Crime is concentrated at the individual level (hot dots) as well as at area level (hot spots). Research on repeat victimisation affords rich prevention opportunities but has been increasingly marginalised by policy makers and implementers despite repeat victims accounting for increasing proportions of total crime. The present paper seeks to trigger a resurgence of interest in research and initiatives based on the prevention of repeat victimisation.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
http://www.cla.temple.edu/cj/resources/near-repeat-calculator/ accessed Jan 22, 2018.
Bernasco, W. 2008. Them Again? Same-Offender Involvement in Repeat and Near Repeat Burglaries. European Journal of Criminology 5: 411–431.
Brady, T.V. 1996. Measuring What Matters. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice.
Bridgeman, C., and L. Hobbs. 1997. Preventing Repeat Victimisation: The Police Officer’s Guide. London: Home Office.
Bridgeman, C., and A. Sampson. 1994. Wise After the Event: Tackling Repeat Victimisation. London: Home Office.
Budz, D., N. Pegnall, and M. Townsley. 2001. Lightning Strikes Twice: Preventing Repeat Home Burglary. Queensland: Criminal Justice Commission.
Burquest, R., G. Farrell, and K. Pease. 1992. Lessons from Schools: Some Schools are Repeatedly Vandalised, and Burgled. Is There a Pattern Which Police Could Interrupt? Policing 8: 148–155.
Chatterton, M., D. Forrester, and K. Pease. 1988. The Kirkholt Burglary Prevention Demonstration Project, Rochdale. Crime Prevention Unit Paper 13. London: Home Office.
Clarke, R.V., E. Perkins, and D.J. Smith. 2007. Explaining Repeat Residential Burglaries: An Analysis of Property Stolen. In Repeat Victimization: Crime Prevention Studies, vol. 12, ed. G. Farrell and K. Pease, 119–132. Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press.
Farrell, G. 1992. Multiple Victimisation: Its Extent and Significance. International Review of Victimology, 2 (2): 85–102.
Farrell, G., and A.C. Bouloukos. 2001. A Cross-national Comparative Analysis of Rates of Repeat Victimization. In Repeat Victimization: Crime Prevention Studies, vol. 12, ed. G. Farrell and K. Pease, 5–25. Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press.
Farrell, G., L. Hobbs, A. Edmunds, and G. Laycock. 2000. RV Snapshot: UK Policing and Repeat Victimization. Crime Reduction Research Series. Policing and Reducing Crime Unit Paper 5. London: Home Office.
Farrell, G., and K. Pease. 1997. Repeat Victim Support. British Journal of Social Work 27: 101–113.
Farrell, G., and K. Pease. 2006. Preventing Repeat Residential Burglary Victimization. In Preventing Crime: What Works for Children, Offenders, Victims, and Places, ed. B.C. Welsh and D.P. Farrington, 161–176. Dordrecht: Springer.
Farrell, G., and K. Pease. 2017. Preventing Repeat and Near Repeat Crime Concentrations. In Handbook of Crime Prevention and Community Safety, ed. N. Tilley and A. Sidebottom. London: Routledge.
Farrell, G., A. Tseloni, and K. Pease. 2005. Repeat Victimization in the ICVS and the NCVS. Crime Prevention and Community Safety. 3: 7–18.
Grove, L., G. Farrell, D.P. Farrington, and S.D. Johnson. 2014. Preventing Repeat Victimisation: A Systematic Review. Stockholm: Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention.
Haberman, C.P., E.T. Song, and J.H. Ratcliffe. 2016. Assessing the Validity of the Law of Crime Concentration across Different Temporal Scales. Journal of Quantitative Criminology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10940-016-9327-4.
Herman, S., Wasserman, C. 2001. A Role for Victims in Offender Reentry. Crime Delinquency, 47 (3): 428–445.
Home Office. 2016. Modern Crime Prevention Strategy 2016, UK.
Ignatans, D., and K. Pease. 2018. Crime Concentrations: Hot Dots, Hot Spots and Hot Flushes. In Handbook of Environmental Criminology, ed. The Oxford. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Ignatans, D., and K. Pease. 2016a. Taking Crime Seriously: Playing the Weighting Game. Policing: a Journal of Policy and Practice 10(3): 184–193.
Ignatans, D., and K. Pease. 2016b. On Whom Does the Burden of Crime Fall Now? Changes Over Time in Counts and Concentration. International Review of Victimology 22(1): 55–63.
Ignatans, D., and K. Pease. 2015. Distributive Justice and the Crime Drop. In The Criminal Act: The Role and Influence of Routine Activity Theory, ed. M.A. Andresen and G. Farrell, 77–87. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Johnson, S.D. 2008. Repeat Burglary Victimisation: A Tale of Two Theories. Journal of Experimental Criminology 4: 215–240.
Johnson, S.D., and K.J. Bowers. 2014. Ear Repeats and Crime Forecasting. In Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice, ed. G. Bruinsma and D. Weisburd. New York: Springer.
Johnson, S.D. 2014. How Do Offenders Choose Where to Offend? Perspectives from Animal Foraging. Legal and Criminological Psychology 19: 193–210.
Konkiel, S. 2014, July 23. 4 Reasons Why Google Scholar isn’t as Great as You Think it is [Web Log Post]. http://blog.impactstory.org/googe-scholar-profiles-fail/.
Keay, S., and S. Kirby. 2017. Defining Vulnerability: From the Conceptual to the Operational. Policing 28: 1–11.
Kleemans, E.R. 2001. Repeat Burglary Victimisation: Results of Empirical Research in the Netherlands. In Repeat Victimization: Crime Prevention Studies, vol. 12, ed. G. Farrell and K. Pease, 53–68. Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press.
Laycock, G.K. 2001. Hypothesis Based Research: The Repeat Victimisation Story. Criminal Justice 1: 59–82.
Martín-Martín, A., J.M. Ayllón, E. Orduña-Malea, and E. Delgado López-Cózar. 2014. Google Scholar Metrics 2014: A low cost bibliometric tool. EC3 Working Papers, 17: 8 July 2014.
Matthews, R., C. Pease, and K. Pease. 1999. Repeat Victimisation of Banks, Building Societies, Betting Shops and Jewellers: Theme and Variations. In Repeat Victimization: Crime Prevention Studies, vol. 12, ed. G. Farrell and K. Pease, 153–164. Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press.
Matthews, R., Pease, C., Pease, K. 2001. Repeated Bank Robbery: Themes and Variations. Criminal Justice Press.
Mawby, R.I. 2001. The Impact of Repeat Victimisation on Burglary Victims in East and West Europe. In Repeat Victimization: Crime Prevention Studies, vol. 12, ed. G. Farrell and K. Pease, 69–82. Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press.
Moitra, S.D., and S.L. Konda. 2004. An Empirical Investigation of Network Attacks on Computer Systems. Computers and Security 23: 43–51.
Morgan, F. 2001. Repeat Burglary in a Perth Suburb: Indicator of Short-term or Long-term Risk. Crime Prevention Studies 12: 83–118.
Pease, K. 1991. The Kirkholt Project: Preventing Burglary on a British Public Housing Estate. Security Journal 2: 73–77.
Pease, K. 1998. Repeat Victimisation: Taking Stock. Crime Detection and Prevention Paper 90. London: Home Office.
Pease, K., and G. Farrell. 2017. Repeat Victimisation. In Environmental Criminology and Crime Analysis, 2nd ed, ed. R. Wortley and M. Townsley. London: Routledge.
Pease, K., and D. Ignatans. 2016. The Global Crime Drop and Changes in the Distribution of Victimisation. Crime Science 5(1): 11.
Pease, K., and G. Laycock. 1996. Reducing the Heat on Hot Victims. Australian Institute of Justice: Canberra.
Sidebottom, A. 2011. Repeat Burglary Victimization in Malawi and the Influence of Housing Type and Area-Level Influence. Security Journal 2: 265–281.
Tilley, N. 1993. After Kirkholt: Theory, Method and Results of Replication Evaluations. Crime Prevention Unit Paper 47. London: Home Office.
Tilley, N. 1995. Thinking About Crime Prevention Performance Indicators. Crime Prevention and Detection Series Paper 57. London: Home Office.
Titus, R.M., and A.R. Gover. 2001. Personal Fraud: The Victims and the Scams. In Repeat Victimization: Crime Prevention Studies, vol. 12, ed. G. Farrell and K. Pease, 133–151. Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press.
Townsley, M., R. Homel, and J. Chaseling. 2000. Repeat Burglary Victimisation: Spatial and Temporal Patterns. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology 33: 37–63.
Townsley, M., R. Homel, and J. Chaseling. 2003. Infectious Burglaries: A Test of the Near Repeat Hypothesis. British Journal of Criminology 43: 615–633.
Trickett, A., D. Osborn, J. Seymour, and K. Pease. 1992. What is Different About High Crime Areas? British Journal of Criminology 32: 81–89.
Tseloni, A., and K. Pease. 2003. Repeat Personal Victimisation: Boosts or Flags? British Journal of Criminology 43: 196–212.
Tseloni, A., and K. Pease. 2004. Repeat Personal Victimisation: Random Effects, Event Dependence and Unexplained Heterogeneity. British Journal of Criminology 44: 931–945.
Tseloni, A., K. Wittebrood, G. Farrell, and K. Pease. 2004. Cross-National Comparative Test of Routine Activities and Lifestyle Theories. British Journal of Criminology 44: 66–91.
Van Dijk, J.J.M. 2001. Attitudes of Victims and Repeat Victims Toward the Police: Results of the International Crime Victims Survey. In Repeat Victimization: Crime Prevention Studies, vol. 12, ed. G. Farrell and K. Pease, 27–52. Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press.
Walby S., and J. Allen. 2004. Domestic Violence, Sexual Assault and Stalking: Findings from the British Crime Survey. Home Office Research Study 276. London: Home Office.
Walby, S., and A. Myhill. 2001. New Survey Methodologies in Researching Violence Against Women. British Journal of Criminology 41(3): 502–522.
Walby, S., J. Towers, and B. Francis. 2016. Is Violent Crime Increasing or Decreasing? A New Methodology to Measure Repeat Attacks Making Visible the Significance of Gender and Domestic Relations. British Journal of Criminology 56: 1203–1234.
Weisburd, D. 2015. The Law of Crime Concentration and the Criminology of Place. Criminology 53: 133–157.
Weisel, D. 2005. Analyzing Repeat Victimization. Problem-Solving Tool Guide#4. COPS Office, US Department of Justice.
Weisel, D.L., R.V. Clarke, and J.R. Stedman. 1999. Hot Dots in Hot Spots: Examining Repeat Victimization for Residential Burglary in Three Cities. Final Report to the National Institute of Justice. Washington, DC: Police Executive Research Forum.
About this article
Cite this article
Pease, K., Ignatans, D. & Batty, L. Whatever happened to repeat victimisation?. Crime Prev Community Saf 20, 256–267 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1057/s41300-018-0051-x
- Repeat victimisation
- Crime concentration
- Victimisation inequality
- Evidence-based criminology