LCA of an Italian lager beer

  • Mauro Cordella
  • Alessandro Tugnoli
  • Gigliola Spadoni
  • Francesco Santarelli
  • Tullio Zangrando
LCA Case Studies

Abstract

Background, Aim and Scope

The increasing concern about environment protection and a broader awareness of the sustainable development issues cause more and more attention to be given to the environmental impacts of products through the different phases of their life cycle. Foods are definitely among the products whose overall environmental performance can be effectively investigated resorting to LCA. A LCA case study was performed in order to detect and quantify the environmental impacts deriving from the life cycle of a lager beer produced by an Italian small brewery, investigating and comparing two packaging options: beer in 20 L returnable stainless steel kegs and beer in 33 cL one way glass bottles.

Materials and Methods

The investigated system included: production and acquisition of materials and energy, brewing process, packaging, transports, beer consumption and waste disposal. Data for the study were mostly collected from the Theresianer Brewery and completed on the basis of literature information. Data uncertainty was treated with a Monte Carlo analysis. Life Cycle Inventories were constructed for 1 L of beer in bottle and 1 L of beer in keg using the LCA software SimaPro and then assessed at the endpoint level according to the Eco-Indicator’99 method.

Results

Inorganic emissions, land use and fossil fuel consumptions resulted to be the most critical environmental issues of both beer life cycles. Beer in keg turned out to cause a lower environmental load along its life cycle than bottled beer; this was mainly due to the higher emissions and the higher energy consumptions allocated to the glass bottles. Moreover, beer consumption phase, glass bottle production and barley cultivation were found to be the critical stages of the beer life cycle.

Discussion

The brewing process did not result as a critical stage and therefore the company dimension may not be a crucial element for the overall impact quantification. On the contrary, beer consumption may have a significant impact mainly due to the consumer displacement.

Conclusions

The analysis pointed out the relevance of the beer consumption phase and of the packaging choice within the beer life cycle and allowed to detect the other critical stages of the life cycle. It is worth to notice that producers and consumers can be active and responsible actors in pursuing the collective goal of the environmental sustainability.

Recommendations and Perspectives

In order to improve the environmental performance of the beer life cycle, producers should set up marketing strategies in favour of reusable packaging and consumers should prefer draught beer and reduce car use. As beer consumption phase, bottle production and recycling and barley cultivation were found to be very significant stages of the life cycle of the beer, deepening the analysis of these aspects in similar studies is suggested.

Keywords

Beer bottle brewery Eco-Indicator’99 environmental performance food consumption Italy keg packaging product LCA 

References

  1. [1]
    Andersson K, Ohlsson T (1999): Life Cycle Assessment of Bread Produced on Different Scales. Int J LCA 4(1) 25–40Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    Andersson K (2000): LCA of Food Products and Production Systems. Int J LCA 5(4) 239–248Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    Jungbluth N, Tietje O; Scholz RW (2000): Food Purchases: Impacts from the Consumers’ Point of View Investigated with a Modular LCA. Int J LCA 5(3) 134–142Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    Høgaas Eide M (2002): Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of Industrial Milk Production. Int J LCA 7(2) 115–126Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    Ziegler F, Nilsson P, Mattsson B, Walther Y (2003): Life Cycle Assessment of Frozen Cod Fillets Including Fishery-Specific Environmental Impacts. Int J LCA 8(1) 39–47Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    Ramjeawon T (2004): Life Cycle Assessment of Cane-Sugar on the Island of Mauritius. Int J LCA 9(4) 254–260Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    Brauwelt: Hans Carl Publishing, Andernacherstrasse 33 A, 90411 Nuernberg, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    Brewers Guardian: Advantage Publishing, Lyttel Hall, Coopers Hill Road, Nutfield, Redhill, RH1 4 HY, UKGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    Technical Quarterly Master Brewers Associations: 3340 Pilot Knob Road, St. Paul, Minnesota 55121-2097 (USA)Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    Birra e Malto: AITB, Via Trento 79, 32034 Pedavena, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    Talve S (2001): Life Cycle Assessment of a Basic Lager Beer. Int J LCA 6(5) 293–298Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    Koroneos C, Roumbas G, Gabari Z, Papagiannidou E, Moussiopulos N (2005): Life cycle assessment of beer production in Greece, Journal of Cleaner Production 13, 433–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    Takamoto Y, Mitani Y, Takashio M, Itoi K, Muroyama K (2004): Life Cycle Inventory Analysis of a Beer Production Process. MBAA TQ, Vol 41, No 4, 363–365Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    Bare JC, Hofstetter P, Pennington DW, Udo de Haes HA (2000): Midpoints versus Endpoints: The Sacrifices and Benefits. Int J LCA 5(6) 319–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    Pre (2001): The Eco-Indicator 99, A damage oriented method for Life Cycle Impact Assessment — Methodology Report 〈http://www.pre.nl
  16. [16]
    Lewis MJ, Young TW (1998): Brewing, Chapman & Hall SpringerGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    Narziss L (1976): Die Technologie der Malzbereitung, 6th ed, Enke StoccardaGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    Brewing Techniques. 〈http://www.brewingtechniques.com
  19. [19]
    Ecoinvent 〈http://www.ecoinvent.ch
  20. [20]
    ETH-ESU 96 〈http://www.pre.nl
  21. [21]
  22. [22]
    Frischknecht R (2002): Land occupation and land transformation in life cycle inventories. SETAC Europe Annual Meeting, May 13, 2002Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    Pre (2004): SimaPro6 — Introduction to LCA 〈http://www.pre.nl
  24. [24]
    Thompson M, Ellis R, Widavsky A (1990): Cultural Theory, Westview Print BoulderGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mauro Cordella
    • 1
  • Alessandro Tugnoli
    • 1
  • Gigliola Spadoni
    • 1
  • Francesco Santarelli
    • 1
  • Tullio Zangrando
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Chemical, Mining and Environmental Engineering (DICMA)University of BolognaBolognaItaly
  2. 2.Hausbrandt 1892 S.p.A. Birra TheresianerNervesa della Battaglia (TV)Italy

Personalised recommendations