There is limited literature focusing on bribery and corruption in private or quasi-private-sector companies and associations in general, and on sport governing bodies in particular. This paucity of knowledge in the theoretical sphere impedes critical analysis on bribery in practice and does not allow for application of anti-bribery and corruption (“ABC”) measures grounded in research. The purpose of this paper is to inform anti-bribery and corruption research and practice by producing an original framework to facilitate critical analysis of bribery and development of ABC policies. This paper analyses and amalgamates relevant interdisciplinary literature, from areas of corporate governance, economics, politics, sociology, sports science, law, and criminology, to produce a unified theoretical anti-bribery framework made up of three elements: clarifying concepts, assessing risk factors, and assessing governance. The framework can be applied to critical assessment of bribery and/or sport governance ABC initiatives by researchers, forensic accountants, internal auditors, and compliance and governance officials both within and outside the sport sector.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
1977. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. United States.
Abbink, K. 2004. Staff rotation as an anti-corruption policy: An experimental study. European Journal of Political Economy 20: 887–906.
Abbink, K., and K. Wu. 2017. Reward self-reporting to deter corruption: An experiment on mitigating collusive bribery. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization 133: 256–272.
Adams, M.A. 2018. Three pillars of corporate governance. Governance Directions 70: 302–309.
Adam, G., and S. Aiden. 2012. Corruption and control: A corruption reduction approach. Journal of Financial Crime 19: 384–399.
Ades, A., and R. Di Tella. 1999. Rents, competition, and corruption. The American Economic Review 59: 982–993.
Agius, M. 2018. Judge overturns not-guilty sentence for two Malta footballers accused of match fixing. Malta Today. https://www.maltatoday.com.mt/sports/football/84294/judge_overturns_notguilty_sentence_for_two_malta_footballers_accused_of_match_fixing#.WxUfHfkvzIU. Accessed 04 June 2018.
Albergotti, R. 2014. Wheelmen: Lance Armstrong, the Tour de France, and the greatest sports conspiracy ever. London: Penguin Books.
Albrecht, W.S., C.O. Albrecht, C.C. Albrecht, and M. Zimbleman. 2018. Fraud examination. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.
Al Jazeera Investigations. 2018. Cricket’s match fixers. Al Jazeera.
Anand, V., B.E. Ashforth, and M. Joshi. 2005. Business as usual: The acceptance and perpetuation of corruption in organizations. Academy of Management Executive 19: 9–23.
Arena, V. 2018. Fighting corruption: Political thought and practice in the late roman republic. In Anticorruption in history: From antiquity to the modern era, ed. R. Kroeze, A. Vitoria, and G. Geltner. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Ashforth, B.E., and V. Anand. 2003. The normalization of corruption in organizations. Research in Organizational Behavior 25: 1–52.
Australian Sports Commission. 2012. Sports Governance Principles.
Australian Sports Commission. 2015. Mandatory Sports Governance Principles.
Azfar, O., Y. Lee, and A. Swamy. 2001. The causes and consequences of corruption. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 573: 42–56.
Barker, M. 2013. Sports finance. In The business of sport management, ed. J. Beech and S. Chadwick. London: Pearson Education Limited.
Beech, J.G., and S. Chadwick. 2013. Introduction: the commercialisation of sport. In: The business of sport management, 2nd ed. Harlow: Financial Times/Prentice Hall.
Batchelor, B. 2005a. Introduction: Basketball in America. In Basketball in America: From the playgrounds to Jordan’s game and beyond, ed. B. Batchelor. Binghamton, NY: Haworth.
Batchelor, B. 2005b. King James: LeBron James, hype, hope, and the future of the NBA. In Basketball in America: From the playgrounds to Jordan’s game and beyond, ed. B. Batchelor. Haworth: Binghamton, NY.
Baughn, C., N. Bodie, M. Buchanan, and M. Bixby. 2010. Bribery in international business transactions. Journal of Business Ethics 92: 15–32.
BBC. 2018. Betraying the game: African officials filmed taking cash. https://www.bbc.co.uk/sport/football/44396127. Accessed 19 June 2018.
Becker, G.S. 1968. Crime and punishment: An economic approach. Journal of Political Economy 76: 169.
Beech, J.G. 2013. The internationalisation of sport. In The business of sport management, 2nd ed, ed. J.G. Beech and S. Chadwick. Harlow: Financial Times/Prentice Hall.
Blake, H. 2016. Priorities for the UK sport sector and beyond—Integrity, transparency and accountability: The role of investigative journalism in protecting clean sport. Sport governance in the UK—Priorities for transparency, safe participation and diverse leadership. Westminister Media Forum.
Blake, H., and J. Calvert. 2015. The ugly game: The Qatari plot to buy the World Cup. London: Simon & Schuster.
Blödorn, M. 1988. Das magische Dreieck: Sport-Fernsehen-Kommerz. In Neue Medienstrukturen—Neue Sportberichterstattung, ed. W. Hoffmann and W. Riem. Baden Baden/Hamburg: Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft.
Booth, R., G. Gilligan, F. de Zwart, and L. Gordon-Brown. 2015. Generic models of sports governance and their potential for sustainability. In The sports business in the pacific rim, ed. Y.F.R. Lee. Cham: Springer.
Bray, J. 2007. Facing up to corruption 2007: A practical business guide. Control Risks: Simmons & Simmons.
Breivik, G. 2000. Against chance: A causal theory of winning in sport. In Values in sport: Elitism, nationalism, gender equality and the scientific manufacture of winners, ed. T. Tännsjö and C.M. Tamburrini. London: E & FN Spon.
Brooks, G. 2016. Criminology of corruption: Theoretical approaches. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Brooks, G., A. Aleem, and M. Button. 2013. Fraud, corruption and sport. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Bruinsma, G., and W. Bernasco. 2004. Criminal groups and transnational illegal markets. Crime, Law & Social Change 41: 79.
Bruno, G. 2017. Adidas executive indicted in connection with NCAA Fraud, bribery case. TheStreet. https://www.thestreet.com/story/14383155/1/adidas-executive-indicted-in-connection-with-ncaa-fraud-bribery-case.html. Accessed 09 June 2018.
Buschmann, R., and M. Wulzinger. 2018. Football leaks: Uncovering the dirty deals behind the beautiful game. London: Guardian Faber.
Button, M., D.W.J. Shepherd, and D. Blackbourn. 2018. Co-offending and bribery: The recruitment of participants to corrupt schemes and the implications for prevention. Security Journal 31: 882–900.
Caiden, G. E. 2001. Corruption and governance. In Where corruption lives, ed. G.E. Caiden, O.P. Dwivedi, J. Jabbra, C. Bloomfield. Kumarian Press.
Carpenter, K. 2016. Preventing corruption ahead of major sports events: Learning from the 2012 London games. In Global corruption report: Sport, ed. Transparency International. Abingdon: Routledge.
Carroll, A.B. 1979. A three dimensional conceptual model of corporate social responsibility. Academy of Management Review 4: 497–505.
Cashmore, E., and K. Dixon. 2016. Corruption. In Studying football, ed. E. Cashmore and K. Dixon. London: Routledge.
Cassin, R. L. 2018. Drug cheat Floyd Landis collects $1.1 million for blowing the whistle on Lance Armstrong. The FCPA Blog. http://www.fcpablog.com/blog/2018/4/25/drug-cheat-floyd-landis-collects-11-million-for-blowing-the.html. Accessed 08 June 2018.
Chadwick, S. 2018. What does FIFA really want out of this World Cup? The conversation. https://theconversation.com/what-does-fifa-really-want-out-of-this-world-cup-97393. Accessed 19 June 2018.
Chappelet, J.L. 2016a. Autonomy and governance: Necessary bedfellows in the fight against corruption in sport. In Global corruption report: Sport, ed. Transparency International. Abingdon: Routledge.
Chappelet, J.-L. 2016b. Which governance for which organization? A postface. Sport in Society 19: 857–859.
Chappelet, J.-L., and Mrkonjic, M. 2013. Basic indicators for Better Governance in International Sport (BIBGIS): An assessment tool for international sport governing bodies, Lausanne.
Choo, F., and K. Tan. 2007. An “American Dream” theory of corporate executive Fraud. Accounting Forum 31: 203–215.
Clarke, G.R.G., and L.C. Xu. 2004. Privatization, competition, and corruption: How characteristics of bribe takers and payers affect bribes to utilities. Journal of Public Economics 88: 2067.
Collings, T. 2001. The Piranha Club: Power and influence in Formula One. London: Virgin Books Ltd.
Collins, T. 2017. Association and rugby football: Two codes, one historiography. In Routledge handbook of football studies, ed. J. Hughson, K. Moore, R.F.J. Spaaij, and J.A. Maguire. London: Routledge.
Conn, D. 2018. The fall of the House of Fifa. London: Yellow Jersey Press.
Cooper, C., and J. Johnston. 2012. Vulgate accountability: Insights from the field of football. Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal 25: 602–634.
Cottrell, S., and Erickson, K. 2018. The psychology of doping and whistleblowing in sport with Dr Kelsey Erickson - Episode 66. In Law in sport [Podcast]. https://www.lawinsport.com/topics/features/podcast/item/the-psychology-of-doping-and-whistleblowing-in-sport-with-dr-kelsey-erickson-66?category_id=231.
Council of Europe. 2001. European sport charter (revised). Brussels.
Council of Europe. 2014. Council of Europe Convention on the Manipulation of Sports Competitions.
Council of Europe and UEFA. 2018. Memorandum of understanding between the Council of Euope and the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA).
Croall, H. 2004. Combating financial crime: Regulatory versus crime control approaches. Journal of Financial Crime 11: 45–55.
Daly, M., and Oliver, J. 2016. Sebastian Coe helped to IAAF presidency by ‘corrupt’ official, BBC. http://www.bbc.co.uk/sport/athletics/36541301. Accessed 21 June 2016.
De Sanctis, F.M. 2014. Football, gambling, and money laundering: A global criminal justice perspective. Berlin: Springer.
De Speville, B. 2012. A review of the anticorruption arrangements of the International Cricket Council. ICC.
De Waegeneer, E., J. Van De Sompele, and A. Willem. 2016. Ethical codes in sports organizations: Classification framework, content analysis, and the influence of content on code effectiveness. Journal of Business Ethics 136: 587–598.
De Waegeneer, E., I. Devisch, and A. Willem. 2017. Ethical codes in sports organizations: An empirical study on determinants of effectiveness. Ethics and Behavior 27: 261–282.
Deloitte 2018. Annual review of football finance 2018. Deloiite LLP, London. https://www2.deloitte.com/uk/en/pages/sports-business-group/articles/annual-review-of-football-finance.html.
Den Nieuwenboer, N.A., and M. Kaptein. 2008. Spiraling down into corruption: A dynamic analysis of the social identity processes that cause corruption in organizations to grow. Journal of Business Ethics 83: 133–146.
Di Palma, V. 2017. Resource alert: The TRACE bribery risk matrix. FCPA blog. http://www.fcpablog.com/blog/2017/10/12/resource-alert-the-trace-bribery-risk-matrix.html. Accessed 19 June 2018.
Dong, B., U. Dulleck, and B. Torgler. 2012. Conditional corruption. Journal of Economic Psychology 33: 609–627.
Erickson, K., S.H. Backhouse, and D. Carless. 2017. “I don’t know if I would report them”: Student-athletes’ thoughts, feelings and anticipated behaviours on blowing the whistle on doping in sport. Psychology of Sport and Exercise 30: 45–54.
EU Expert Group on Good Governance. 2013. Principles of good governance in sport.
European Commission. 2007. White paper on sport. In ed. EUROPEAN COMMISSION, Brussels.
European Parliament. 2011. Written declaration pursuant to Rule 123 of the Rules of procedure on combating corruption in European Sport.
European Parliament. 2012. European Parliament resolution of 2 February 2012 on the European dimension in sport.
Ferguson, N. 2016. Sports scandals: True stories of cheating, corruption and greed. Chichester: Summersdale Publishers Ltd.
Ferkins, L., D. Shilbury, and G. McDonald. 2005. The role of the board in building strategic capability: Towards an integrated model of sport governance research. Sport Management Review 8: 195–225.
FIA. 2017. FIA statutes. Geneva: Federation Internationale De L’Automobile.
FIBA. 2014. FIBA general statutes. Mies: Federation Internationale de Basketball.
FIFA. 2017. Financial report 2016. Zurich: FIFA.
FIH. 2016. Statutes. International Hockey Federation.
Financial Reporting Council. 2016. The UK Corporate Governance Code.
FIS. 2018. Inside FIS—About FIS. http://www.fis-ski.com/inside-fis/about/by-the-president/index.html. Accessed 21 June 2018.
Fisher, J. 2005. Elgin Baylor: The first modern professional basketball player. In Basketball in America: From the playgrounds to Jordan’s game and beyond, ed. B. Batchelor. Binghamton, NY: Haworth.
Fisman, R., and M.A. Golden. 2017. Corruption. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Forster, J. 2006. Global sports organisations and their governance. Corporate Governance 6: 72–83.
Forster, J., and N. Pope. 2004. The political economy of global sporting organisations, London. New York: Routledge.
Fountain, C. 2016. The betrayal: The 1919 world series and the birth of modern baseball. New York: Oxford University Press.
Furman, S., Jackson, J., Riley, T., and Trout, S. 2018. The Dallas Cowboys. Amazon Video Limited.
Gabbioneta, C., R. Greenwood, P. Mazzola, and M. Minoja. 2013. The influence of the institutional context on corporate illegality. Accounting, Organizations and Society 38: 484–504.
Garcia, B. 2017. Football and governance. In Routledge handbook of football studies, ed. J. Hughson, K. Moore, R.F.J. Spaaij, and J.A. Maguire. London: Routledge.
Garcia, M. J., and Norbely, C. 2014. Report on the inquiry into the 2018/2022 FIFA World Cup Bidding Process. FIFA.
Gardiner, S., S. Robinson, and J. Parry. 2017. Integrity and the corruption debate in sport: Where is the integrity? European Sport Management Quarterly 17: 6–23.
Geeraert, A. 2015. Sports Governance Observer 2015: The legitimacy crisis in international sports governance. Play the Game.
Geeraert, A. 2016. Indicators and benchmarking tools for sports governance. In Global corruption report: Sport, ed. Transparency International. Abingdon: Routledge.
Geeraert, A., Alm, J., and Groll, M. 2013. Good governance in International Non-Governmental Sport Organisations: An empirical study on accountability, participation and executive body members in Sport Governing Bodies. In 8th Annual conference of the association for the study of sport and the European Union, Istanbul.
Geeraert, A., J. Alm, and M. Groll. 2014. Good governance in international sport organizations: An analysis of the 35 Olympic sport governing bodies. International Journal of Sport Policy 6: 281.
Gorse, S., and Chadwick, S. 2010. Conceptualising corruption in sport: Implications for sponsorship programmes. The European Business Review.
Gottschalk, P. 2010. Theories of financial crime. Journal of Financial Crime 17: 210–222.
Goudie, A.W., and D. Stasavage. 1998. A framework for the analysis of corruption. Crime, Law & Social Change 29: 113–159.
Graycar, A. 2015. Corruption: Classification and analysis. Policy and Society 34: 87–96.
Groeneveld, M. 2009. European sport governance, citizens, and the state. Public Management Review 11: 421–440.
Groothuis, P.A., B.K. Johnson, and J.C. Whitehead. 2004. Public funding of professional sports stadiums: Public choice or civic pride? Eastern Economic Journal 30: 515–526.
Gross, J. 2018. Greg Hardy fight highlights MMA’s troubling history of violence outside the octagon. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/sport/2018/jun/12/greg-hardy-mma-ufc-domestic-violence-allegations?utm_source=esp&utm_medium=Email&utm_campaign=Australian+sports&utm_term=277887&subid=19613276&CMP=ema_aus_spt. Accessed 19 June 2018.
Hamilton, T., and D. Coyle. 2013. The secret race: Inside the hidden world of the tour de France. London: Bantam Press.
Hanousek, J., and A. Kochanova. 2016. Bribery environments and firm performance: Evidence from CEE countries. European Journal of Political Economy 43: 14–28.
Hill, D. 2010. A critical mass of corruption: Why some football leagues have more match-fixing than others. International Journal of Sports Marketing & Sponsorship 11: 221–235.
Howman, D. 2013. Supporting the integrity of sport and combating corruption. Marquette Sports Law Review, 23(2): 245–248.
Huggins, M. 2017. Football and gambling. In Routledge handbook of football studies, ed. J. Hughson, K. Moore, R.F.J. Spaaij, and J.A. Maguire. London: Routledge.
Hughes, A. 2018. Why some Western companies are distancing themselves from the World Cup brand. The Conversation. https://theconversation.com/why-some-western-companies-are-distancing-themselves-from-the-world-cup-brand-96989. Accessed 19 June 2018.
Hughson, J. 2017. FIFA and the World Cup. In Routledge handbook of football studies, ed. J. Hughson, K. Moore, R.F.J. Spaaij, and J.A. Maguire. London: Routledge.
IAAF. 2015. Code of Ethics. Monaco: IAAF.
ICAEW. 2017. Bribery and corruption. ICAEW.com. http://www.icaew.com/en/technical/legal-and-regulatory/business-crime-and-misconduct/bribery-and-corruption. Accessed 06 Dec 2017.
ICC. 2014. Code of ethics of the ICC. Dubai: The International Cricket Council.
ICC. 2017. ICC Annual Report 2016–2017. Dubai: The International Cricket Council.
IGF. 2016. IGF betting and anti-corruption policy. Lausanne: International Golf Federation.
Interpol. 2018. Crimes in sport. https://www.interpol.int/Crime-areas/Crimes-in-sport/Integrity-in-sport. Accessed 04 June 2018.
Ionescu, L. 2015. The economics of corruption in professional sport. Economics, Management, and Financial Markets 10: 109–114.
Jain, A.K. 2001. Corruption: A review. Journal of Economic Surveys 15: 71–121.
Kikulis, L. M., Slack, T., and Hinings, B. 1995. Does decision making make a difference? Patterns of change within Canadian National Sport Organizations. United States, Human Kinetics Publishers, p. 273.
Kimber, J., Collins, S., and Blank, J. 2015. Death of a gentleman.
Kirkeby, M. 2016. Challenges and approaches to ensuring good governance in grassroots sport. In Global corruption report: Sport, ed. Transparency International. Abingdon: Routledge.
Klitgaard, R. 1988. Controlling corruption. London: University of California.
Klitgaard, R. 1998. Combating corruption. UN Chronicle 35: 90.
Kohe, G.Z. 2017. The Football Trust as a mechanism of industry change. In Routledge handbook of football studies, ed. J. Hughson, K. Moore, R.F.J. Spaaij, and J.A. Maguire. London: Routledge.
KPMG International. 2015. Anti-Bribery and corruption: Rising to the challenge in the age of globalization.
Kunkel, T., J.P. Doyle, D.C. Funk, J. Du, and H. McDonald. 2016. The development and change of brand associations and their influence on team loyalty over time. Journal of Sport Management 30: 117–134.
Kyprianou, A. 2015. A world against corruption; match fixing. International Sports Law Review Pandektis 11: 522–525.
Lambert-Mogiliansky, A. 2002. Why firms pay occasional bribes: The connection economy. European Journal of Political Economy 18: 47–60.
Lambsdorff, J.G., and B. Frank. 2010. Bribing versus gift-giving—An experiment. Journal of Economic Psychology 31: 347–357.
Lambsdorff, J.G., and B. Frank. 2011. Corrupt reciprocity—Experimental evidence on a men’s game. International Review of Law & Economics 31: 116–125.
Latané, B., and J.M. Darley. 1970. The unresponsive bystander: Why doesn’t he help?. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
Le Blond, J. 2014. Bernie Ecclestone: ‘I’m an idiot’ for paying £60 m to settle F1 bribery trial. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/sport/2014/aug/05/formula-one-bernie-ecclestone-idiot-paying-100m-dollars-settle-bribery-trial. Accessed 18 May 2018.
Lipicer, S.K., and D. Lajh. 2013. Monitoring systems of governance in sport: Looking for best practices from the European Union and beyond. Kinesiologia Slovenica 19: 43–59.
Lipton, M., and J.W. Lorsch. 1992. A modest proposal for improved corporate governance. The Business Lawyer 1992: 59–77.
Lord Woolf & PricewaterhouseCoopers. 2012. An independent governance review of the International Cricket Council, ICC.
Luft, J. 2016. Cooperation and competition among employees: Experimental evidence on the role of management control systems. Management Accounting Research 31: 75–85.
Maennig, W. 2005. Corruption in international sports and sport management: Forms, tendencies, extent and countermeasures. European Sport Management Quarterly 5: 187–225.
Maennig, W. 2016. Preventing corruption in the planning of major sporting events: Open issues. In Global corruption report: Sport, ed. Transparency International. Abingdon: Routledge.
Malagueño, R., C. Albrecht, C. Ainge, and N. Stephens. 2010. Accounting and corruption: A cross-country analysis. Journal of Money Laundering Control 13: 372–393.
Mallin, C.A. 2016. Corporate governance, 5th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Manoli, A.E., and G.A. Antonopoulos. 2015. ‘The only game in town?’: Football match-fixing in Greece. Trends in Organized Crime 18: 196–211.
Marty, D., P. Nicholson, and U. Haas. 2015. Report to the President of the Union Cycliste Internationale. Lausanne: Cycling Indepent Reform Commission.
Mason, D.S., L. Thibault, and L. Misener. 2006. An agency theory perspective on corruption in sport: The case of the International Olympic Committee. Journal of Sport Management 20: 51.
Masters, A. 2015. Corruption in sport: From the playing field to the field of policy. Policy and Society 34: 111–123.
McMasters, K. 2005. Nike and popular culture. In Basketball in America: From the playgrounds to Jordan’s game and beyond, ed. B. Batchelor. Haworth: Binghamton, NY.
McNamee, M.J. 1998. Celebrating trust: Virtues and rules in the ethical conduct of sports coaches. In Ethics and sport, ed. M.J. Mcnamee and S.J. Parry. London: E & FN Spon.
McNamee, M.J., and S. Fleming. 2007. Ethics audits and corporate governance: The case of public sector sports organizations. Journal of Business Ethics 73: 425–437.
Menary, S. 2016. For the good of the game? Governance on the outskirts of international football. In Global corruption report: Sport, ed. Transparency International. Abingdon: Routledge.
Miari, R.C., J.M.C. de Mesquita, and D.J. Pardini. 2015. Market efficiency and organizational corruption: Study on the impact on shareholder value. Brazilian Business Review (English Edition) 12: 1–23.
Michie, J., and C. Oughton. 2005. The corporate governance of professional Football Clubs in England. Corporate Governance: An International Review 13: 517–531.
Mitchell, K. 2016. Novak Djokovic tells of being offered $200,000 to fix a match. The Guardian, Monday 18 January.
Mitchell, K. 2018. Tennis still defending its name despite integrity review warnings. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/sport/2018/apr/25/tennis-defending-integrity-warnings-independent-review.
Morgan, M. 2002. Optimizing the structure of elite competitions in professional sport—Lessons from Rugby Union. Managing Leisure 7: 41–60.
Nichols, P.M. 2012. The psychic costs of violating corruption laws. Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law 45: 145–210.
Nuwer, H. 1994. Sports scandals. New York: Franlin Watts.
Mauro, Paolo. 1995. Corruption and growth. The Quarterly Journal of Economics 110: 681–712.
Pedersen, M. 2016. Examples of evolving good governance practices in sport. In Global corruption report: Sport, ed. Transparency International. Abingdon: Routledge.
Pielke, J.R. 2016. Obstacles to accountability in international sports governance. In Global corruption report: Sport, ed. Transparency International. Abingdon: Routledge.
Pitt, L.F., and R. Abratt. 1986. Corruption in business—Are management attitudes right? Journal of Business Ethics 5: 39–44.
Plachta, M. 2014. A Council of Europe Adopts New Convention on the Manipulation of Sports Competitions. International Enforcement Law Reporter 30: 408–411.
Pozsgai-Alvarez, J. 2018. The quest for a unified theory of coruption. http://www.fcpablog.com/blog/2018/1/11/joseph-pozsgai-alvarez-the-quest-for-a-unified-theory-of-cor.html. Accessed 01 Nov 2018.
PWC. 2011. Changing the game: Outlook for the global sports market to 2015.
PWC. 2016. At the gate and beyond: Outlook for the sports market in North America through 2020. PWC Sports Outlook.
Quiñones, E. 2000. What is corruption? OECD Observer. Accessed 23 Nov 2017.
Rader, B.G. 2008. Baseball: A history of America’s game. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
Ray, S. G. 2016. Fixed!: Cash and corruption in cricket, Harper Sport.
Rayner, M. 2018. Rugby union and professionalisation: Elite player perspectives. London: Routledge.
Reddiford, G. 1998. Cheating and self-deception in sport. In Ethics and sport, ed. M.J. Mcnamee and S.J. Parry. London: E & FN Spon.
Reid, J. 2014. Doped: The real life story of the 1960s racehorse doping gang. Newbury: Racing Post Books.
Roan, D. 2016. Doping: Russian athletes remain banned from competition including Olympics. BBC.
Rodenberg, R.M., and A. Kaburakis. 2013. Legal and corruption issues in sports gambling. Journal of Legal Aspects of Sport 23: 8–35.
Rodgers, W., A. Söderbom, and A. Guiral. 2015. Corporate social responsibility enhanced control systems reducing the likelihood of fraud. Journal of Business Ethics 131: 871–882.
Rose-Ackerman, S. 1978. Corruption: A study in political economy. New York: Academic Press.
Rose-Ackerman, S. 1999. Corruption and government: Causes, consequences, and reform. Cambridge: Cambridge Unversity Press.
Rose, J. 2017. The meaning of corruption: Testing the coherence and adequacy of corruption definitions. Public Integrity 20(3): 220–233.
Ryvkin, D., D. Serra, and J. Tremewan. 2017. I paid a bribe: An experiment on information sharing and extortionary corruption. European Economic Review 94: 1–22.
Sadoff, D.A. 2016. Senegal unwilling to extradite to France Former IAAF Official on doping cover-up-related charges. International Enforcement Law Reporter 32: 45–47.
Sampford, C.J.G. 2006. Measuring corruption. Aldershot: Ashgate.
Schenk, S. 2016. What the anti-corruption movement can bring to sport: The experience of Transparency International Germany. In Global corruption report: Sport, ed. Transparency International. Abingdon: Routledge.
Schuchter, A., and M. Levi. 2016. The fraud triangle revisited. Security Journal 29: 107–121.
Schwarz, E.C., H. Westerbeek, D. Liu, P. Emery, and P. Turner. 2017. Managing sport facilities and major events. London: Routledge.
SIGA. 2017. Vision and mission. Sport integrity global alliance. http://siga-sport.net/vision-and-mission/. Accessed 23 Nov 2017.
Sillaman, B., and Bernardi, A. 2018. Sillaman and Bernardi: Italy steps up whistleblowing regulation. The FCPA Blog. http://www.fcpablog.com/blog/2018/1/11/sillaman-and-bernardi-italy-steps-up-whistleblowing-regulati.html.
Skillen, A. 1998. Sport is for losers. In Ethics and sport, ed. M.J. Mcnamee and S.J. Parry. London: E & FN Spon.
Smit, B. 2006. Pitch invasion: Three stripes, two brothers, one feud—Adidas and the making of modern sport. London: Allen Lane, Penguin Group.
Smith, J. 2016. The deal: Inside the world of a super-agent. Hachette: Constable.
Smith, A.C.T., and B. Stewart. 2010. Review—The special features of sport: A critical revisit. Sport Management Review 13: 1–13.
Spivey, N. 2012. The ancient Olympics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Sport England and UK Sport. 2016. A code for sports governance, London.
Sport New Zealand 2009. Nine steps to effective governance, 3rd edn, Sport New Zealand.
Steenbergen, J., and J. Tamboer. 1998. Ethics and the double character of sport: An attempt to systematize discussion of the ethics of sport. In Ethics and sport, ed. M.J. Mcnamee and S.J. Parry. London: E & FN Spon.
Steidlmeier, P. 1999. Gift giving, bribery and corruption: Ethical management of business relationships in China. Journal of Business Ethics 20: 121–132.
Stewart, B., and A. Smith. 1999. The special features of sport. Annals of Leisure Research 2: 87–99.
Szymanski, S., and T. Kuypers. 2000. Winners and losers. London: Penguin.
Taylor, C. 2018. Corruption and anticorruption in democratic Athens. In Anticorruption in history: From antiquity to the modern era, ed. R. Kroeze, A. Vitoria, and G. Geltner. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
The Secret Footballer. 2013. Tales from the secret footballer. London: Guardian Books.
The Telegraph. 2010. F1 German grand prix: Ferrari ‘cheats’ Felipe Massa and Fernando Alonso fail media trial. The Telegraph, 26 July 2010.
Trace International Inc. 2018. Trace bribery risk matrix. https://www.traceinternational.org/trace-matrix. Accessed 19 June 2018.
Transparency International. 2011. Bribe Payers Index 2011. Transparency International.
Transparency International. 2016. Corruption Perceptions Index 2015. In ed. Beddow, R, Transparency International.
Transparency International. 2017a. Anti-corruption glossary. https://www.transparency.org/glossary/term/bribery. Accessed 26 July 2017.
Transparency International. 2017b. What is transparency?. https://www.transparency.org/what-is-corruption#what-is-transparency. Accessed 26 July 2017.
UCI. 2017. 2016 Annual report. Aigle: Union Cycliste Internationale.
UEFA. 2018. UEFA and the Council of Europe sign memorandum of understanding. https://www.uefa.com/insideuefa/about-uefa/news/newsid=2561781.html. Accessed 04 June 2018.
UNODC. 2018. Corruption and sports [Online]. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/corruption/sports.html. Accessed 04 June 2018.
US DOJ & SEC. 2012. A resource guide to the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. In ed. Justice CDOTUSDO, & Commission EDOTUSSAE, U.S. Department of Justice; U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission.
US DOJ. 2017. High-ranking soccer officials convicted in multi-million dollar bribery schemes. Available: https://www.justice.gov/usao-edny/pr/high-ranking-soccer-officials-convicted-multi-million-dollar-bribery-schemes. Accessed 07 June 2018.
Walsh, D. 2013. Seven deadly sins: My pursuit of Lance Armstrong. London: Simon & Schuster UK Ltd.
Walsh, A., and R. Giulianotti. 2007. Ethics, money and sport: This sporting Mammon. London: Routledge.
Weaver, P. 2010. Formula one, integrity nil: Ferrari and the worst brand of cheating. The Guardian, 27 July 2010. https://www.theguardian.com/sport/blog/2010/jul/27/ferrari-cheating-alonso-massa.
Wolfe, D.T., and D.R. Hermanson. 2004. The fraud diamond: Considering the four elements of fraud. CPA Journal 74: 38–42.
Wragge, A., and J. Trusty. 2018. All about RICO. In Bribe, swindle or steal [Podcast] https://www.traceinternational.org/bribe_swindle_or_steal.
Wu, A. 2018. Umpires allegedly involved in match fixing in UAE’s unsanctioned Twenty20 league. Stuff [Online]. Available: https://www.stuff.co.nz/sport/cricket/101143849/umpires-allegedly-involved-in-match-fixing-in-uaes-unsanctioned-t20-league.
Xie, J., and F. Yukio. 2013. A new finding for corporate board size effects: Evidence from Japan. Singapore Economic Review 58: 1–12.
Yermack, D. 1996. Higher market valuation of companies with a small board of directors. Journal of Financial Economics 40: 185–211.
Yost, M. 2010. Varsity green: A behind the scenes look at culture and corruption in college athletics. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Youd, K. 2014. Winter’s tale of corruption: The 2022 FIFA World Cup in Qatar, the impending shift to winter, and potential legal actions against FIFA, The [comments].
Ziewacz, L.E. 2005. Dr. J, Bird, Magic, Jordan, and the detroit bad boys: The NBA in the 1980s. In Basketball in America: From the playgrounds to Jordan’s game and beyond, ed. B. Batchelor. Binghamton, NY: Haworth.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Rights and permissions
About this article
Cite this article
Philippou, C. Towards a unified framework for anti-bribery in sport governance. Int J Discl Gov 16, 83–99 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1057/s41310-019-00058-w
- Corporate governance
- Sport governance