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Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 12, Issue 1, pp 28–33 | Cite as

Surface Consolidation of Pentelic Marble: Criteria for the selection of methods and materials - The Acropolis case (6 pp)

  • Theodor Skoulikidis
  • Panayiota Vassiliou
  • Katerina Tsakona
Article

Abstract

Goal and Scope

In order to realize surface consolidation of Pentelic marble on the Acropolis monuments, we have collected the criteria that have to be fulfilled by the methods and materials without side effects on the marbles (and other stones). When the existing methods and materials did not satisfy the requirements (criteria), we invented new ones.

Methods

The criteria were collected from the literature, by thermodynamic and kinetic viewpoints, by laboratory experiments and in situ observations on monuments, both in Greece and in several countries in which the various methods and materials were applied. Concerning our method of ‘Inversion of sulfation’, performed by spraying a K2CO3 solution, its concentration and its temperature were controlled in order to have a total inversion (certified by liquid crystals) of gypsum back to CaCO3. For the new material of ours, ‘Reinforced Lime’, in order to eliminate the disadvantages of plain lime (low carbonation rate, low mechanical properties of CaCO3 formed, lack of carbonation in the bulk of lime), measurements of the rate of carbonation were performed in plain lime and in lime with a different CaCO3 concentration beforehand as well as in a different CO2 environments, using DTG and XRD to measure the rate of carbonation. The detachment (kg/cm2) of marble specimens stuck by lime in each case was also measured. A microscope was also used to measure the dimensions of the grain in each case as well as ammonium citrate and thymolphthalein to certify the depth of carbonation in each case. Part of the work was communicated in an international congress.

Results

A table with the criteria of the selection of the methods and materials for the consolidation of Pentelic marble surfaces (and other stones) was established. None of the employed methods and materials fulfilled the criteria. Only the ‘Inversion of gypsum ‘ and the ‘Reinforced Lime’ were adopted and applied to the Acropolis monuments and to other monuments in Greece and in several other countries.

Recommendation and Outlook

All criteria must be used for the selection of methods and materials for the consolidation of the monument surfaces. This is why we have already studied with the same procedures, methods and materials for restoration, surface cleaning and protection.

pentelic marble surface consolidation reinforced lime acropolis conservation of monuments inversion of sulfation marble 

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Copyright information

© Ecomed 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Theodor Skoulikidis
    • 1
  • Panayiota Vassiliou
    • 2
  • Katerina Tsakona
    • 3
  1. 1.Prof. Emer. Theodor Skoulikidis School of Chemical Engineering Materials Science National Technical University of Athens Iroon Polytechneiou 9 Athens, 15780 GREECE
  2. 2.Panayiota Vassiliou School of Chemical Engineering Materials Science National Technical University of Athens Iroon Polytechneiou 9 Athens, 15780 GREECE
  3. 3.Katerina Tsakona School of Chemical Engineering Materials Science National Technical University of Athens Iroon Polytechneiou 9 Athens, 15780 GREECE

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