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Micro-cyberwar vs. macro-cyberwar: towards the beginning of a taxonomy


This essay proposes and begins a taxonomy of cyberwar, with a fundamental dichotomy between micro-cyberwar, as in attacks on individual email and automobiles, and macro-cyberwar, defined as all-out attacks on the infra-structure of society, such as hospital systems and air-traffic control. Although both can be deadly, the scale of death and destruction is usually much greater in macro-cyberwar, and it would be useful for public figures to address this dichotomy when discussing cyberwar.

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Correspondence to Paul Levinson.

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Levinson, P. Micro-cyberwar vs. macro-cyberwar: towards the beginning of a taxonomy. Digi War 1, 171–172 (2020).

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  • Hacking
  • Email
  • Automobiles
  • Espionage
  • Cybercrime
  • Warfare