Domin. for at least 12 months after it was applied. Application rates of 5 and 10 g phosphite/L for Banksia grandis Willd. and 10 g/L for B. hookeriana were effective for at least 18 months after application. In Hibbertia commutata Steud. and Dampiera linearis R.Br., phosphite was effective for less than 6 and 12 months, respectively. In a second trial, plants were inoculated with P. cinnamomi at different time periods after phosphite was applied and time to death was recorded. There was a range of responses depending on the plant species and time of year they were inoculated. The initial levels of phosphite in roots and stems of B. grandis, B. hookeriana and D. sessilis and the rate of decrease of phosphite in these tissues differed between plant species. In general, concentrations of phosphite in stems were higher or equivalent to those in roots. This study indicates that the long-term efficacy of phosphite depends on both the plant species treated and the time of year the plants are infected with P. cinnamomi.

Additional keywords

phosphonate fungicide 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aberton MJ, Wilson BA, Cahill DM (1999) The use of potassium phosphonate to control Phytophthora cinnamomi in native vegetation at Anglesea, Victoria. Australasian Plant Pathology 28, 225–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ali Z, Guest DI (1998) Potassium phosphonate controls root rot of Xanthorrhoea australis and X. minor caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi. Australasian Plant Pathology 27, 40–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ali Z, Smith I, Guest D (1999) Effect of potassium phosphonate on root rot of Pinus radiata caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi. Australasian Plant Pathology 28, 120–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bashan B, Levy Y, Cohen Y (1990) Variation in the sensitivity of Phytophthora infestans to fosetyl-Al. Plant Pathology 39, 134–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bunny FJ, Crombie DS, Williams MR (1995) Growth of lesions of Phytophthora cinnamomi in stems and roots of jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) in relation to rainfall and stand density in mediterranean forest of Western Australia. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 25, 961–969.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Coffey MD, Joseph MC (1985) Effects of phosphorous acid and fosetyl-Al on the life cycle of Phytophthora cinnamomi and P. citricola. Phytopathology 75, 1042–1046.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Colwell LD (1963) The estimation of phosphorus fertilizer requirements of wheat in southern New South Wales by soil analysis. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry 3, 100–107.Google Scholar
  8. D’Arcy-Lameta A, Bompeix G (1991) Systemic transport of tritiated phosphonate in tomato plantlets (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill). Pesticide Science 32, 7–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Guest DI, Grant BR (1991) The complex action of phosphonates as antifungal agents. Biological Reviews 66, 159–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jackson TJ, Burgess T, Colquhoun I, Hardy GE StJ (2000) Action of the fungicide phosphite on Eucalyptus marginata inoculated with Phytophthora cinnamomi. Plant Pathology 49, 147–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Lamont BB, Hopkins AJM, Hnatiuk RJ (1982) The flora—composition, diversity and origins. In “Kwongan plant life of the sandplain”. (Eds JS Pate, JS Beard) pp. 27–50. (University of Western Australia Press: Perth)Google Scholar
  12. Marks GC, Smith IW (1990) Control of experimental Phytophthora cinnamomi stem infections of Rhododendron, Leucadendron, and Eucalyptus by dimethomorph, fosetyl-Al and metalaxyl. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 30, 139–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Marks GC, Smith IW (1992) Metalaxyl and phosphonate as prophylactic and curative agents against stem infection of Leucadendron caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 32, 255–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. O’Gara E, Hardy GEStJ, McComb J (1996) The ability of Phytophthora cinnamomi to infect through unwounded and wounded periderm tissue of Eucalyptus marginata. Plant Pathology 45, 955–963.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ouimette DG, Coffey MD (1990) Symplastic entry and phloem translocation of phosphonate. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology 38, 18–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Pilbeam RA, Colquhoun IJ, Shearer B, Hardy GE StJ (2000) Phosphite concentration: its effect on phytotoxicity symptoms and colonisation by Phytophthora cinnamomi in three understorey species of Eucalyptus marginata forest. Australasian Plant Pathology 29, 86–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Roos GHP, Loane C, Dell B, Hardy GEStJ (1999) Facile high performance ion chromatographic analysis of phosphite and phosphate in plant samples. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 30, 2323–2329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ruiter HD, Upping AJM, Meinen E, Prins A (1990) Influence of surfactants and plant species on leaf retention of spray solutions. Weed Science 38, 567–572.Google Scholar
  19. Shearer BL, Dillon M (1995) Susceptibility of plant species in Eucalyptus marginata forest to infection by Phytophthora cinnamomi. Australian Journal of Botany 43, 113–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Shearer BL, Fairman RG (1997a) Foliar application of phosphite delays and reduces the rate of mortality of three Banksia species in communities infested with Phytophthora cinnamomi. In “Proceedings of the 11th Australasian Plant Pathology Society Conference”. Perth, Western Australia, September 1997. p. 180.Google Scholar
  21. Shearer BL, Fairman RG (1997b) Phosphite inhibits lesion development of Phytophthora cinnamomi for at least four years following trunk injection of Banksia species and Eucalyptus marginata. In “Proceedings of the 11th Australasian Plant Pathology Society Conference”. Perth, Western Australia, September 1997. p. 181.Google Scholar
  22. Shearer BL, Michaelsen BJ, Somerford P (1988) Effects of isolate and time of inoculation on invasion of secondary phloem of Eucalyptus spp. and Banksia grandis by Phytophthora spp. Plant Disease 72, 121–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Shearer B.L, Michaelsen BJ, Warren HJ (1987) Comparative behaviour of Phytophthora species in the secondary phloem of stems and excised roots of Banksia grandis and Eucalyptus marginata. Australian Journal of Botany 35, 103–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Shearer BL, Tippett JT (1989) “Jarrah dieback: the dynamics and management of Phytophthora cinnamomi in the jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) forest of south-western Australia.” (Department of Conservation and Land Management, Western Australia)Google Scholar
  25. Wilkinson CJ, Shearer BL, Jackson TJ, Hardy GEStJ (2001) Variation in sensitivity of Western Australian isolates of Phytophthora cinnamomi to phosphite in vitro. Plant Pathology 50, 83–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Wills RT (1993) The ecological impact of Phytophthora cinnamomi in the Stirling Range National Park, Western Australia. Australia Journal of Ecology 18, 145–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Australasian Plant Pathology Society 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. J. Wilkinson
    • 1
  • J. M. Holmes
    • 1
  • K. M. Tynan
    • 1
  • I. J. Colquhoun
    • 2
  • J. A. McComb
    • 1
  • G. E. St J. Hardy
    • 1
  • B. Dell
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Biological Sciences and BiotechnologyMurdoch UniversityPerthAustralia
  2. 2.Alcoa World Alumina AustraliaApplecrossAustralia

Personalised recommendations