Multidimensional risk analysis of antifouling biocides

  • Johannes RankeEmail author
  • Bernd Jastorff
Review Article


In order to improve the orientation about the long-term sustainability of the use of the antifouling biocides tributyltin (TBT), copper, Irgarol® 1051, Sea-Nine™ 211 and zinc pyrithione, used for the protection of fouling in sea-going ships, the risks posed to the marine biosphere due to their use are evaluated. The newly presented method of risk analysis uses release rate, spatiotemporal range, bioaccumulation, bioactivity and uncertainty as 5 dimensions of ecotoxicological risk. For each dimension, a scoring procedure is briefly described. The resulting risk profiles of the antifouling biocides show characteristics of the different substances, but also indicate where further information is required. Application of the method is proposed as a decision support in the integrated development of products, informed purchasing and for regulatory purposes.


Antifouling biocides copper fouling protection Irgarol 1051 risk analysis Sea-Nine 211 sustainable products tributyltin zinc pyrithione 



Equilibrium coefficient for the distribution of substances between water and sediment


Equilibrium coefficient for the distribution between water and organic matter


Concentration, where 50% of the tested organisms show a defined effect after a certain exposure time


No-observed-effect concentration


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Copyright information

© Ecomed Publishers 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.UFT — Centre for Environmental Research and Environmental TechnologyUniversity of BremenBremenGermany

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