Degradation of pentachlorophenol by pure and mixed cultures in two different soils

Research Article Subject Area 5.1: Microbial Studies

Abstract

Goal, Scope and Background

Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is the second highest volume pesticide used in the United States. It is a mutagenic compound whose exposure poses significant health effects. One of the most desirable, environmentally friendly treatment methods is bioremediation. For soil-based contamination, the effectiveness of bioremediation will also be affected by the presence of an active indigenous population, sorption of the contaminant onto the soil, and environmental parameters.

Methods

Two pure strains and their mixed culture were used to evaluate PCP biodegradation in two different field soils, Columbia (CO) and New Mexico (NM). Biostimulation of the indigenous microbes was evaluated by adding nutrients. The efficiency of adding bacteria strains (bioaugmentation) for degrading PCP was determined with Arthrobacter sp., Flavobacterium sp. and a 50:50 mixture of the two bacteria strains.

Results

In CO soil, only 24%, 12% and 25% of the initial PCP concentration were degraded by Flavobacterium sp., Arthrobacter sp. and mixed culture, respectively. Arthrobacter sp. was used in NM soil with two initial concentrations and achieved degradation efficiencies of 57% and 61% for 361 and 95 mg kg−1 concentrations, respectively.

Discussion

Analysis via statistical methods showed that the bacteria had different efficiencies on PCP degradation in each soil.

Conclusions

All bacteria catalyzed a higher PCP degradation when present in NM soil. Second, Flavobacterium sp. degraded more PCP than Arthrobacter sp. in CO soil. The mixed culture achieved the highest degradation efficiency regardless of the initial concentration or soil origin.

Recommendations and Perspectives

The effect of the soil properties, such as the soil organic matter (SOM) on PCP biodegradation should be investigated. Future work can also investigate the effect of aging time on biodegradation.

Keywords

Arthrobacter sp. bacteria strains bioaugmentation bioremediation biostimulation Flavobacterium sp. mutagenic compounds pentachlorophenol (PCP) soil organic matter (SOM) 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Barbeau C, Deschenes L, Karamanev D, Comeau Y, Samson R (1997): Bioremediation of pentachlorophenol-contaminated soil by bioaugmentation using activated soil. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 48, 745–752CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Becaert V, Deschenes L, Samson R (2000): A simple method to evaluate the concentration of pentachlorophenol degraders in contaminated soils. FEMS Microbiology Letters 184, 261–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Becaert V, Beahue M, Gagnon J, Villmur R, Deschenes L, Samson R (2001): Development of a microbial consortium from a contaminated soil that degrades pentachlorophenol and wood-preserving oil. Canadian Bioremed J 5, 183–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bielefeldt A, Cort T (2005): Dual substrate biodegradation of a nonionic surfactant and pentachlorophenol by Sphingomonas chlorophenolica RA2. Biotechnol Bioeng 89, 680–689CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brandt S, Zeng A, Deckwer W (1997): Adsorption and desorption of pentachlorophenol on cells of Mycobacterium chlorophenolicum PCP-1. Biotechnol Bioeng 55, 481–489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Edgehill R (1994): Pentachlorophenol removal from slightly acidic mineral salts, commercial sand, and clay soil by recovered Arthrobacter strain ATCC 33790. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 41, 142–148Google Scholar
  7. Hansen L, Nestler C, Ringelberg D, Bajpai R (2004): Extended bioremediation of PAH/PCP contaminated soils from the POPILE wood treatment facility. Chemosphere 54, 1481–1493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hwang S, Cutright TJ (2004): Evidence of underestimation in PAH sorption/desorption due to system non-equilibrium and interaction with soil constituents. J Environ Sci Health Pt A A39, 1147–1162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kao C, Liu J, Chen Y, Chai C, Chen S (2005): Factors affecting the biodegradation of PCP by Pseudomonas mendocina NSYSU. J Haz Material B124, 68–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Leung K, Cassidy M, Shaw K, Lee H, Trevors J, Lohmeier-Vogel E, Vogel H (1997): Pentachlorophenol biodegradation by Pseudomonas spp. UG25 and UG30, World J Microbiol Biotechnol 13, 305–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Marcial J, Barrios-Gonzalez J, Tomasini A (2006): Effect of medium composition on pentachlorophenol removal by Amylomyces rouxii in solid state culture. Process Chem 41, 496–500Google Scholar
  12. McGrath R, Singleton I (2000): Pentachlorophenol transformation in soil: A toxicological assessment. Soil Biol Biochem 32, 1311–1314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Pepper M, Ertl M, Gerhard I (1999): Long-term exposure to wood preserving chemicals containing (PCP) and lindane is related to neurobehavioural performance in women. Am J Industrial Medicine 35, 632–641CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Pu X, Cutright T (2006): Sorptive behaviour of PCP on SOM and clay minerals. Chemosphere (in print)Google Scholar
  15. Reddy G, Gold M, (2000): Degradation of pent achlorophenol by Phanerochaete chrysosporium: intermediates and reactions involved. Microbiology 146, 405–13Google Scholar
  16. Saber D, Crawford R (1985): Isolation and characterization of Flavobacterium strains that degrade pentachlorophenol. Appl Environ Microbiol 50, 1512–1518Google Scholar
  17. Seech A, Trevors J, Bulman T (1991): Biodegradation of peatachlorophenol in soil: The response of physical, chemical, and biological treatments. Canadian J Microbiol 37, 440–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Szewczyk R, Bernat P, Milczarek K, Dlugonski J (2003): Application of microscopic fungi isolated from polluted industrial areas for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and pentachlorophenol reduction. Biodegradation 14, 1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Tuomela M, Lyytikainen M, Oivanen P, Hatakka A (1999): Mineralization and conversion of PCP in soil inoculated with the white rot fungus Trametes versicolor. Soil Biol Biochem 31, 65–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Walter M, Boyd-Wilson K, McNaughton D, Northcott G (2005): Laboratory trials on the biodegradation of aged pentachlorophenol residues. International Biodeterior Biodeg 55, 121–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Yu J, Ward O (1996): Investigation of the biodegradation of pentachlorophenol by the predominant bacterial strains in a mixed culture. International Biodeterior Biodeg 4, 181–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Further References

  1. Gunschera J, Fuhrmann F, Salthammer T, Schulze A, Uhde E (2004): Formation and Emission of Chloroanisoles as Indoor Pollutants. Env Sci Pollut Res 11(3) 147–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Hund-Rinke K, Simon M (2005): Terrestrial Ecotoxicity of Eight Chemicals in a Systematic Approach. J Soils Sediments 5(1) 59–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Sánchez P, Alonso C, Fernández C, Vega MM, Pilar Garcia M, Tarazona JV (2005): Evaluation of a Multi-species Test System for Assessing Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Sediments and Water to Aquatic Invertebrates: Effects of Pentachlorophenol on Daphnia magna and Chironomus prasinus. J Soils Sediments 5(1) 53–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ecomed publishers 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringThe University of AkronAkronUSA

Personalised recommendations