Emerging market governments are incented to attract global value chain (GVC) activities to fuel economic growth. At the same time, in light of real and perceived workplace-related injustices within emerging markets, GVC lead firms are under pressure to improve social standard compliance within their upstream supply chain. Among the most common approaches to achieve these outcomes is to impose standards of conduct that are vetted by on-site audits. Research has shown, however, that improvement in GVC performance using this approach has been slow and sometimes leads to negative consequences, leading us to our research question: under what conditions do interventions by GVC lead firms yield significant improvements in social standards among upstream supplier workplaces? We hypothesize that a country’s institutions not only have direct effects on social upgrading but also indirectly affect the ability of third parties to bring about social compliance. Our findings, based on two longitudinal datasets, suggest that GVC lead firms must account for the unique country-level institutional pressures that either propel or hamper improvement over time in private social standard compliance among upstream suppliers. In addition, governments must develop new policy responses to target the prevailing institutional pressures that dampen social upgrading if they are to attract and retain GVC investment.
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We thank the editor, Roberta Rabellotti, three anonymous referees, and participants at the Academy of International Business chapter conference in Toronto, Canada (2019) for their valuable insights, comments, and suggestions.
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Accepted by Roberta Rabellotti, Guest Editor, 20 June 2020. This article has been with the authors for two revisions.
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Goerzen, A., Iskander, S.P. & Hofstetter, J. The effect of institutional pressures on business-led interventions to improve social compliance among emerging market suppliers in global value chains. J Int Bus Policy 4, 347–367 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1057/s42214-020-00064-8
- global value chains
- convention theory
- social upgrading
- institutional environment
- MNEs and economic development
- non-governmental organizations
- institutional economics
- structural equation modeling
- multilevel analysis
- growth curve modeling
- mediation modeling