Journal of Nuclear Cardiology

, Volume 9, Issue 4, pp 429–437 | Cite as

Digital image processing for clinicians, part II: Filtering

  • Christopher L. Hansen


Learning how to see an image in terms of its different frequency components leads to an intuitive understanding of the Fourier transform and the utility of manipulating different components of an image. This makes it much easier to understand the artifacts from image noise and blurring and how to use filters to correct for them.


Power Spectrum Fast Fourier Transform Frequency Component Nuclear Cardiology Image Noise 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Hansen CL. Digital image processing for clinicians, part I: basics of image formation. J Nucl Cardiol 2002;9:343–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Zubal IG, Wisniewski G. Understanding Fourier space and filter selection. J Nucl Cardiol 1997;4:234–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hamming RW. Digital filters. Prentice-Hall: Englewood Cliffs (NJ), 1977.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Rorabaugh CB. Digital filter designer’s handbook. McGraw-Hill: Blue Ridge Summit (PA), 1993.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Parker AJ. Image reconstruction in radiology. CRC Press: Boston, 1990.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Brigham EO. The fast Fourier transform. Prentice-Hall: Englewood Cliffs (NJ), 1974.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ramirez RW. The FFT, fundamentals and concepts. Prentice-Hall: Englewood Cliffs (NJ), 1985.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    King MA, Doherty PW, Schwinger RB, Penney BC. A Wiener filter for nuclear medicine images. Med Phys 1983;10: 876–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    King MA, Schwinger RB, Doherty PW, Penney BC. Two-dimensional filtering of SPECT images using the Metz and Wiener filters. J Nucl Med 1984;25:1234–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Miller TR, Rollins ES. A practical method of image enhancement by interactive digital filtering. J Nucl Med 1985;26:1075–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Links JM, Jeremy RW, Dyer SM, Frank TL, Becker LC. Wiener filtering improves quantification of regional myocardial perfusion with thallium-201 SPECT. J Nucl Med 1990;31: 1230–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hansen CL, Kramer M, Rastogi A. Lower accuracy of Tl-201 SPECT in women is not improved by size-based normal databases or Wiener filtering. J Nucl Cardiol 1999;6:177–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© American Society of Nuclear Cardiology 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christopher L. Hansen
    • 1
  1. 1.Section of CardiologyTemple University School of MedicinePhiladelphia

Personalised recommendations