This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Bueno De Mesquita, B., Morrow, J.D., Siverson, R.M. and Smith, A. (1999) An institutional explanation of the democratic peace. American Political Science Review 93(4): 791–807.
Chiozza, G. and Goemans, H.E. (2004) International conflict and the tenure of leaders: Is war still ex post inefficient? American Journal of Political Science 48(3), 604–619.
Colgan, J.D. (2013) Domestic revolutionary leaders and international conflict. World Politics 65(4), 656–690.
Croco, S. (2011) The decider’s dilemma: Leader culpability, war outcomes, and domestic punishment. American Political Science Review 105(3), 457–477.
Ellis, C.M., Horowitz, M.C. and Stam, A.C. (2015) Introducing the LEAD data set. International Interactions 41(4), 718–741.
George, A.L. (1969) ‘The operational code’: A neglected approach to the study of political leaders and decision-making. International Studies Quarterly 13(2), 190–222.
Horowitz, M.C. and Stam, A.C. (2014) How prior military experience influences the future militarized behavior of leaders. International Organization 68(3), 527–559.
Horowitz, M.C., Stam, A.C. and Ellis, C.M. (2015) Why Leaders Fight. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Renshon, J. (2008) Stability and change in belief systems: The operational code of George W. Bush from Governor to second term president. Journal of Conflict Resolution 52(8), 820–849.
Weeks, J.L. (2012) Strongmen and straw men: Authoritarian regimes and the initiation of international conflict. American Political Science Review 106(2), 326–347.