Advertisement

Higher Education Policy

, Volume 30, Issue 4, pp 499–516 | Cite as

Regional Development: Lifelong Learning as a Priority in Norway and the Czech Republic?

  • Michaela Šmídová
  • Olga Šmídová
  • Nina Kyllingstad
  • James Karlsen
Original Article
  • 85 Downloads

Abstract

Lifelong learning (LLL) as part of the third mission agenda of higher education institutions (HEIs) has been prioritized yet understudied, especially regarding the implementation of supranational and national LLL strategies in institutional third mission arrangements. Addressing this limitation, the current paper aims at analyzing strategic approaches toward the institutionalization of LLL in the Czech Republic (CR) and Norway (NOR), with implications for HEIs in the Vysočina region (CR) and Agder region (NOR). More specifically, we comparatively explore the underlying characteristics of system-level LLL strategies and the extent to which those spill into the development policies of Vysočina and Agder as carried out by the regions’ HEIs and regional administrations. Utilizing a mixed approach methodologically and conceptually building on models of LLL by Schuetze and Casey (2006), our findings show different national approaches and aims of LLL; NOR is a close-to-open society model, and CR is closer to a human capital model. Nevertheless, LLL practices are rather similar in both countries, and they do tend to be only partial.

Keywords

lifelong learning higher education regional development models of lifelong learning cross-country analysis 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The research leading to these results has received funding from the Norwegian Financial Mechanism 2009–2014 and the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic under Project Contract no. MSMT-5397/2015 and the Subsidy based on decision no. 37-RVO/2017 of the Czech Republic Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports.

References

  1. Acs, Z.J., Anselin, L. and Varga, A. (2002) ‘Patents and innovation counts as measures of regional production of new knowledge’, Research Policy 31(7): 1069–1085.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arbo, P. and Benneworth, P. (2007) Understanding the Regional Contribution of Higher Education Institutions: A Literature Review, OECD Education Working Papers no. 9, Paris: OECD Publishing.Google Scholar
  3. Baumann, Z. (2012) Liquid Modernity, Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  4. Beck, U., and Beck-Gernsheim, E. (2002) Individualization: Institutionalized Individualism and its Social and Political Consequences, London: Sage.Google Scholar
  5. Biesta, G. (2006) ‘What’s the point of lifelong learning if lifelong learning has no point? On the democratic deficit of policies for lifelong learning’, European Educational Research Journal 5(3–4): 169–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bourgeois, E., Duke, C., Guyot, J.L. and Merrill, B. (1999) The Adult University, Buckingham: Open University Press/SRHE.Google Scholar
  7. Brandt, E. (2001) ‘Lifelong learning in Norwegian universities’, European Journal of Education 36(3): 265–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bron, A. and Age’lii, K. (2013) ‘Sweden Non-traditional students in higher education in Sweden: from recurrent education to lifelong learning’, in H. Schuetze, and M. Slowey (eds.). Higher Education and Lifelong Learning: International Perspectives on Change, London: Routledge Falmer, pp. 83–100.Google Scholar
  9. Caniëls, M.C., and van den Bosch, H. (2011) ‘The role of higher education institutions in building regional innovation systems’, Papers in Regional Science 90(2): 271–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chatterton, P. and Goddard, J. (2000) ‘The response of higher education institutions to regional needs’, European Journal of Education 35(4): 475–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. CSO. (2016) Rychlý růst vzdělanosti žen [Rapid growth of women’s education], Praha: CSO, https://www.czso.cz/documents/10180/36740468/czam110316analyza.pdf/37cd7812-3f3e-43f1-a364-3425f831df5d?version=1.0, accessed 2 December 2016.
  12. CSO (2015) Vzdělávání dospělých: specifické výstupy z šetření Adult Education Survey – 2011 [Adult education: specific outputs from the Adult Education Survey – 2011], Praha: CSO, https://www.czso.cz/csu/czso/vzdelavani-dospelych-specificke-vystupy-z-setreni-adult-education-survey-n-8d6jxtzxhj, accessed 15 October 2016.
  13. DVmonitor. (2011) Financování dalšího vzdělávání [Further Education Funding], http://www.dvmonitor.cz/financovani-dalsiho-vzdelavani, accessed 3 September 2016.
  14. European Commission. (2009) The Bologna Process 2020-The European higher education area in the new decade, Brussel: European Commission.Google Scholar
  15. European University Association. (2008) European universities’ charter on lifelong learning, Brussel: European University Association.Google Scholar
  16. Eurostat. (2011) Adult Education Survey 2011, Brussels: European Commission.Google Scholar
  17. Eurostudent IV. (2011) Social and Economic Conditions of Student Life in Europe, Bielefeld: W. Bertelsmann.Google Scholar
  18. Green, A. (2005) Models of lifelong learning and the knowledge economy/society in Europe: what regional patterns are emerging? Paper presented at the European Conference on Educational Research, University of Crete; 22–25 September.Google Scholar
  19. Green, A. (2002) ‘Many faces of lifelong learning: Recent education policy trends in Europe’, Journal of Education Policy 17(6): 611–626.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Helland, H. (2005) Realkompetansestudenters bortvalg og studiepoengsproduksjon [Drop-out from higher education and credit production by students with total qualification], Report 6/2005, Oslo: Nordic Institute for Studies in Innovation, Research and Education (NIFU).Google Scholar
  21. Helland, H. and Opheim, V. (2004) Kartlegging av realkompetanse reformen [Mapping the total qualifications reform], NIFU Skriftserie 6/2004, Oslo: NIFU.Google Scholar
  22. Hovdhaugen, E. (2013) Widening participation in Norwegian higher education, Oslo: NIFU.Google Scholar
  23. Jaeger, A. and Kopper, J. (2013) Measuring the Regional “Third-Mission-Potential” of Different Types of HEIs, Mönchengladbach: Niederrhine Institute for Regional and Structural Research, Hochschule Niederrhein-University of Applied Sciences.Google Scholar
  24. Jarvis, P. (2007) Globalization, lifelong learning and the learning society: Sociological perspectives, London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  25. Kalenda, J. (2015) ‘The Issue of Non-formal Adult Education in the Czech Republic’, Asian Social Science 11(3): 37.Google Scholar
  26. Kehm, B. (2015) ‘The challenge of lifelong learning for higher education’, International Higher Education 22(1): 5–7.Google Scholar
  27. Lepori, B., Benninghoff, M., Jongbloed, B., Salerno, C. and Slipersaeter, S. (2007) ‘Changing models and patterns of higher education funding: some empirical evidence’, in A. Bonaccorsi and C. Daraio (eds.). Universities and strategic knowledge creation, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, pp. 85–111.Google Scholar
  28. Longworth, N. and Davies, W.K. (2014) Lifelong learning, London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  29. Ministry of education, youth and sport (MEYS). (2016) Statistics of tertiary education, Praha: MEYS, http://www.msmt.cz/vzdelavani/skolstvi-v-cr/statistika-skolstvi/data-o-studentech-poprve-zapsanych-a-absolventech-vysokych, accessed 23 September 2016.
  30. MEYS. (2015) Long term strategic plan for higher education institutions 20162020, Praha: MEYS, http://www.vzdelavani2020.cz/images_obsah/dokumenty/strategie/dz-vs-2016-2020.pdf, accessed 24 September 2016.
  31. MEYS. (2014a) Budget for HEIs funding, Praha: MEYS, http://www.msmt.cz/vzdelavani/vysoke-skolstvi/rozpis-rozpoctu-vysokych-skol-na-rok-2014, accessed 10 October 2016.
  32. MEYS. (2014b) Framework for higher education development 20142020, Praha: MEYS, http://www.msmt.cz/uploads/odbor_30/Jakub/Ramec_rozvoje_vysokeho_skolstvi_do_roku_2020_oficial_pdf.pdf, accessed 23 September 2016.
  33. MEYS. (2007) Strategy for lifelong learning 20102015, Praha: MEYS, http://www.msmt.cz/uploads/Zalezitosti_EU/strategie_2007_EN_web_jednostrany.pdf, accessed 23 September 2016.
  34. Ministry of Regional Development. (2013) Strategy of regional development 20142020, Praha: Ministry of Regional Development, http://www.mmr.cz/getmedia/08e2e8d8-4c18-4e15-a7e2-0fa481336016/SRR-2014-2020.pdf?ext=.pdf, accessed 24 September 2016.
  35. Ollsen, M. and Peters, M. A. (2005) ‘Neoliberalism, higher education and the knowledge economy from the free market to knowledge capitalism’, Journal of Education Policy 20(3): 313–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. OECD. (2016) Education at Glance 2016: OECD Indicators, Paris: OECD Publishing.Google Scholar
  37. OECD Centre for Educational Research and Innovation. (1982) The University and the community: The problems of changing relationships, Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
  38. Prudký, L., Pabian, P. and Šima, K. (2014) České vysoké školství: Na cestě od elitního k univerzálnímu vzdělávání 19892009 [The Czech higher education: on the road from elite toward universal education], Praha: Grada.Google Scholar
  39. Rabušicová, M. and Rabušic, L. (2008) Učíme se po celý život? O vzdělávání dospělých v České republice [Do we learn whole life? On the adult education in the Czech Republic], Brno: Masarykova univerzita.Google Scholar
  40. Regional office of Vysočina. (2015) Strategy for the Development of the Vysočina region 2020, Jihlava: Regional office of Vysočina, https://www.kr-vysocina.cz/strategie%2Dkraje%2Dvysocina%2D2020/ds-302546/archiv=0, accessed 30 August 2016.
  41. Regjeringen. (2016) Fra utenforskap til ny sjanse - Samordnet innsats for voksnes læring [From social exclusion to a second chance — coordinated efforts for adult learning], Meld. St. nr. 16, Oslo: Regjeringen, https://www.regjeringen.no/no/dokumenter/meld.-st.-16-20152016/id2476199/?q=livslang%20l%C3%A6ring&ch=3, accessed 10 October 2016.
  42. Regjeringen. (2015) Voksne og utenforskap [Adults and social exclusion], Oslo: Regjeringen, https://www.regjeringen.no/no/tema/utdanning/voksnes_laering_og_kompetanse/innsiktsartikler/voksne-og-utenforskap/id2343654/, accessed 10 September 2016.
  43. Regjeringen. (2014a) Report to the Storting Social inclusion and a second chanceCoordinated efforts for adult learning, Oslo: Regjeringen, https://www.regjeringen.no/en/topics/education/voksnes-laring-og-kompetanse/innsiktsartikler/opplaring-for-voksne/id2343654/, accessed 10 September 2016.
  44. Regjeringen. (2014b) White Paper on Adult Education, Oslo: Regjeringen, https://www.regjeringen.no/en/topics/education/voksnes-laring-og-kompetanse/innsiktsartikler/opplaring-for-voksne/id2343654/, accessed 10 September 2016.
  45. Regjeringen. (2014c) Livlang læring og utenforskap [Lifelong learning and social exclusion], Oslo: Regjeringen, https://www.regjeringen.no/no/aktuelt/Livslang-laring-og-utenforskap/id757397/, accessed 10 September 2016.
  46. Regjeringen. (2011) Nasjonalt kvalifikasjonsrammeverk for livslang læring (NKR) [National qualification framework for lifelong learning], Oslo: Regjeringen, https://www.regjeringen.no/globalassets/upload/KD/Vedlegg/Kompetanse/NKR2011mvedlegg.pdf, accessed 10 September 2016.
  47. Sandberg, T. (2016) ‘Frykter UiA må kutte arstilbud’[UiA fears: cut of annual offers], Faedrelandsvennen, 10 October.Google Scholar
  48. Scheufele, D. A. (2000) ‘Agenda-setting, priming, and framing revisited: Another look at cognitive effects of political communication’, Mass Communication & Society 3(2–3): 297–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Schuetze, H. G. (2014) ‘From adults to non-traditional students to lifelong learners in higher education: Changing contexts and perspectives’, Journal of Adult and Continuing Education 20(2): 37–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Schuetze, H. G. and Casey, C. (2006) ‘Models and meanings of lifelong learning: Progress and barriers on the road to a learning society’, Compare 36(3): 279–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Schuetze, H. G. and Slowey, M. (2002) ‘Participation and exclusion: A comparative analysis of non-traditional students and lifelong-learners in higher education’, Higher Education 44(3–4): 309–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Smidt, H. (2008) Do European universities have a strategy for lifelong learning? EUA Bologna Handbook, Berlin: Raabe Verlag.Google Scholar
  53. Smith, H.L. (2007) ‘Universities, innovation, and territorial development: a review of the evidence’, Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy 25(1): 98–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Souto-Otero, M. and Whitworth, A. (2016) ‘Adult participation in higher education and the ‘knowledge economy’: a cross-national analysis of patterns of delayed participation in higher education across 15 European countries’, British Journal of Sociology of Education, first published online 19 Apr 2016, doi: 10.1080/01425692.2016.1158639.
  55. Souto-Otero, M. (2011) The role of higher education institutions as providers of continuous professional learning and adult education, Bath: Opus: University of Bath Online Publication Store, http://opus.bath.ac.uk/30285/1/higher_en_providers_adult_learning.pdf, accessed 24 September 2016.
  56. Straková, J. and Veselý, A. (2015) ‘Mezinárodní výzkum kompetencí dospělých PIAAC: hlavní zjištění a implikace pro vzdělávací politiku’ [PIAAC international competence research: key findings and Implications for educational policy], Pedagogická Orientace 25(4): 509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Universitetet i Agder. (2016) Strategi 20162020 [Strategy 2016–2020], http://www.uia.no/om-uia/organisasjon/strategi-2016-2020, accessed 10 September 2016.
  58. Universitete i Agder. (2005) MOT 2010 Strategiplan [Toward 2010 Strategic plan], https://www.uia.no/content/download/51434/468297/file/HiAStrategi2005%5B1%5D.pdf, accessed 10 September 2016.
  59. Uyarra, E. (2008) The impact of universities on regional innovation: A critique and policy implications (No. 564), Manchester Business School Working Paper, Manchester: The University of Manchester, https://www.econstor.eu/bitstream/10419/50728/1/584768265.pdf, accessed 24 September 2016.
  60. Watson, D. (2009) ‘Universities and Lifelong Learning’, in. P. Jarvis (ed.). Handbook of Lifelong Learning, London: Routledge, pp. 101–113.Google Scholar
  61. Wiborg, Ø., Børing, P. and Skule, S. (2013) Livslang læring og mobilitet i arbeidsmarkedet - En studie av formell og uformell viderutdanning blandt norske arbeidstakere basert på Lærevilkårsmonitoren [Lifelong learning and mobility in the labor market — A study of formal and informal secondary education among Norwegian workers based on the Learning Conditions Monitor], vol. 8, Oslo: NIFU, http://www.nifu.no/files/2013/03/NIFUrapport2013-81.pdf, accessed 10 September 2016.
  62. Zelenka, M., and Koucký. J. (2013) Zaměstnatelnost a uplatnění absolventů vysokých škol na pracovním trhu 2013 [Employability of graduates in the labor market 2013], Praha: Středisko vzdělávací politiky.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© International Association of Universities 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michaela Šmídová
    • 1
  • Olga Šmídová
    • 1
  • Nina Kyllingstad
    • 1
  • James Karlsen
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for Higher Education StudiesPragueCzechia

Personalised recommendations