‘Muddling Through’ in the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention
- 115 Downloads
This article looks at power in the origins and evolution of the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BWC) with a focus on five episodes in the evolution of biological disarmament. The first is the origins of what some have termed a taboo surrounding poison weapons. The second is the role of different forms of power in the negotiation of the 1925 Geneva Protocol; and, third, is the decision by President Nixon to renounce biological weapons in 1969. The fourth episode is the collapse of negotiations on a BWC Protocol in 2001, and the fifth is the subsequent work of states parties during the intersessional processes. The chapter illustrates the complex and the polymorphous character of power in the biological disarmament regime with compulsory, institutional, productive and to a lesser extent structural forms of power playing a role. The paper concludes by exploring the literature on public administration, particularly Lindblom’s notion of ‘incrementalism’ to outline how diffuse institutional power effectively means the BWC has been forced to ‘muddle through’ in an incremental manner.
KeywordsDisarmament Biological weapons Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention BTWC BWC Biosecurity Power Incrementalism
- Ad Hoc Group. 1995. Friend of the chair on article X—elements for structured discussions on Article X of the BWC. BWC/AD HOC GROUP/28, Ad Hoc Group Documents, Session 2, Geneva. http://www.opbw.org/.
- Allen, S. J. 2007. An analysis of factors leading to US renunciation of biological weapons. George Mason University. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/304735610.
- Becker-Jakob, U. 2013. Balanced minimalism: The biological weapons convention after its 7th review conference. PRIF Report. Frankfurt: Peace Research Institute Frankfurt (PRIF).Google Scholar
- Borrie, J., and V. M. Randin. 2005. Alternative approaches in multilateral decision making: Disarmament as humanitarian action. UNIDIR.Google Scholar
- Carter, G.B. 2000. Chemical and biological defence at porton down 1916–2000. London: The Stationery Office.Google Scholar
- Crissey, F. 1956. Theodore E. Burton: American Statesman. Burton: World Publishing Company.Google Scholar
- Feakes, D. 2003. Global civil society and biological and chemical weapons. In Global civil society 2003, ed. M. Kaldor, H. Anheier, and M. Glasius. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Frank, F. R. 1974. US arms control policymaking: The 1972 biological weapons convention. Doctoral Thesis, Stanford University.Google Scholar
- Grotius, H. 1625. Book 3, Chapter 4: On the right of killing enemies in a public war, and on other violence against the person. In The law of war and peace. Lonang Institute. Retrieved from http://lonang.com/library/reference/grotius-law-war-and-peace/.
- Halim, F. 2004. Biological threats and biosecurity efforts in Indonesia’. In International biosecurity symposium: Securing high consequence pathogens and toxins. Sandia National Laboratories. Retrieved from http://www.biosecurity.sandia.gov/subpages/pastConf/20032005/securing/01Int-Symposium-Summary-Final.pdf.
- ISU, 2008. Biosafety and Biosecurity. BWC/MSP/2008/MX/INF.1, 24 June 2008, Meeting of Experts Geneva, 18–22 August 2008, Geneva. Google Scholar
- Kissinger, H. 1969. ‘Memorandum from the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger) to President Nixon’ Washington, November 17, 1969, IN: US Department of State, Foreign Relations of the United States 1969–1976 Vol XXXIV National Security Policy, 1969–1972.Google Scholar
- League of Nations. 1925. Proceedings of the conference for the supervision of the international trade in arms and ammunition and in implements of war: Held at Geneva, May 4th to June 17th, 1925. Northwestern University Library (NUL).Google Scholar
- Lennane, R. 2006. Blood, toil, tears and sweat: The Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention since 2001. Disarmanent Forum 3: 5–15.Google Scholar
- Littlewood, J. 2005. The Biological Weapons Convention: A failed revolution. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate.Google Scholar
- Mahley, D. A. 2010. A personal assessment of the BWC protocol negotiations. The CBW Conventions Bulletin, (86), pp. 1–5. http://www.sussex.ac.uk/Units/spru/hsp/documents/CBWCB86.pdf.
- Mayor, A. 2003. Greek fire, poison arrows and scorpion bombs: Biological and chemical warfare in the ancient World. Woodstock, New York: Overlook Duckworth.Google Scholar
- Mexico. 2016. Closing remarks Ambassador Raúl Heredia Alternate Permanent Representative of Mexico to the UN and other International Organizations in Geneva BWC 8 th Review Conference”, November 25, 2016.Google Scholar
- Moodie. M. 1994. Bolstering compliance with the biological weapons convention prospects for the special conference. Chemical Weapons Convention Bulletin, Issue no 25, 1994.Google Scholar
- PhRMA. 1997. PhRMA Position on a Compliance Protocol to the Biological Weapons Convention, ‘PhRMA Position Papers and Statement’ 9th January 1997.Google Scholar
- Price, R.M. 1997. The chemical weapons taboo. Ithaca, London: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
- Revill, J. 2012. Deconstructing the BWC seventh review conference, Workshop Summary. In Harvard sussex program “Sussex Day.”. Google Scholar
- Roberts, G. B. 2003. Arms control without arms control: The failure of the biological weapons convention protocol and a new paradigm for fighting the threat of biological weapons. Google Scholar
- Russian Federation IN: UN. 2003. Report of the Meeting of States Parties, BWC/MSP/2003/4 (Vol. I), 26 November 2003, Meeting of States Parties, 10–14 November 2003, Geneva.Google Scholar
- Sims, N. 2001. The evolution of biological disarmament. SIPRI chemical and biological warfare. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- SIPRI. 1971. “CB disarmament Negotiations 1920–1970”, ‘The Problems of Chemical and Biological Warfare’, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) study, Volume IV, New York, Humanities Press. .Google Scholar
- Spiers, E. M. 2006. Gas disarmament in the 1920s: Hopes confounded. Journal of Strategic Studies 29(2) (2006).Google Scholar
- Temporary Mixed Commission for the Reduction of Armaments, 1924. Report of the Temporary Mixed Commission for the Reduction of Armaments, League of Nations, Geneva.Google Scholar
- Tóth. T. 2003. ‘Chairman’s closing remarks’ IN: UN (2003) “Report of the Meeting of Experts”, BWC/MSP.2003/MX/4 (Part II), Meeting of Experts, 18–29 August 2003, Geneva.Google Scholar
- Tucker, J. B., & E. R. Mahan 2009. President Nixon’s decision to renounce the US offensive biological weapons program. Washington DC.Google Scholar
- UN. 2003. “Statements, presentations and contributions made available to the chairman’, “Report of the Meeting of States Parties”, BWC/MSP/2003/4 (Vol. II) Annex II, Meeting of States Parties, 10–14 November 2003, Geneva.Google Scholar
- US Army Chemical Corps. 1959. Summary of major events and problems (Fiscal Year 1958, March 1959). Retrieved from http://rockymountainarsenalarchive.files.wordpress.com/2011/07/summhist_1958_p1-601.pdf.
- US Department of State. 1969. Minutes of review group meeting Washington, October 30, 1969, IN US Department of State, ‘Foreign Relations of the United States 1969–1976 Volume XXXIV National Security Policy, 1969–1972’.Google Scholar
- US Director of Central Intelligence. 1964. Likelihood of a Proliferation of BW and CW Capabilities, National Intelligence Estimate 4–64, 21 October 1964.Google Scholar
- US. 2001. Statement by the United States to the Ad Hoc Group of Biological Weapons Convention States Parties. US Department of State. Retrieved from http://2001-2009.state.gov/t/ac/rls/rm/2001/5497.htm.
- Walker, J. R. 2016. The 1925 Geneva protocol: Export controls, Britain, Poland and why the protocol came to include ‘Bacteriological’ Warfare, Harvard Sussex Program Occasional Paper, number 5.Google Scholar
- Wheelis, M. ‘Biological Sabotage in World War I’ in Geissler, E & van Courtland Moon, J. E [eds] (1999) Biological and Toxin Weapons: Research, Development and Use from the Middle Ages to 1945. Oxford University Press for SIPRI.Google Scholar
- WHO. 2004. Public health response to biological and chemical weapons WHO guidance. Second Edition. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/csr/delibepidemics/biochemguide/en/ [Accessed September 28, 2017].
- WHO. 2006. Biorisk management - Laboratory biosecurity guidance, WHO/CDS/EPR/2006.6, September 2006, Geneva. Google Scholar
- Zanders, J. P. 2016. BTWC 8th RevCon Final Document. The Trench. http://www.the-trench.org/btwc-8th-revcon-final-document/. Accessed Sept 28 2017.
- Zilinskas, R.A., M. Leitenberg, and J.H. Kuhn. 2012. The Soviet biological weapons program: A history. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar