This paper considers migrants on a continuum in terms of voluntariness of departure and intended timeframe in the new location. The corresponding 2 × 2 framework offers a theory-driven typology with which to consider four groups: exiles, sojourners, immigrants, and refugees. We apply the framework to the topic of migrant entrepreneurship, demonstrating the need for separate consideration of refugee and immigrant entrepreneurs. We propose ways in which types of capital differ between the two and discuss how differences affect entrepreneurial endeavors. The framework extends scholarship on migrant entrepreneurship, while providing a nomological net for improved theorizing for a range of migrant situations.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Acs, Z., Estrin, S., Mickiewicz, T. M., & Szerb, L. 2018. Entrepreneurship, institutional economics and economic growth: A systems perspective. Academy of Management Proceedings, 2018 (1): 12774.
Adler, P. S., & Kwon, S. W. 2002. Social capital: Prospects for a new concept. Academy of Management Review, 27(1): 17–40.
Arora, M. 2019. Immigrant opposition in a changing national demographic. Political Research Quarterly, 1065912919827107.
Bahar, D., & Rapoport, H. 2018. Migration, knowledge diffusion and the comparative advantage of nations. The Economic Journal, 128(612): F273–F305.
Baker, T., & Nelson, R. E. 2005. Creating something from nothing: Resource construction through entrepreneurial bricolage. Administrative Science Quarterly, 50(3): 329–366.
Bakker, L., Dagevos, J., & Engbersen, G. 2017. Explaining the refugee gap: A longitudinal study on labour market participation of refugees in the Netherlands. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 43(11): 1775–1791.
Baklanov, N., Rezaei, S., Vang, J., & Dana, L.-P. 2014. Migrant entrepreneurship, economic activity and export performance: mapping the Danish trends. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 23(1–2): 63–93.
Baran, G. 2018. Design-led approach to entrepreneurship. International Journal of Contemporary Management, 17(4): 7–26.
Barney, J. 1991. Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Journal of Management, 17(1): 99–120.
Bauer, T., Epstein, G. S., & Gang, I. N. 2005. Enclaves, language, and the location choice of migrants. Journal of Population Economics, 18(4): 649–662.
Beaman, L. 2012. Social networks and the dynamics of labour market outcomes: Evidence from refugees resettled in the U.S. http://restud.oxfordjournals.org/content/79/1/128.full.pdf+html
Becker, G. S. 1964. Human capital theory. New York: Columbia.
Bemak, F., Chung, R. C. Y., & Pedersen, P. 2003. Counseling refugees: A psychosocial approach to innovative multicultural interventions, Vol. 40. Westport, CT: Greenwood.
Bemak, F., & Chung, R. C. Y. 2008. New professional roles and advocacy strategies for school counselors: A multicultural/social justice perspective to move beyond the nice counselor syndrome. Journal of Counseling & Development, 86(3): 372–381.
Bemak, F., & Chung, R. C. Y. 2014. Immigrants and refugees. In APA handbook of multicultural psychology, Vol. 1: 503–517. Washington, D.C.: APA.
Bernard, W. S. 1976. Immigrants and refugees: Their similarities, differences, and needs. International Migration, 14 (4): 267–280.
Berry, J. W. 2009. A critique of critical acculturation. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 33(5): 361–371.
Berry, J. W., & Sam. D. 1996. Acculturation and adaptation. In J. W. Berry, M. H. Segall, & C. Kagitcibasi (Eds), Handbook of cross-cultural psychology. Vol. 3. Social behavior and applications. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Berry, J. W., & Sam, D. L. (Eds). 2016. The Cambridge handbook of acculturation psychology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bhave, M. P. 1994. A process model of entrepreneurial venture creation. Journal of Business Venturing, 9(3): 223–242.
Bizri, R. M. 2017. Refugee-entrepreneurship: A social capital perspective. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 29(9–10): 847–868.
Bjørnskov, C., & Foss, N. J. 2016. Institutions, entrepreneurship, and economic growth: What do we know and what do we still need to know? Academy of Management Perspectives, 30(3): 292–315.
Black, R. 2001. Fifty years of refugee studies: From theory to policy. International Migration Review, 35(1): 57–78.
Bonacich, E., & Modell, J. 1980. The economic basis of ethnic solidarity: Small business in the Japanese American community. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Brown, A., & Scribner, T. 2014. Unfulfilled promises, future possibilities: The refugee resettlement system in the United States. Journal on Migration & Human Security, 2: 101.
Brun, C. 2015. Active waiting and changing hopes: Toward a time perspective on protracted displacement. Social Analysis, 59(1): 19–37.
Brun, C. 2016. There is no future in humanitarianism: Emergency, temporality and protracted displacement. History and Anthropology 27(4): 393–410.
Brun, C., & Fábos, A. 2015. Making homes in limbo? A conceptual framework. Refuge: Canada’s Journal on Refugees, 31(1): 5–17.
Burns, B. L., Barney, J. B., Angus, R. W., & Herrick, H. N. 2016. Enrolling stakeholders under conditions of risk and uncertainty. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 10(1): 97–106.
Burt, R. S. 1992. Structural holes: The structure of social capital competition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Burt, R. S. 1997. The contingent value of social capital. Administrative Science Quarterly, 42: 339–365.
Burt, R. S. 2005. Brokerage and closure: An introduction to social capital. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Casas-Cortes, M., Cobarrubias, S., & Pickles, J. 2013. Re-bordering the neighbourhood: Europe’s emerging geographies of non-accession integration. European Urban and Regional Studies, 20(1): 37–58.
Castelli, F. 2018. Drivers of migration: Why do people move? Journal of Travel Medicine, 25(1): 040.
Chiswick, B. R., & Miller, P. W. 2008. Why is the payoff to schooling smaller for immigrants? Labour Economics, 15(6): 1317–1340.
Choudhury, P., Hernandez, E., Kulchina, E., & Wang, D. 2019. Call for papers: Wharton conference on migration, organizations, and management. https://oowsection.org/2019/01/15/call-for-papers-wharton-conference-on-migration-organizations-and-management/. Accessed 28 June 2019.
Coleman J. S. 1990. Foundations of social theory. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Collins, J. 2003. Cultural diversity and entrepreneurship: Policy responses to immigrant entrepreneurs in Australia. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 15(2): 137–149.
Collins, D., Morduch, J., Rutherford, S., & Ruthven, O. 2010. Portfolios of the poor: how the world’s poor live on $2 a day. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Connor, P. 2016. International migration: Key findings from the U.S., Europe, and the world. https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2016/12/15/international-migration-key-findings-from-the-u-s-europe-and-the-world/. Accessed 17 June 2019
Coopers, M., & Lybrand, B. 1994. TAFE NSW: Training practices and preferences of small businesses in Australia: A report for vocational education and training providers. Sydney: Coopers & Lybrand Inc.
Cortes, K. E. 2004. Are refugees different from economic immigrants? Some empirical evidence on the heterogeneity of immigrant groups in the United States. Review of Economics and Statistics, 86(2): 465–480.
Crawley, H., & Skleparis, D. 2018. Refugees, migrants, neither both: categorical fetishism and the politics of bounding in Europe’s ‘migration crisis.’ Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 44(1): 48–64.
Cronbach, L. J., & Meehl, P. E. 1955. Construct validity in psychological tests. Psychological Bulletin, 52(4): 281.
Damm, A. P. 2014. Neighborhood quality and labor market outcomes: Evidence from quasi random neighborhood assignment of immigrants. Journal of Urban Economics, 79 (1): 139–166.
Deeds, D., Barnard, H., & Vaaler, P. 2018. Call for papers: Migrants, migration policies, and International Business research: Current trends and new directions. https://globaledge.msu.edu/academy/announcements/call-for-papers/64964. Accessed 28 June 2019.
De Genova, N. 2002. Migrant “illegality” and deportability in everyday life. Annual Review of Anthropology, 31(1): 419–447.
De Genova, N. 2013. Spectacles of migrant ‘illegality’: The scene of exclusion, the obscene of inclusion. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 36(7): 1180–1198.
Desiderio, M. V. 2014. Policies to support immigrant entrepreneurship. Washington, DC: Migration Policy Institute and Transatlantic Council on Migration.
Duany, J. 2017. Cuban migration: A post revolution exodus, ebb, and flow. Report issued by Migration Policy Institute.
Edwards, A. 2015. UNHCR viewpoint: ‘Refugee’ or ‘migrant’. https://www.unhcr.org/en-us/news/latest/2016/7/55df0e556/unhcr-viewpoint-refugee-migrant-right.html.Accessed 8 October 2019.
Eggenhofer-Rehart, P. M., Latzke, M., Pernkopf, K., Zellhofer, D., Mayrhofer, W., & Steyrer, J. 2018. Refugees’ career capital welcome? Afghan and Syrian refugee job seekers in Austria. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 105: 31–45.
Esses, V. M., Hamilton, L. K., & Gaucher, D. 2017. The global refugee crisis: Empirical evidence and policy implications for improving public attitudes and facilitating refugee resettlement. Social Issues and Policy Review, 11(1): 78–123.
“Exile.” 2019. In Merriam-Webster.com. https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/. Accessed 8 October 2019.
Finaccord. 2018. Global expatriates: Size, segmentation and forecast for the worldwide market. Report prospectus.http://www.finaccord.com/BlankSite/media/Catalog/Prospectus/report_prospectus_APG_GEP.pdf. Accessed 8 October 2019.
Fong, R., Busch, N. B., Armour, M., Heffron, L. C., & Chanmugam, A. 2007. Pathways to self-sufficiency: Successful entrepreneurship for refugees. Journal of Ethnic & Cultural Diversity in Social Work, 16(1–2): 127–159.
George, M. 2010. A theoretical understanding of refugee trauma. Clinical Social Work Journal, 38(4): 379–387.
Godfrey, P. 2014. More than money: Five forms of capital to create wealth and eliminate poverty. Redwood: Stanford University Press.
Gold, S. J. 1988. Refugees and small business: The case of Soviet Jews and Vietnamese. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 11(4): 411–438.
Gold, S. J. 1992. Refugee communities: A comparative field study. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Granovetter, M. S. 1973. The strength of weak ties. The American Journal of Sociology, 78(6): 1360–1380.
Granovetter, M. 1985. Economic action and social structure: The problem of embeddedness. American Journal of Sociology, 91(3): 481–510.
Griffiths, M. B. 2014. Out of time: The temporal uncertainties of refused asylum seekers and immigration detainees. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 40(12): 1991–2009.
Hailbronner, K. 1988. Nonrefoulement and “humanitarian” refugees: Customary international law or wishful legal thinking? In The new exiles: refugee law in the 1980s: 123–158. Dordrecht: Springer.
Harima, A, Haimour, M., & Freiling, J. 2019. Umayyad: A Syrian refugee business in Bremen, Germany. In S. Heilbrunn, J. Freiling, & A. Harima (Ed.), Refugee entrepreneurship: A case-based topography. Berlin: Springer.
Hartman, C., & Schilling, K. 2019. Cham Saar: The first Syrian-German cheese manufacturer. In S. Heilbrunn, J. Freiling, & A. Harima (Eds), Refugee entrepreneurship: A case-based topography. Cham: Springer.
Hauff, E., & Vaglum, P. 1993. Integration of Vietnamese Refugees into the Norwegian labor market: The impact of war trauma. International Migration Review, 27(2): 388–405.
Heilbrunn, S., Freiling, J., & Harima, A. 2019. Refugee entrepreneurship: A case-based topography. New York: Springer.
Hollifield, M., Warner, T. D., Lian, N., Krakow, B., Jenkins, J. H., Kesler, J., & Westermeyer, J. 2002. Measuring trauma and health status in refugees: A critical review. JAMA, 288(5): 611–621.
Horst, C., & Grabska, K. 2015. Introduction: Flight and exile—Uncertainty in the context of conflict-induced displacement. Social Analysis, 59(1): 1–18.
Hudson, D., & Martenson, H. 2001. Good practice guide on the integration of refugees in the European Union: Employment. London: ECRE Task Force on Integration.
Hugo, G. J. 1981. Village-community ties village norms and ethnic and social networks: A review of evidence from the third world. New York: Pergamon.
Hurh, W. M., & Kim, K. C. 1984. Adhesive sociocultural adaptation of Korean immigrants in the US: An alternative strategy of minority adaptation. International Migration Review, 18(2): 188–216.
International Organization of Migration (IOM). 2015. World migration report 2015. https://www.iom.int/world-migration-report-2015. Accessed 15 January 2019.
International Organization of Migration (IOM). 2019a. Who is a migrant? https://www.iom.int/who-is-a-migrant. Accessed 13 Nov 2019.
International Organization of Migration (IOM). 2019b. Migration data portal. https://migrationdataportal.org/. Accessed 13 Nov 2019.
International Rescue Committee (IRC). 2019. Migrants, exiles, refugees and immigrants: What’s the difference? https://www.rescue.org/article/migrants-asylum-seekers-refugees-and-immigrants-whats-difference. Accessed 15 January 2019.
Jacobsen, K. 2005. The economic life of refugees. Bloomfield: Kumarian.
Jacobsen, K. 2006. Refugees and asylum seekers in urban areas: A livelihoods perspective. Journal of Refugee Studies, 19(3): 273–286.
Jacobsen, K., Segal, U. A., & Elliott, D. 2012. Refugees and poverty. In U. A. Segal, & D. Elliott (Eds) Refugees Worldwide: A Global Perspective, pp. 91–112. New York: Praeger.
Kalnins, A., & Chung, W. 2006. Social capital, geography, and survival: Gujarati immigrant entrepreneurs in the US lodging industry. Management Science, 52(2): 233–247.
Kauffman Foundation. 2018. Kauffman compilations: Research on immigration and entrepreneurship. https://www.kauffman.org/-/media/kauffman_org/resources/2016/kauffman_compilation_immigration_entrepreneurship.pdf. Accessed 21 June 2019.
Kermond, C. L., Luscombe, K. E., Strahan, K. W., & Williams, A. J. 1991. Immigrant women entrepreneurs in Australia. Centre for Multicultural Studies Working Papers. https://ro.uow.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=https://www.google.com/&httpsredir=1&article=1011&context=cmsworkpapers. Accessed 8 October 2019.
Kerr, W. R. 2008. Ethnic scientific communities and international technology diffusion. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 90(3): 518–537.
Kerr, S. P, & Kerr, W. R. 2019. Immigrant networking and collaboration: Survey evidence from CIC. NBER Working Papers 25509, National Bureau of Economic Research Inc.
Keyes, E. F. 2000. Mental health status in refugees: An integrative review of current research. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 21(4): 397–410.
Khanna, T., & Palepu, K. G. 2005. Spotting institutional voids in emerging markets. Harvard Business School Background Note 106-014, August 2005..
Khawaja, M. 2003. Migration and the reproduction of poverty: The refugee camps in Jordan. International Migrations, 41(2): 27–57.
Khoury, T. A., & Prasad, A. 2016. Entrepreneurship amid concurrent institutional constraints in less developed countries. Business & Society, 55(7): 934–969.
Kloosterman, R. C. 2010. Matching opportunities with resources: A framework for analysing (migrant) entrepreneurship from a mixed embeddedness perspective. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 22(1): 25–45.
Kloosterman, R., Van der Leun, J., & Rath, J. 1998. Across the border: Immigrants’ economic opportunities, social capital and informal business activities. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 24(2): 249–268.
Kloosterman, R., Van Der Leun, J., & Rath, J. 1999. Mixed embeddedness:(in) formal economic activities and immigrant businesses in the Netherlands. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 23(2): 252–266.
Kloosterman, R., & Rath, J. 2001. Immigrant entrepreneurs in advanced economies: mixed embeddedness further explored. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 27(2): 189–201.
Kontos, M. 2003. Self-employment policies and migrants’ entrepreneurship in Germany. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 15(2): 119–135.
Khoury, T. A., & Prasad, A. 2016. Entrepreneurship amid concurrent institutional constraints in less developed countries. Business & Society, 55(7): 934–969.
Kunz, E. F. 1973. The refugee in flight: Kinetic models and forms of displacement. International Migration Review, 7(2): 125–146.
Kunz, E. F. 1981. Part II: The analytic framework: Exile and resettlement: Refugee theory. International Migration Review, 15(1–2): 42–51.
Kim, K. C., Warner, R. S., & Kwon, H. Y. 2001. Korean Americans and their religions: Pilgrims and missionaries from a different shore. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.
Kolb, J. 2019. “Our table:” Between activism and business in Dublin Ireland. In S. Heilbrunn, J. Freiling, & A. Harima (Eds), Refugee entrepreneurship: A case-based topography. Springer.
Lanivich, S. E. 2015. The RICH entrepreneur: Using conservation of resources theory in contexts of uncertainty. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 39(4): 863–894.
Larson, A., & Starr, J. A. 1993. A network model of organization formation. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 17(2): 5–15.
Leblang, D. 2010. The supply of foreign aid and the demand for asylum. In AidData Conference. Oxford.
Lee S., O’Neill, A., Ihara, E., & Chae, D. 2013. Change in self-reported health status among immigrants in the United States: Associations with measures of acculturation. PLoS ONE 8(10): e76494
Leong, F. T., Comas-Díaz, L. E., Nagayama Hall, G. C., McLoyd, V. C., & Trimble, J. E. 2014. In APA handbook of multicultural psychology, Vol. 1: Theory and research. American Psychological Association.
Light, I. H., & Dana, L. P. 2013. Boundaries of social capital in entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 37(3): 603–624.
Light, I. H., & Paden, J. N. 1973. Ethnic enterprise in America: Business and welfare among Chinese, Japanese, and Blacks. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Lissoni, F. 2018. International migration and innovation diffusion: An eclectic survey. Regional Studies, 52(5): 702–714.
Lundan, S. M. 2018. From the editor: Engaging international business scholars with public policy issues. Journal of International Business and Policy 2: 111–118.
Lyon, F., Sepulveda, L., & Syrett, S. 2007. Enterprising refugees: Contributions and challenges in deprived urban areas. Local Economy, 22(4): 362–375.
Mair, J., & Marti, I. 2009. Entrepreneurship in and around institutional voids: A case study from Bangladesh. Journal of Business Venturing, 24(5): 419–435.
Malkki, L. H. 1995. Refugees and exile: From “refugee studies” to the national order of things. Annual Review of Anthropology, 24(1): 495–523.
Martinez, C., Cummings, M. E., & Vaaler, P. M. 2015. Economic informality and the venture funding impact of migrant remittances to developing countries. Journal of Business Venturing, 30(4): 526–545.
Miller, D., Steier, L., & Le Breton–Miller, I. 2016. What can scholars of entrepreneurship learn from sound family businesses? Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 40(3): 445–455.
Mollica, R. F., Wyshak, G., & Lavelle, J. 1987. The psychosocial impact of war trauma and torture on Southeast Asian refugees. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 144(12): 1567–1572.
Moroz, P. W., & Hindle, K. 2011. Entrepreneurship as a process: Toward harmonizing different perspectives. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 22 (1): 71–104.
Myers, N., & Kent, J. 1995. Environmental exodus: An emergent crisis in the global arena. Washington, DC: The Climate Institute.
Naudé, W., Siegel, M., & Marchand, K. 2017. Migration, entrepreneurship and development: Critical questions. IZA Journal of Migration, 6(1): 5.
Niedomysl, T. 2011. How migration motives change over migration distance: Evidence on variation across socio-economic and demographic groups. Regional Studies, 45(6): 843–855.
North, D. 1990. Institutions, institutional change and economic performance. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge Books.
Nunez, A. 2018. Immigration 101: What is asylum? America’s voice. https://americasvoice.org/blog/immigration-101-asylum/. Accessed 15 January 2019.
Palloni, A., Massey, D. S., Ceballos, M., Espinosa, K., & Spittel, M. 2001. Social capital and international migration: A test using information on family networks. American Journal of Sociology, 106(5): 1262–1298.
Park, J., & Buechner, J. S. 1997. Race, ethnicity, and access to health care, Rhode Island, 1990. Journal of Health & Social Policy, 9(1): 1–14.
Patachhini, E., & Zenou, Y. 2012. Ethnic networks and employment outcomes. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0166046212000075. Accessed 8 October 2019.
Peri, G., & Sparber, C. 2009. Task specialization, immigration, and wages. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 1(3): 135–169.
People and the Planet. 2019. http://www.peopleandtheplanet.com/index.html@lid=25990§ion=33&topic=44.html. Accessed 28 June 2019.
Portes, A. (Ed.). 1995. The economic sociology of immigration: Essays on networks, ethnicity, and entrepreneurship. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Portes, A., Guarnizo, L. E., & Haller, W. J. 2002. Transnational entrepreneurs: An alternative form of immigrant economic adaptation. American Sociological Review, 67: 278–298.
Portes, A., & Jensen, L. 1987. What’s an ethnic enclave: The case for conceptual clarity. American Sociological review, 52: 768–881.
Portes, A., & Sensenbrenner, J. 1993. Embeddedness and immigration: Notes on the social determinants of economic action. American Journal of Sociology 98: 1320–1350.
Portes, A., & Stepick, A. 1985. Unwelcome immigrants: The labor market experiences of 1980 (Mariel) Cuban and Haitian refugees in South Florida. American Sociological Review, 50: 493–514.
Portes, A., & Zhou, M. 1992. Gaining the upper hand: Economic mobility among immigrant and domestic minorities. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 15(4): 491–522.
Redfield, R., Linton, R., & Herskovits, M. J. 1936. Memorandum for the study of acculturation. American Anthropologist, 38(1): 149–152.
Richmond, A. H. 1993. Reactive migration: Sociological perspectives on refugee movements. Journal of Refugee Studies, 6(1): 7–24.
Riddle, L., & Brinkerhoff, J. 2011. Diaspora entrepreneurs as institutional change agents: The case of Thamel.com. International Business Review, 20(6): 670–680.
Rieff, D. 2013. Exile: Cuba in the heart of miami. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Safdar, S., & Berno, T. 2016. Sojourners. The Cambridge handbook of acculturation psychology, 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Sandberg, S., Immonen, R., & Kok, S. 2018. Refugee entrepreneurship: Taking a social network view on immigrants with refugee backgrounds starting transnational businesses in Sweden. International Journal of Small Business, 36(1–2): 216–241.
Sanders, J. M., & Nee, V. 1987. Limits of ethnic solidarity in the enclave economy. American Sociological Review, 52(6): 745–773.
Sarasvathy, S. D. 2001. Causation and effectuation: Towards a theoretical shift from economic inevitability to entrepreneurial contingency. Academy of Management Review, 26(2): 243–288.
Schouler-Ocak, M. (Ed.). 2015. Trauma and migration: Cultural factors in the diagnosis and treatment of traumatised immigrants. Cham: Springer.
Scott, W. 2014. Organizations and Institutions: Ideas, interest, and identities. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Sequeira, J. M., & Rasheed, A. A. 2006. Start-up and growth of immigrant small businesses: The impact of social and human capital. Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, 11(04): 357–375.
Sue, S., Fujino, D. C., Hu, L. T., Takeuchi, D. T., & Zane, N. W. 1991. Community mental health services for ethnic minority groups: A test of the cultural responsiveness hypothesis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59(4): 533.
Taube, F., Cummings, M., & Vaaler, P. 2013. Migrant diasporas: New organizational forms for understanding business venturing and underlying business norms in developing countries. https://www.hbs.edu/faculty/conferences/2013-paulrlawrence/Documents/CTVMay30,2013Final.pdf. Accessed 1 September 2018.
UN Volunteers. 2018. 2018 state of the world’s volunteerism report: The thread that binds https://www.unv.org/swvr. Accessed 8 October 2019.
UNCTAD. 2018. Policy guide on entrepreneurship for migrants and refugees. https://unctad.org/en/PublicationsLibrary/diae2018d2_en.pdf. Accessed 15 January 2019.
UNHCR. 2011. Documenting knowledge, attitudes and practices of refugees and the status of family planning services: Baseline study in Nakivale refugee settlement, Uganda.
UNHCR. 2018a. Asylum-Seekers. https://www.unhcr.org/asylum-seekers.html. Accessed 15 January 2019.
UNHCR. 2018b. Resettlement. http://www.unhcr.org/en-us/resettlement.html. Accessed 15 January 2019.
UNHCR. 2019. Figures at a glance. https://www.unhcr.org/en-us/figures-at-a-glance.html. Accessed 20 June 2019.
Vershinina, N., Barrett, R., & Meyer, M. 2011. Forms of capital, intra-ethnic variation and Polish entrepreneurs in Leicester. Work, Employment and Society, 25(1): 101–17.
Wadhwani, R. D., & Jones, G. 2014. Schumpeter’s plea: Historical reasoning in entrepreneurship theory and research. Organizations in Time: History, Theory, Methods, 55: 192–216.
Waldinger, R., Aldrich, H., & Ward, R. 1990. Opportunities, group characteristics, and strategies. In R. Waldinger, H. Aldrich, & R. Ward (Eds), Ethnic entrepreneurs: Immigrant businesses in industrial societies: 13–48. Newbury Park: Sage.
Walker, G., Kogut, B., & Shan, W. 1997. Social capital, structural holes and the formation of an industry network. Organization Science, 8(2): 109–125.
Wauters, B., & Lambrecht, J. 2005. Refugee entrepreneurship: The case of Belgium. In Entrepreneurship competitiveness and local development. Rent XIX Proceedings. Book of Abstracts.
Wauters, B., & Lambrecht, J. 2006. Refugee entrepreneurship in Belgium: Potential and practice. The International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 2(4): 509–525.
Wauters, B., & Lambrecht, J. 2007. Refugee entrepreneurship: The case of Belgium. In Entrepreneurship, competitiveness and local development: Frontiers in European entrepreneurship research, 2009.
Wauters, B., & Lambrecht, J. 2008. Barriers to refugee entrepreneurship in Belgium: Towards an explanatory model. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 34(6): 895–915.
Williams, T. A., Gruber, D. A., Sutcliffe, K. M., Shepherd, D. A., & Zhao, E. Y. 2017. Organizational response to adversity: Fusing crisis management and resilience research streams. Academy of Management Annals, 11(2): 733–769.
Woetzel, J., Madgavkar, A., Khaled, R., Mattern, F., Bughin, J., Manyika, J., Elmasry, T., Di Lodovico, A., & Hasyagar, A. 2016. McKinsey Global Institute, People on the move: Global migration’s impact and opportunity. New York, NY: McKinsey.
Woolcock, M. 1998. Social capital and economic development: Toward a theoretical synthesis and policy framework. Theory and Society, 27(2): 151–208.
Zetter, R. 2007. More labels, fewer refugees: Remaking the refugee label in an era of globalization. Journal of Refugee Studies, 20(2): 172–192.
Zong, J., Batalova, J., & Burrows, M. 2019. Frequently requested statistics on immigrants and immigration in the United States. https://www.migrationpolicy.org/article/frequently-requested-statistics-immigrants-and-immigration-united-states. Accessed 19 June 2019.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Accepted by David Deeds, Guest Editor, 2 October 2019. This article has been with the authors for three revisions.
About this article
Cite this article
Christensen, L.J., Newman, A.B., Herrick, H. et al. Separate but not equal: Toward a nomological net for migrants and migrant entrepreneurship. J Int Bus Policy 3, 1–22 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1057/s42214-019-00041-w
- construct development and evaluation
- economic development
- evaluation of current theories
- comparative entrepreneurship
- immigration policy