The globalization of the world economy, the growing boundary-less nature of the workforce, and the reduction in immigration and emigration barriers to the movement of people have helped fuel a “war for talent” (Chambers et al. in McKinsey Q 3(3):44–57, 1998) worldwide. In this paper, we study the immigration policies of three of the most popular destinations of skilled immigrants – the US, Canada, and Australia. According to the 2018 Global Talent Competitiveness Index (Global Talent Competitiveness Index, 2018), these three countries were among the top 15 most attractive destinations in the world, attracting two-thirds of all skilled immigrants worldwide. We analyze the policy frameworks of these countries in terms of attracting skilled immigrants and their evolution over time. We compare and contrast these frameworks and explain how they are similar to and different from each other. We also analyze the background of the immigrants and their overall success in integrating into their host societies. Finally, we provide recommendations on how to make these policies more effective, and how they could help countries in the global battle for talent.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
American Immigration Council. 2018. The H1B visa program: A primer on the program and its impact on jobs, wages, and the economy. https://www.americanimmigrationcouncil.org/research/h1b-visa-program-fact-sheet. Accessed January 20, 2019
Arslan, C., Dumont, J.-C., Kone, Z., Moullan, Y., Parsons, Ç., Özden, C., & Xenogiani, X. 2014. A new profile of migrants in the aftermath of the recent economic crisis. OECD social, employment and migration working paper no. 160. Paris: OECD
Artuç, E., Docquier, F., Özden, C., & Parsons, C. 2014. A global assessment of human capital mobility: The role of non-OECD destinations. World Development, 65: 6–26.
Australia. 2001. New faces, new places: Review of state-specific migration mechanism. Canberra: Parliament of Australia, Joint Standing Committee on Migration
Australia. 2016. 2015–16 migration program report. Canberra: Department of Immigration and Border Protection.
Australian Bureau of Statistics. 2018. Migration, Australia, 2015-16. ABS. Accessed 30 June 2018.
Australian Government DIC. 2012. Australia’s migration trends 2011–12 at a glance. http://www.immi.gov.au/media/publications/statistics/immigrationupdate/australian-migration-trends-2011-12-glance.doc. Accessed 15 September 2013
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. 2018. Older Australia at a glance. https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/older-people/older-australia-at-a-glance/contents/demographics-of-older-australians/australia-s-changing-age-and-gender-profile. Accessed January 20, 2019
Barber, P. G. 2008. The ideal immigrant? Gendered class subjects in Philippine–Canada migration. Third World Quarterly, 29(7): 1265–1285
Beechler, S., & Woodward, I. 2009. The global “war for talent”. Journal of International Management, 15: 273–285
Beine, M., & Coulombe, S. 2018. Immigration and internal mobility in Canada. Journal of Population Economics, 31: 69–106.
Benet-Martinez, V., & Haritatos J. 2005. Bicultural identity integration (BII): Components and psychological antecedents. Journal of Personality, 73: 1015–1050.
Berry, J.W. 2017. Mutual intercultural relations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Berry J. W. 1990. Psychology of acculturation. In N. R. Goldberger & J. B. Veroff (Eds.), The culture and psychology reader: 457–488. New York: New York University Press.
Bhagwati, J., & Hanson, G. 2009. Skilled immigration today: Prospects, problems, and policies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Bhuiyan, J., & Castillo, A. 2019. Immigrant tech workers struggle to get H-1B visas under Trump: ‘I’ve never felt so helpless’. Los Angeles Times. https://www.latimes.com/business/technology/la-fi-tn-h1b-workers-tech-trump-20190201-story.html. Accessed 3 July 2019.
Bhuyan, R., Jeyapal, D., Ku, J., Sakamoto, I., & Chou, E. 2017. Branding ‘Canadian experience’ in immigration policy: Nation building in a Neoliberal Era. Journal of International Migration and Integration, 18(1), 47-62.
Blanding. 2018. In America, immigrants really do get the job done. Forbes https://www.forbes.com/sites/hbsworkingknowledge/2018/08/01/in-america-immigrants-really-do-get-the-job-done/#517b5c9f1935. Accessed 6 July 2019.
Bier, D. 2017. State-sponsored visas: New bill lets states invite foreign workers, entrepreneurs, and investors. Immigration research and policy brief no. 2. Cato Institute. https://www.cato.org/publications/immigration-research-policy-brief/state-sponsored-visas-new-bill-lets-states-invite. Accessed 6 July 2019.
Boeri, T., Brücker, H., Docquier, F., & Rapoport, H. (Eds). 2012. Brain drain and brain gain: The global competition to attract high-skilled migrants. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Borjas, G. J. 1987. Immigrants, minorities, and labour market competition. Industrial and Labour Relations Review 40(3): 382–392
Boubtane, E., Dumont, J.-C., & Rault, C. 2014. Immigration and economic growth in the OECD countries, 1986–2006. IZA discussion paper no. 8681. Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor.
Bound, J., Demirci, M., Khanna, G., & Turner, S. 2015. Finishing degrees and finding jobs: U.S. higher education and the flow of foreign IT workers. In W. Kerr, J. Lerner, S. Stern (Eds), Innovation policy and the economy: vol. 15, pp. 27–72. Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research.
Bound, J., Khanna, G., & Morales, N. 2017. Understanding the economic impact of the H-1B program on the U.S. NBER working paper no. 23153. https://www.nber.org/papers/w23153.pdf. Accessed 7 July 2019.
Brin, D. 2018. Immigrants form 25% of new U.S. businesses, driving entrepreneurship in ‘gateway’ states. Forbes. https://www.forbes.com/sites/dinahwisenberg/2018/07/31/immigrant-entrepreneurs-form-25-of-new-u-s-business-researchers/#2aa9146c713b. Accessed 6 July 2019
Canada, Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship. 2018. Who can apply—Canadian experience class (express entry)—Canada.ca. Canada.ca. Accessed 19 March 2018.
Canada. 2015. Facts and figures 2014: Immigration overview: Permanent residents. Ottawa: Citizenship and Immigration Canada.
Canada. 2016. Facts and figures 2015: Immigration overview: Permanent residents. Ottawa: Citizenship and Immigration Canada.
Card, D. 1990. The impact of the Mariel boatlift on the Miami labour market. Industrial and Labour Relations Review 43(2): 245–257
Chambers, E. G., Foulon, M., Hanfield-Jones, H., Hankin, S. M., & Michaels, E. G. 1998. The war for talent. McKinsey Quarterly, 3(3): 44–57
Chand, M., & Tung, R. L. 2014a. The aging of the world’s population and its effects on its effects on global business. Academy of Management Perspectives, 28(4): 409–429
Chand, M., & Tung, R. L. 2014b. Bicultural identity and economic engagement: An exploratory study of the Indian diaspora in North America. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 31(3): 763–788
Chatterjee, S. 2015. Rethinking skill in anti-oppressive social work practice with skilled immigrant professionals. British Journal of Social Work, 45: 363–377
CIC News. 2018. British Columbia nominated 2,350 express entry candidates in 2017. https://www.cicnews.com/2018/08/british-columbia-nominated-2350-express-entry-candidates-in-2017-0811071.html#gs.cH7eTVw. Accessed 10 December 2018.
Citizenship and Immigration (CIC) Canada. 2010. Evaluation of the federal skilled worker program. Ottawa, CIC. https://www.cic.gc.ca/english/pdf/research-stats/FSW2010.pdf. Accessed 10 December 2018
Citrin, J., Johnston, R., & Wright, M. 2012. Do patriotism and multiculturalism collide? Competing perspectives from Canada and the United States. Canadian Journal of Political Science, 45(3): 531–552.
Collins, J. 2003. Cultural diversity and entrepreneurship: Policy responses to immigrant entrepreneurs in Australia. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 15(2): 137–149.
Collins, J. 2018. Why Canada’s immigration system has been a success, and what Australia can learn from it. The Conversation. http://theconversation.com/why-canadas-immigration-system-has-been-a-success-and-what-australia-can-learn-from-it-107283. Accessed 4 June 2019.
Commonwealth of Australia. 2010. Australia to 2050: future challenges. http://archive.treasury.gov.au/igr/igr2010/overview/pdf/igr_2010_overview.pdf. Accessed 20 December 2018.
Conference Board of Canada. 2010. https://www.conferenceboard.ca/press/newsrelease/10-10-15/Immigrants_Make_Significant_Contributions_To_Innovation.aspx. Accessed 20 December 2018.
Cummings, M. E., & Vaaler, P. M. 2019. Migrant gender and the venture funding impact of remittances. Paper presented at the annual meetings of the Academy of International Business, Copenhagen, 24–27 June.
Czaika, M. & Parsons, C. 2017. The gravity of high-skilled migration policies. Demography, 54(2): 603–630.
De Haas, H. 2005. International migration, remittances and development: Myths and facts. Third World Quarterly, 26(8): 1269–1284.
DeFillippi, R. J., & Arthur, M. B. 1996. Boundaryless contexts and careers: A competency-based perspective. In M. B. Arthur & D. M. Rousseau (Eds), The boundaryless career: A new principle for a new organizational era. New York: Oxford University Press.
Department of Home Affairs, Government of Australia. 2019. Business Innovation and Investment (Provisional) visa (subclass 188) Entrepreneur stream. https://immi.homeaffairs.gov.au/visas/getting-a-visa/visa-listing/business-innovation-and-investment-188/entrepreneur-stream. Accessed 7 July 2019.
Department of Home Affairs. 2019a. Skilled independent visa. https://immi.homeaffairs.gov.au/visas/getting-a-visa/visa-listing/skilled-independent-189. Accessed 7 July 2019.
Department of Home Affairs, Government of Australia. 2018a. Visa listing. https://www.homeaffairs.gov.au/trav/visa-1/Visa-listing. Accessed 20 December 2018.
Department of Home Affairs, Government of Australia. 2019b. Investor visa. https://immi.homeaffairs.gov.au/visas/getting-a-visa/visa-listing/investor-891#Overview. Accessed 7 July 2019.
Department of Home Affairs, Government of Australia. 2018b. Visas for innovation. https://www.homeaffairs.gov.au/trav/work/skilledvisas/visas-for-innovation. Accessed 20 December 2018.
Department of Homeland Security. 2016. Report on H1-B petitions. https://www.uscis.gov/sites/default/files/USCIS/Resources/Reports%20and%20Studies/H-1B/H-1B-FY-2015-Petitions.pdf. Accessed 20 December 2018.
Department of Homeland Security. 2017. Table 7. Persons obtaining lawful permanent resident status by type and detailed class of admission: fiscal year 2016. https://www.dhs.gov/immigration-statistics/yearbook/2016/table7. Accessed 20 December 2018
Department of Immigration and Citizenship. n.d. Additional results from the continuous survey of Australia’s migrants. http://www.immi.gov.au/media/publications/research/_pdf/casm-additional-results.pdf. Accessed 20 December 2018.
Doherty, B. 2018. As Australia’s population hits 25m, regions cry out for skilled migrants. Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/aug/07/as-australias-population-hits-25m-regions-cry-out-for-skilled-migrants. Accessed 20 December 2018.
Doran, K. B., Gelber, A., & Isen, A. 2016. The effects of high-skill immigration policy on firms: Evidence from visa lotteries. Revised version of NBER Working Paper 20668. https://gspp.berkeley.edu/assets/uploads/research/pdf/h1b.pdf. Accessed 4 June 2019.
Facchini, G., & Lodigiani, E. 2014. Attracting skilled immigrants: An overview of recent policy developments in advanced countries. National Institute Economic Review, 229: R3–R21.
Florida, R. 2002. The rise of the creative class. New York: Basic Books
Government of Canada. 2019. Budget 2019. https://www.budget.gc.ca/2019/docs/plan/toc-tdm-en.html. Accessed 7 July 2019.
Government of Canada. 2018. Start-up visa Program. https://www.canada.ca/en/immigration-refugees-citizenship/services/immigrate-canada/start-visa.html. Accessed 7 July 2019.
Grattan, M. 2019. Slimmed-down migration program has regional focus. The Conversation. https://theconversation.com/slimmed-down-migration-program-has-regional-focus-113847. Accessed 7 July 2019.
Griswold, D. 2017. To spur growth, US must welcome more highly skilled immigrants. The Hill. http://thehill.com/opinion/immigration/363561-to-spur-growth-us-must-welcome-more-highly-skilled-immigrants. Accessed 20 December 2018
Grogger, J., & Hanson, G. H. 2015. Attracting talent: location choices of foreign born PhDs in the United States. Journal of Labor Economics, 33(1): 5-38.
Grossman J. B. 1982. The substitutability of natives and immigrants in production. Review of Economics and Statistics, 64(4): 596–603
Grubel, H. 2018. Canadian immigration policies: Blueprint for Europe? Labour Migration. CESifo DICE Report. 16, 1. https://www.cesifo-group.de/DocDL/dice-report-2018-1-grubel.pdf. Accessed 20 January 2019.
Haas, R. 2019. How a world order ends. Foreign Affairs, 98 (1): 22–30
Hanson, G., & Liu, C. 2018. High-skilled immigration and the comparative advantage of foreign born workers across US occupations. In G. H. Hanson, W. R. Kerr, & S. Turner (Eds), High-skilled migration to the United States and its economic consequences: 7–40. Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research.
Hendrickson, C., Muro, M., & Galston, W. 2018. Countering the geography of discontent: Strategies for left behind places. Brookings. https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/2018.11_Report_Countering-geography-of-discontent_Hendrickson-Muro-Galston.pdf. Accessed 7 July 2019
Hunt, J., & Gauthier-Loiselle, M. 2010. How much does immigration boost innovation? American Economic Journal Macroeconomics, 2(2): 31–56.
Hunt, J. 2011. Which immigrants are most innovative and entrepreneurial? Distinctions by Entry Visa. Journal of Labor Economics, 29(3): 417–457.
Hussen, A. 2018. 2017 Annual report to parliament on immigration. Government of Canada. https://www.canada.ca/en/immigration-refugees-citizenship/corporate/publications-manuals/annual-report-parliament-immigration-2017.html#sec1_1. Accessed 20 December 2018.
Immigration Canada. n.d. Who qualifies for Canadian permanent residence/skilled worker immigration? http://www.immigration.ca/who-qualifies-for-canadian-permanent-residence-skilled-worker-immigration/. Accessed 1 December 2018.
Immigration South Australia. 2018. New entrepreneur visa being trialed in South Australia. https://www.migration.sa.gov.au/news-events/news-releases/2589. Accessed 7 July 2019.
Information Technology Industry Council. 2012. The partnership for a new American Economy and the US Chamber of Commerce. Help wanted the role of foreign workers in the innovation economy, Washington DC. http://research.newamericaneconomy.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/stem-report.pdf. Accessed 7 July 2019.
Jones, C. I. 2002. Sources of U.S. economic growth in a world of ideas. American Economic Review, 92(1): 220–239.
Kane, A., & Levina, N. 2017. Am I still one of them? Bicultural immigrant managers navigating social identity threats when spanning global boundaries. Journal of Management Studies, 54(4): 540–577
Kapur, D., & McHale, J. 2005. Give us your best and brightest: The global hunt for talent and its impact on the developing world. Washington, DC: Center for Global Development.
Keith, T. 2019. Trump outlines ‘merit-based’ immigration plan, still far from becoming law. https://www.npr.org/2019/05/16/723677591/trumps-new-immigration-plan-doesn-t-address-undocumented-immigrants. Accessed 9 July 2019.
Kerr, S., Kerr, W., Ozden, C., & Parson, C. 2016. Global talent flows. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 30(4): 83–106.
Kerr, S., & Kerr, W. 2016. Immigrant entrepreneurship. Harvard Business School working paper, 17-011. NBER working paper series, no. 22385.
Kerr, S., Kerr, W., & Lincoln, W. 2015. Firms and the economics of skilled immigration. Innovation Policy and the Economy, 15: 115–152.
Kerr, W. R. 2010. Breakthrough inventions and migrating clusters of innovations. Journal of Urban Economics, 67: 46–60.
Kerr, W. R., & Lincoln, W. F. 2010. The supply side of innovation: H-1B visa reforms and US ethnic invention. Journal of Labor Economics, 28(3): 473–508
Koslowski, R. 2014. Selective migration policy models and changing realities of implementation. International Migration, 52 (3): 26–39.
Lewin, A. Y., Massini, S., & Peeters, C. 2009. Why are companies offshoring innovation? The emerging global race for talent. Journal of International Business Studies, 40(6): 901–925.
Liasson, M., & Montanaro, D. 2019. Trump to outline immigration plan that would overhaul who is allowed into the U.S. NPR. https://www.npr.org/2019/05/15/723666784/trump-to-outline-immigration-plan-that-would-overhaul-whos-allowed-into-the-u-s. Accessed 7 July 2019.
Li, W., & Lo, L. 2012. New geographies of migration? A Canada–U.S. comparison of highly skilled Chinese and Indian migration. Journal of Asian American Studies, 15(1): 1–34.
Lopez, G., Bialik, K., & Radford, J. 2018. Key findings about US immigrants. Pew Research Center. http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2018/11/30/key-findings-about-u-s-immigrants/. Accessed 18 January 2019.
Lundan, S. 2018. Engaging scholars with IB policy. Journal of International Business Policy, 1: 1–11.
McKinsey Global Institute. 2016. Digital globalization: The new era of global flows. https://www.mckinsey.com/business-functions/digital-mckinsey/our-insights/digital-globalization-the-new-era-of-global-flows. Accessed 9 July 2019.
Mirabaud, N. 2009. Migrants’ remittances and mobile transfer in emerging markets. International Journal of Emerging Markets, 4(2): 108–118.
Moretti, E. 2012. The new geography of jobs. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
Mudambi, R. 2018. Knowledge-intensive intangibles, spatial transaction costs, and the rise of populism. Journal of International Business Policy, 1: 44–52.
Mudambi, R. 2008. Location, control and innovation in knowledge-intensive industries. Journal of Economic Geography, 8(5): 699–725.
Multiculturalism Policy Index. 2010. Welcome to the multiculturalism policy index. http://www.queensu.ca/mcp/. Accessed 20 January 2019.
National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Immigration policy and the search for skilled workers. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
Nell, G., & Sherk, J. 2018. More H-1B visas, more American jobs, a better economy. The Heritage Foundation. https://www.heritage.org/immigration/report/more-h-1b-visas-more-american-jobs-better-economy. Accessed 7 July 2019.
New Brunswick Provincial Nominee Program. 2018. Immigration and settlement in New Brunswick Canada. https://www.welcomenb.ca/content/wel-bien/en/immigrating/content/HowToImmigrate/NBProvincialNomineeProgram.html. Accessed 7 July 2019.
Ng, E., & Metz, I. 2015. Multiculturalism as a strategy for national competitiveness: The case for Canada and Australia. Journal of Business Ethics, 128(2): 253–266.
Ortman, J., & Velkoff, V. 2014. An aging nation: The older population in the United States. United States Census Bureau. https://www.census.gov/prod/2014pubs/p25-1140.pdf. Accessed 20 January 2019.
Ozgen, C., Nijkamp, P., & Poot, J. 2012. Immigration and innovation in European regions. In: P. Nijkamp, J. Poot, & M. Sahin (Eds) Migration impact assessment: New horizons. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing Inc.
Ozimek, A., Fikri, K. & Lettieri, J. 2019. From managing decline to building the future: Could a heartland visa help struggling regions. Economic Innovation Group. https://eig.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/Heartland-Visas-Report.pdf. Accessed 2 May 2019.
Papademetriou, D. G., & Sumption, M. 2011. Rethinking points systems and employer selected immigration. Washington DC: Migration Policy Institute
Papademetriou, D. G., & Sumption, M. 2013. Attracting and selecting from the global talent pool—Policy challenges (report). Washington, DC: Migration Policy Institute
Paquet, M. 2014. La construction provinciale comme mécanisme: Le cas de l’immigration au Manitoba [Province building as a mechanism: The case of immigration in Manitoba]. Politique et Sociétés, 33: 101–130.
Paquet, M. 2017. Wicked problem definition and gradual institutional change: Federalism and immigration in Canada and Australia. Policy and Society, 36(3): 446–463.
Parsons, C., Rojon, S., Samanani, F., & Wettach, L. 2014. Conceptualising international high-skilled migration. International Migration Institute. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/89ee/f20c6a283ffd0c6882e0b99d90f6cff41385.pdf. Accessed 9 July 2019.
Peri, G., Shih, K., & Sparber, C. 2015. STEM workers, H1B visas and productivity in US cities. Journal of Labor Economics, 33: 225–255.
Peri, G. 2012. The effect of immigration on productivity: Evidence from U.S. States. Review of Economics and Statistics, 94(1): 348–358.
Radford, J. 2019. Key findings about U.S. immigrants. Pew Research Center. https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2019/06/17/key-findings-about-u-s-immigrants/. Accessed 7 July 2019.
Reitz, J. G. 2007. Immigrant employment success in Canada, part I: Individual and contextual causes. Journal of International Migration and Integration, 8(1): 11–36.
Rosenzweig, M. 2006. Global wage differences and international student flows. Brookings Trade Forum, 1: 57–86.
Rosenzweig, M. 2007. Education and migration: A global perspective. Mimeo: Yale University.
Ruiz, N., & Gramlich, J. 2019. 4 paths highly educated immigrants take to study and work in the U.S. Pew Research Center. https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2019/02/01/4-paths-highly-educated-immigrants-take-to-study-and-work-in-the-u-s/. Accessed 7 July 2019.
Ruiz, N., & Krogstad, J. 2018. East coast and Texas metros had the most H-1B visas for skilled workers from 2010 to 2016. Pew Research Center. http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2018/03/29/h-1b-visa-approvals-by-us-metro-area/. Accessed 20 January 2019.
Sakamoto, I., Chin, M., & Young, M. 2010. ‘Canadian experience,’ employment challenges, and skilled immigrants: A close look through ‘tacit knowledge’. Canadian Social Work, 16(2): 145–151.
Satzewich, V. 2007. Multiculturalism, transnationalism, and the hijacking of Canadian foreign policy: A pseudo-problem? International Journal, 63(1): 43–62.
Saxenian, A. 2002. Brain circulation: How high-skill immigration makes everyone better off. The Brookings Review, 20(1): 28–31.
Scheve, K., & Slaughter, M. 2018. How to save globalization. Foreign Affairs, 97(6): 98–108.
Schotter, A. P. J., Mudambi, R., Doz, Y. L., & Gaur, A. 2017. Boundary spanning in global organizations. Journal of Management Studies, 54(4): 403–421.
Semotiuk, A. J. 2016. Immigration minister should restore the Canadian experience class. Forbes, 18 August, 2016. https://www.forbes.com/sites/andyjsemotiuk/2016/08/18/immigration-minister-should-restore-the-canadian-experience-class/#62e86ef77500. Accessed 1 December 2018.
Semotiuk, A. J. 2019. Will Trump’s proposal lead to U.S. Immigration reform? Forbes. https://www.forbes.com/sites/andyjsemotiuk/2019/05/21/will-trumps-proposal-lead-to-u-s-immigration-reform/#34cc5f6831de. Accessed 22 May 2019.
Semyonov, M., & Gorodzeisky, A. 2008. Labor migration, remittances and economic well-being of households in the Philippines. Population Research and Policy Review, 27(5): 619–637.
Senior Observatory. n.d. Canada must adapt to the ageing of its population. http://www.seniorobservatory.com/canada-must-adapt-to-the-ageing-of-its-population/. Accessed 20 January 2019.
Sherrell, H. 2018. Losing its credibility: the abolition of the 457 visa. Parliament of Australia. https://www.aph.gov.au/About_Parliament/Parliamentary_Departments/Parliamentary_Library/FlagPost/2018/March/the_abolition_of_the_457_visa_program. Accessed 20 December 2018.
Smith, S. 2018. Report calls for big increase in immigration to New Brunswick as labour shortages rise. CIC News. https://www.cicnews.com/2018/11/report-calls-for-big-increase-in-immigration-to-new-brunswick-as-labour-shortages-rise-1111426.html#gs.nfeivm. Accessed 7 July 2019.
Smyth, J. 2019. Australia to cut immigration intake by 15 per cent. Financial Times. https://www.ft.com/content/d583f376-4ad4-11e9-bbc9-6917dce3dc62. Accessed 8 July 2019.
Stahl, G. K., Miller, E. L., & Tung, R. L. 2002. Toward the boundaryless career: A closer look at the expatriate career concept and the perceived implications of an international assignment. Journal of World Business, 37(3): 1–12.
Statistics Canada. 2019. Canada’s population estimates: Age and sex, July 1, 2019. https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/daily-quotidien/190930/dq190930a-eng.htm?HPA=1. Accessed 2 October 2019.
Statistics Canada. 2016. Immigration and ethnocultural diversity: Key results from the 2016 Census. Statistics Canada. Government of Canada.
Statistics Canada. 2011. Divergent trends in citizenship rates among immigrants in Canada and the United States. http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/11f0019m/11f0019m2011338-eng.pdf. Accessed 1 February 2013.
Storper, M. 2013. Keys to the city: How economics, institutions, social interactions, and politics shape development. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Tamara, K. 2019. Trump outlines ‘merit-based’ immigration plan, still far from becoming law. NPR. https://www.npr.org/2019/05/16/723677591/trumps-new-immigration-plan-doesn-t-address-undocumented-immigrants. Accessed 1 July 2019.
The Global Talent Competiveness Index. 2018. The Global Talent Competitiveness Index 2018. INSEAD. https://www.insead.edu/sites/default/files/assets/dept/globalindices/docs/GTCI-2018-report.pdf. Accessed 20 December 2018.
The Treasury and Department of Home Affairs. 2018. Government of Australia. Shaping a nation. https://cdn.tspace.gov.au/uploads/sites/107/2018/04/Shaping-a-Nation.pdf. Accessed 20 December 2018.
The Hon. Karen Andrews MP. 2018. Australian businesses sign on to Global Talent Scheme. https://www.minister.industry.gov.au/ministers/karenandrews/media-releases/australian-businesses-sign-global-talent-scheme. Accessed 1 July 2019.
Tung, R. L. 2016. New perspectives on human resource management in a global context. Journal of World Business, 51(1): 142–152.
Tung, R. L., & Chung, H. F. L. 2010. Diaspora and trade facilitation: The case of ethnic Chinese in Australia. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 27(3): 371–392.
Tung, R., & Lazarova, M., 2006. Brain drain versus brain gain: an exploratory study of ex-host country nationals in Central and East Europe. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 17: 1853–1872.
Tung, R. L., Worm, V., & Petesen, A. 2008. How small nations fare in the war for talent: The case of Denmark. Journal of Small Business Strategy, 19(1): 1–14.
Turkina, E., & Van Assche, A. 2018. Global connectedness and local innovation in industrial clusters. Journal of International Business Studies, 49(6): 706–728.
UN Population Division. 2017. International migrant stock 2015. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/migration/data/estimates2/estimates15.shtml. Accessed 20 January 2019.
USCIS. 2018. DHS proposes to remove the international entrepreneur rule. https://www.uscis.gov/humanitarian/humanitarian-parole/dhs-proposes-remove-international-entrepreneur-rule. Accessed 1 July 2019.
US Department of State. 2018. Nonimmigrant visas issued by classification. https://travel.state.gov/content/dam/visas/Statistics/AnnualReports/FY2017AnnualReport/FY17AnnualReport-TableXVIB.pdf. Accessed 4 June 2019.
Van Dam, A. 2018. How the U.S. cornered the market for skilled immigrants. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2018/06/20/how-the-u-s-cornered-the-market-for-skilled-immigrants/?utm_term=.ffd28b4dc217&noredirect=on. Accessed 20 January 2019.
Vomiero, J. 2018. If immigration was slashed, Canada’s economy would feel the pinch: report. https://globalnews.ca/news/4211243/immigration-canadian-economy/. Accessed 20 January 2019.
Wadhwa, V., Saxenian, A., & Siciliano, F. 2012. Then and now: America’s New Immigrant Entrepreneurs, Part VII. Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation Research Paper. Stanford public law working paper no. 2159875. Rock Center for Corporate Governance at Stanford University working paper no. 127. SSRN. https://ssrn.com/abstract=2159875 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2159875. Accessed 1 July 2019.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Accepted by Ram Mudambi, Area Editor, 4 October 2019. This article has been with the authors for three revisions.
Rights and permissions
About this article
Cite this article
Chand, M., Tung, R.L. Skilled immigration to fill talent gaps: A comparison of the immigration policies of the United States, Canada, and Australia. J Int Bus Policy 2, 333–355 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1057/s42214-019-00039-4
- skilled immigration
- immigration policy
- United States