Advertisement

Connected in freedom? Reconstructing a foundational value in EU and US foreign policy discourses

  • Ville SinkkonenEmail author
  • Henri Vogt
Original Article

Abstract

The ideal of freedom has historically instituted the Transatlantic Community of Values spanning the USA and Europe. Given the framework of liberal crises that currently dominates Western mental maps, it is crucial to contemplate what has happened to this legacy of freedom and, consequently, to the very foundations of this value community. To achieve this, we draw on the theoretical debates on freedom to construct a novel conceptual framework of the potential uses of the notion in political discourses. This scaffold is then utilised as a tool to analyse, and ultimately compare, the employment of freedom in a selection of documents produced by the leaderships of the EU and the USA since the turn of the millennium.

Keywords

Freedom Transatlantic relations Liberal world order European Union USA Non-domination 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank discussant Torbjørn Knutsen and the participants of the panel ‘Uncovering the West in Crisis’ at the 59th ISA Annual Convention for valuable comments on an earlier draft of this paper. Juha Käpylä, Manuel Fröhlich and the two excellent reviewers of the JTS warrant special mention for commenting on earlier versions of the article. We are also grateful to Anu Ruokamo for her research assistance. Henri Vogt’s research has been supported by the project ‘Participation in Long-Term Decision-Making’ (312671), funded by the Strategic Research Council of the Academy of Finland (www.palosearch.fi).

References

  1. 1.
    Berlin, Isaiah. 1969. Four Essays on Liberty. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Pettit, Philip. 1996. Freedom as Antipower. Ethics 106(3): 576–604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lagerspetz, Eerik. 1998. Seitsemän vapauskäsitystä: Isaiah Berlinin ‘positiivisen’ ja ‘negatiivisen’ vapauden kritiikki. Politiikka 40(2): 87–104.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Skinner, Quentin. 2002. Visions of Politics, Volume 2: Renaissance Virtues. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kioupkiolis, Alexandros. 2009. Three Paradigms of Modern Freedom. European Journal of Political Theory 8(4): 473–491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Podoksik, Efraim. 2010. One Concept of Liberty: Towards Writing the History of a Political Concept. Journal of the History of Ideas 71(2): 219–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Spector, Horacio. 2010. Four Conceptions of Freedom. Political Theory 38(6): 780–808.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dowding, Keith. 1992. Choice: Its Increase and Its Value. British Journal of Political Science 22(3): 301–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Skinner, Quentin. 2002. A Third Concept of Liberty. Proceedings of the British Academy 117: 237–268.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mahbubani, Kishore. 2018. Has the West Lost It? A Provocation. London: Penguin.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wallace, William. 2016. Are Values Diverging Across the Atlantic? European Foreign Affairs Review 21(3): 355–364.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Honneth, Axel. 2011. Das Recht der Freiheit. Grundriss einer demokratischen Sittlichkeit. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Vogt, Henri. 2005. Between Utopia and Disillusionment. A Narrative of the Political Transformation in Eastern Europe, chap. 5. Oxford: Berghahn Books.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Berglund, Sten, Joakim Ekman, Henri Vogt, and Frank Aarebrot. 2006. The Making of the European Union. Foundations, Institutions and Future Trends. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Manners, Ian. 2008. The Normative Ethics of the European Union. International Affairs 84(1): 49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Solana, Javier. 2005. Speech by Javier Solana, EU High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy, Inauguration of the Academic Year 2005–2006. https://www.coleurope.eu/speeches#nid1811. Accessed 21 March 2018.
  17. 17.
    Tusk, Donald. 2017. Speech by President Donald Tusk at the Ceremony of the 60th Anniversary of the Treaties of Rome. https://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/press/press-releases/2017/03/25/tusk-ceremony-rome-speech/. Accessed 21 March 2018.
  18. 18.
    Borg, Stefan. 2014. European Integration and the Problem of the State: Universality, Particularity, and Exemplarity in the Crafting of the European Union. Journal of International Relations and Development 17(3): 339–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Van Rompuy, Herman. 2012. Speech by Herman Van Rompuy, President of the European Council at the Stockholm School of Economics. http://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cms_Data/docs/pressdata/en/ec/130057.pdf. Accessed 21 March 2018.
  20. 20.
    Ashton, Catherine. 2011. Speech on Main Aspects and Basic Choices of the Common Foreign and Security Policy and the Common Security and Defence policy. http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_SPEECH-11-326_en.htm. Accessed 19 March 2018.
  21. 21.
    European Commission. 2011. A New Response to a Changing Neighbourhood: A Review of European Neighbourhood Policy’, European Commission, 3–4. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:52011DC0303&from=EN. Accessed 8 June 2018.
  22. 22.
    Van Rompuy, Herman. 2014. Looking Back, Looking Forward: Speech at the Conference “Dove va l’Europa”—“The State of the Union”. https://www.consilium.europa.eu/media/21280/145686.pdf. Accessed 21 March 2018.
  23. 23.
    European Union. 2017. The New European Consensus on Development: “Our World, Our Dignity, Our Future”, European Commission, §4. https://ec.europa.eu/europeaid/policies/european-development-policy/european-consensus-development_en. Accessed 21 March 2018.
  24. 24.
    European Union. 2016. Shared Vision, Common Action: A Stronger Europe: A Global Strategy for the European Union’s Foreign and Security Policy, European Union External Action Service, 7. https://eeas.europa.eu/archives/docs/top_stories/pdf/eugs_review_web.pdf. Accessed 21 March 2018.
  25. 25.
    Tusk, Donald. 2017. Address by President Donald Tusk at the 72nd United Nations General Assembly. http://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/press/press-releases/2017/09/20/tusk-speech-un-general-assembly/. Accessed 21 March 2018.
  26. 26.
    Mogherini, Federica. 2017. Speech by High Representative/Vice-President Federica Mogherini. https://eeas.europa.eu/headquarters/headquarters-homepage/31635/speech-high-representativevice-president-federica-mogherini-2017-bled-strategic-forum_en. Accessed 21 March 2018.
  27. 27.
    Juncos, Ana E. 2017. Resilience as the New EU Foreign Policy Paradigm: A Pragmatist Turn? European Security 26(1): 8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Mckeown, Anthony, and John Glenn. 2017. The Rise of Resilience after the Financial Crises: A Case of Neoliberalism Rebooted? Review of International Studies 44(2): 193–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bourbeau, Philippe, and Ryan Caitlin. 2018. Resilience, Resistance, Infrapolitics and Enmeshment. European Journal of International Relations 24(1): 221–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Levy, Daniel, Max Pensky, and John Torpey (eds.). 2005. Old Europe, New Europe, Core Europe: Transatlantic Relations after the Iraq War. London: Verso.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Larsen, Henrik. 2003. The EU: A Global Military Actor? Cooperation and Conflict 37(3): 283–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Solana, Javier. 2009. Speech by Javier Solana EU High Representative for the CFSP: Europe in the World. http://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cms_Data/docs/pressdata/en/discours/110218.pdf. Accessed 21 March 2018.
  33. 33.
    Ashton, Catherine. 2014. Catherine Ashton Speech on EU Foreign and Security Policy to the European Parliament. http://eeas.europa.eu/top_stories/2014/040414_ep_ashton_speech_en.htm. Accessed 20 March 2018.
  34. 34.
    Myrdal, Gunnar. 1964. An American Dilemma, vol. 1, 4. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Wilson, Woodrow. 1917. Wilson’s War Message to Congress. https://wwi.lib.byu.edu/index.php/Wilson%27s_War_Message_to_Congress. Accessed 14 June 2018.
  36. 36.
    Ikenberry, G. John. 2015. Liberal Internationalism 3.0: America and the Dilemmas of Liberal World Order. Perspectives on Politics 7(1): 76.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Reagan, Ronald. 1986. Remarks at a Dinner for Former Members of the Office of Strategic Services. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=37367. Accessed 14 June 2018.
  38. 38.
    Albright, Madeleine K. 1998. Albright Interview on NBC-TV: “The Today Show”. https://1997-2001.state.gov/www/statements/1998/980219a.html. Accessed 14 June 2018.
  39. 39.
    Kupchan, Charles A. 2018. The Clash of Exceptionalisms: A New Fight over an Old Idea. Foreign Affairs 97(2): 139–148.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Cha, Taesuh. 2015. American Exceptionalism at the Crossroads: Three Responses. Political Studies Review 13(3): 351–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Brands, Hal. 2018. Choosing Primacy: U.S. Strategy and Global Order at the Dawn of the Post-Cold War Era. Texas National Security Review 1(2): 8–33.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Hamilton, Daniel S. 2016. The Domestic Setting of American Approaches to Europe. In The West and the Global Power Shift, ed. Riccardo Alcaro, John Peterson, and Ettore Greco, 135. London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Bush, George W. 2001. President George W. Bush’s Inaugural Address. https://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/inaugural-address.html. Accessed 21 March 2018.
  44. 44.
    Bush, George W. 1999. A Distinctly American Internationalism. https://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/bush/wspeech.htm. Accessed 14 June 2018.
  45. 45.
  46. 46.
    Obama, Barack. 2009. Remarks by the President to the United Nations General Assembly. https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/the-press-office/remarks-president-united-nations-general-assembly. Accessed 14 June 2018.
  47. 47.
    Trump, Donald J. 2017. The Inaugural Address. https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefings-statements/the-inaugural-address/. Accessed 13 March 2018.
  48. 48.
    White House. 2018. Fact Sheets: President Donald J. Trump’s Foreign Policy Puts America First. https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefings-statements/president-donald-j-trumps-foreign-policy-puts-america-first/. Accessed 13 March 2018.
  49. 49.
    Trump, Donald J. 2017. Remarks by President Trump to the 72nd Session of the United Nations General Assembly. https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefings-statements/remarks-president-trump-72nd-session-united-nations-general-assembly/. Accessed 16 March 2018.
  50. 50.
    White House. 2015. The National Security Strategy of the United States of America’, NSS Archive. http://nssarchive.us/national-security-strategy-2015/. Accessed 21 March 2018.
  51. 51.
    Trump, Donald J. 2017. Remarks by President Trump to the People of Poland. https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefings-statements/remarks-president-trump-people-poland/. Accessed 16 March 2018.
  52. 52.
    Maier, Charles S. 1977. The Politics of Productivity: Foundations of American International Economic Policy after World War II. International Organization 31(4): 630–631.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Lilla, Mark. 2017. The Once, and Future LiberalAfter Identity Politics. New York: HarperCollins.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Daalder, Ivo H., and James M. Lindsay. 2003. America Unbound: The Bush Revolution in Foreign Policy, 12–13. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Brown, Chris. 2004. Do Great Powers Have Great Responsibilities? Great Powers and Moral Agency. Global Society 18(1): 11, 13–14.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Hassan, Oz. 2008. Bush’s Freedom Agenda: Ideology and the Democratization of the Middle East. Democracy and Security 4(3): 271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Reus-Smit, Christian. 2004. American Power and World Order, 52–53. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Smith, Tony. 2009. In Wilsonianism after Iraq: The End of Liberal Internationalism. In The Crisis of American Foreign Policy: Wilsonianism in the Twenty-First Century, ed. G. John Ikenberry, Thomas J. Knock, Anne-Marie Slaughter, and Tony Smith, 53–88. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    White House. 2002. The National Security Strategy of the United States of America’, NSS Archive. http://nssarchive.us/NSSR/2002.pdf. Accessed 21 March 2018.
  60. 60.
    Krauthammer, Charles. Winter 2002/03. The Unipolar Moment Revisited. The National Interest 70: 5–18.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    US Department of State. 2008. Institutionalizing the Freedom Agenda: President Bush Calls on Future Presidents and Congresses to Continue Leading the Cause of Freedom Worldwide, US Department of State Archive. https://2001-2009.state.gov/r/pa/prs/ps/2008/oct/110871.htm. Accessed 14 June 2018.
  62. 62.
    Rice, Condoleezza. 2005. Remarks at the American University in Cairo. https://2001-2009.state.gov/secretary/rm/2005/48328.htm. Accessed 14 June 2018.
  63. 63.
    Alessandri, Emiliano, Oz Hassan and Ted Reinert. 2015. ‘U.S. Democracy Promotion from Bush to Obama. EUSpring Working Paper no. 1. https://warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/pais/research/researchcentres/irs/euspring/publications. Accessed 14 June 2018.
  64. 64.
    Hassan, Oz. 2013. Constructing America’s Freedom Agenda for the Middle East: Democracy and Domination, 143. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Obama, Barack. 2009. Remarks by the President at Cairo University. https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/the-press-office/remarks-president-cairo-university-6-04-09. Accessed 14 June 2018.
  66. 66.
    US Department of State. 2010. Quadrennial Diplomacy and Development Review (QDDR): Leading through Civilian Power. https://2009-2017.state.gov/documents/organization/153108.pdf. Accessed 14 June 2018, 21.
  67. 67.
    Obama, Barack. 2011. Remarks by the President on the Middle East and North Africa. https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/the-press-office/2011/05/19/remarks-president-middle-east-and-north-africa. Accessed 15 June 2018.
  68. 68.
    Obama, Barack. 2013. Remarks by President Obama at the Brandenburg Gate. https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/the-press-office/2013/06/19/remarks-president-obama-brandenburg-gate-berlin-germany. Accessed 13 March 2018.
  69. 69.
    White House. 2017. National Security Strategy of the United States of America. https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/NSS-Final-12-18-2017-0905-2.pdf. Accessed 13 March 2018, 41.
  70. 70.
    Pence, Michael R. 2018. Remarks by Vice President Pence at the National Religious Broadcasters’ Annual Convention. https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefings-statements/remarks-vice-president-pence-national-religious-broadcasters-annual-convention/. Accessed 15 June 2018.
  71. 71.
    Margon, Sarah. 2018. Giving up the High Ground: America’s Retreat on Human Rights. Foreign Affairs 97(2): 39–45.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Tillerson, Rex W. 2017. Remarks to U.S. Department of State Employees. https://www.state.gov/secretary/20172018tillerson/remarks/2017/05/270620.htm. Accessed 20 Nov 2018.
  73. 73.
    Bush, George W. 2002. President Bush Delivers Graduation Speech at West Point. https://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2002/06/20020601-3.html. Accessed 15 June 2018.
  74. 74.
    Bush, George W. 2006. State of the Union Address by the President. https://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/stateoftheunion/2006/. Accessed 16 March 2018.
  75. 75.
    Kennedy, Caroline. 2013. The Manichean Temptation: Moralising Rhetoric and the Invocation of Evil in US Foreign Policy. International Politics 50(5): 623–638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Bush, George W. 2001. President Bush Speaks to United Nations. https://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2001/11/20011110-3.html. Accessed 15 June 2018.
  77. 77.
    Bush, George W. 2006. President’s Address to the Nation. https://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2006/09/20060911-3.html. Accessed 16 March 2018.
  78. 78.
    Huntington, Samuel P. 2002. The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order. London: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Bush, George W. 2006. President Bush Addresses United Nations General Assembly. https://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2006/09/20060919-4.html. Accessed 13 March 2018.
  80. 80.
    Trump, Donald J. 2017. Statement by President Trump on Syria. https://uk.usembassy.gov/statement-president-trump-syria/. Accessed 15 June 2018.
  81. 81.
    Wike, Richard. 2016. 5 ways Americans and Europeans are different. Pew Research Center. http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2016/04/19/5-ways-americans-and-europeans-are-different/.
  82. 82.
    Waltz, Kenneth N. 2001. Man, the State, and War: A Theoretical Analysis, revised ed. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Editor of the Journal 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Finnish Institute of International AffairsHelsinkiFinland
  2. 2.University of TurkuTurkuFinland

Personalised recommendations