The origin of stable halogenated compounds in volcanic gases
- 1k Downloads
Halogenated compounds in the atmosphere are of great environmental concern due to their demonstrated negative effect on atmospheric chemistry and climate. Detailed knowledge of the emission budgets of halogenated compounds has to be gained to understand better their specific impact on ozone chemistry and the climate. Such data are also highly relevant to guide policy decisions in connexion with international agreements about protection of the ozone layer. In selected cases, the relevance of specific emission sources for certain compounds were unclear. In this study we present new and comprehensive evidence regarding the existence and relevance of a volcanic contribution of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), halons (bromine containing halo(hydro)carbons), and fully fluorinated compounds (e.g. CF4 and SF6) to the atmospheric budget.
In order to obtain new evidence of a volcanic origin of these compounds, we collected repeatedly, during four field campaigns covering a period of two years, gases from fumaroles discharging over a wide range of temperatures at the Nicaraguan subduction zone volcanoes Momotombo, Cerro Negro and Mombacho, and analysed them with very sensitive GC/MS systems.
Results and Discussion
In most fumarolic samples certain CFCs, HFCs, HCFCs, halons, and the fully fluorinated compounds CF4 and SF6 were present above detection limits. However, these compounds occur in the fumarole gases in relative proportions characteristic for ambient air.
This atmospheric fingerprint can be explained by variable amounts of air entering the porous volcanic edifices and successively being incorporated into the fumarolic gas discharges.
Recommendation and Outlook
Our results suggest that the investigated volcanoes do not constitute a significant natural source for CFCs, HFCs, HCFCs, halons, CF4, SF6 and NF3.
KeywordsHalogenated greenhouse gases Kyoto Protocol Montreal Protocol ozone depleting substances perfluorinated compounds stable halogenated compounds volcanic effects on atmospheric composition volcanic halocarbons
- Carr MJ, Feigenson MD, Patino LC, Walker JA (2003): Volcanism and geochemistry in Central America: Progress and problems. In: Eiler J (ed), Inside the Subduction Factory. Geophys Monogr Ser 138, 153–174, AGU, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
- CCVG (Commission on the Chemistry of Volcanic Gases) (2004): 〈http://volcgas.unm.edu/2004newsletter.pdf〉
- Feigenson MD, Carr MJ, Maharaj SV, Juliano S, Bolge LL (2004): Lead isotope composition of Central American volcanoes: Influence of the Galapagos plume. Geochem Geophys Geosys 5, Q06001 〈DOI: 10.1029/2003GC000621〉Google Scholar
- Gaffney JS (1995): Volcanic CFCs. Environ Sci Technol 29(1) A8Google Scholar
- Galle B, Hansteen TH, Frische M, Garofalo K, Strauch W (2003): An estimate of the SO2 emissions from four volcanoes in Nicaragua, made using mini-DOAS spectroscopy. IAVCEI 8th Field Workshop Volc Gases, Abstr Vol 〈http://volcgas.unm.edu/Abstracts_Draft_11.doc〉
- Giggenbach WF, Tedesco D, Sulistiyo Y, Caprai A, Cioni R, Favara R, Fischer TP, Hirabayashi JI, Korzhinsky M, Martini M, Menyailov I, Shinohara H (2001): Evaluation of results from the fourth and fifth IAVCEI field workshops on volcanic gases, Vulcano island, Italy and Java, Indonesia. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 108(1–4) 157–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Harnisch J, Hoehne N (2002a): Comparison of emissions estimates derived from atmospheric measurements with national estimates of HFCs, PFCs and SF6. Environm Sci Pollut Res 9(5) 315–320Google Scholar
- Hill BE, La Femina PC, Connor CB, Strauch W, Davoli G, Guevera G, Saballos A (1999): August 1999 eruption of Cerro Negro volcano, Nicaragua, successfully forecast using time-volume relationship. Eos Trans AGU 80(46) F1111Google Scholar
- Houghton JT, Ding Y, Griggs DJ, Noguer M, van der Linden PJ, Dai X, Maskell K, Johnson CA (eds) (2001): Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. 881 pp, Cambridge University Press, UKGoogle Scholar
- Jordan A (2003): Volcanic Formation of Halogenated Organic Compounds. In: Gribble GW (ed), The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry. vol 3, part p, 121–139, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
- McBirney AR, Williams H (1965): Volcanic history of Nicaragua. Univ Calif Pub Geo Sci 55, 1–65Google Scholar
- Reeves CE, Sturges WT, Sturrock GA, Preston K, Oram DE, Schwander J, Mulvaney R, Barmola JM, Chappellez J (2005): Atmospheric trends of the halon gases from polar firn air. Atmos Chem Phys Diskuss 5, 937–960Google Scholar
- Saito G, Shinohara H, Kazahaya K (2002): Successive sampling of fumarolic gases at Satsuma-Iwojima and Kuju volcanoes, southwest Japan: Evaluation of short-term variations and precision of the gas sampling and analytical techniques. Geochem J 36(1) 1–20Google Scholar
- Schwandner FM, Seward TM, Gize AP, Hall PA, Dietrich VJ (2004): Diffuse emission of organic trace gases from the flank and crater of a quiescent active volcano (Vulcano, Aeolian Islands, Italy). J Geophys Res 109, D04301 〈DOI: 10.1029/2003JD003890〉Google Scholar
- Thompson TM, Butler JH, Daube BC, Dutton GS, Elkins JW, Hall BD, Hurst DF, King DB, Kline ES, Lafleur BG, Lind J, Lovitz S, Mondeel DJ, Montzka SA, Moore FL, Nance JD, Neu JL, Romashkin PA, Scheffer A, Snible WJ (2004): 5. Halocarbons and other Atmospheric Trace Species. In: Schell RC, Buggle AM, Rosson RM, (eds), Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory, Summary Report No 27, 2002–2003, 115–133, NOAA CMDL, Boulder, COGoogle Scholar
- Wahrenberger CM (1997): Some Aspects of the chemistry of volcanic gases. PhD thesis, 233 pp, ETH ZuerichGoogle Scholar
- WMO (2003): Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2002, Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project — Report No 47. 498 pp, Geneva, 〈http://www.wmo.ch/web/arep/reports/o3_assess_rep_2002_front_page.html〉