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A comparison of the EU external energy relations with Angola and Tanzania

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The main aim of the article is to compare the energy relations of the EU with current (here represented by Angola) and potential energy-resource suppliers (here represented by Tanzania) in Sub-Saharan Africa in 2007–2018. In this article, the external actorness of the EU in its energy relations is analysed and specified based on a set of predefined criteria of a modified concept: (1) external recognition of the EU energy actorness by third parties; (2) goals and interests of EU energy policy; and (3) instruments and resources of EU energy policy. The criteria are then applied to two case studies focused on Angola and Tanzania in order to demonstrate whether the EU can be considered as an actor in regard to these two Sub-Saharan Africa countries. While Angola does not recognize the EU as an energy actor, Tanzania meets all of the requirements for the recognition of EU energy actorness.

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  1. Angola has the second largest reserves of oil in Sub-Saharan Africa, which amount to about 0.6 per cent of the global reserves (British Petrol 2018). It is the second largest producer of oil in SSA and accounts for some 2.62 per cent of EU oil imports (European Commission 2016a). It owns approximately 0.3 tcm of proven gas reserves (British Petrol 2018) and is a relatively small producer of gas (EIA 2016b). Angola has only one LNG terminal (European Commission 2016b), which exports about 0.6 bcm of gas per year to EU countries, which amounts to approximately 1% of the EU’s imports of LNG British Petrol (2018).

  2. Similarly, Tanzania owns around 0.5 tcm of gas and is currently a small producer of gas, but it uses the gas it produces solely for its domestic consumption. In the future the country should become a major exporter of LNG. Tanzania does not have any oil reserves (EIA 2016a).

  3. The African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States.

  4. This programme was ended on 31 March 2018.


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This work was supported by the MUP research grant Territorial Studies, Economics, and International Relations No. 68-02.

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Correspondence to Lukáš Tichý.

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Tichý, L. A comparison of the EU external energy relations with Angola and Tanzania. Int Polit 58, 301–319 (2021).

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