Corporate Reputation Review

, Volume 21, Issue 2, pp 84–100 | Cite as

How to Fix a Lie? The Formation of Volkswagen’s Post-crisis Reputation Among the German Public

  • Yijing Wang
  • Louisa Wanjek
Original Article


This study intends to clarify the psychological mechanism that explains the crisis responsibility and corporate reputation link, aiming at gaining knowledge on individuals’ perception formations in and reactions to a crisis. We extended the situational crisis communication theory through identifying the moderation effects of personal relevance and person–company fit in this relationship. The VW emissions scandal was investigated with respect to its impact on post-crisis reputation and negative word-of-mouth. A sample of 721 German respondents was analyzed through structural equation modeling. The results suggest that personal relevance strengthens the positive relationship between crisis responsibility and anger. Next to this, person–company fit weakens the impact of crisis responsibility on anger, as well as on sympathy. The results suggest that more attention needs to be drawn on the personal perspective in crisis communication, while different response strategies should be developed with respect to distinct stakeholder groups for protecting corporate reputation in the crisis context.


Corporate reputation Crisis communication Emotion Involvement Identification Responsibility 



We thank Dr. Guido Berens, the Editor of Corporate Reputation Review and two “anonymous” reviewers for their valuable feedback. We are also immensely grateful to Prof. Boris Bartikowski and Dr. Daniel Laufer for their constructive comments on an earlier version of the manuscript. Any errors are our own and should not tarnish the reputations of these esteemed scholars.


  1. Aiken, L., and S.G. West. 1991. Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, E.W. 1998. Customer satisfaction and word of mouth. Journal of Service Research 1 (1): 5–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ashforth, B.E., and F. Mael. 1989. Social identity theory and the organization. The Academy of management review 14 (1): 20–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Avnet, T., D. Laufer, and E.T. Higgins. 2013. Are all experiences of fit created equal? Two paths to persuasion. Journal of Consumer Psychology 23: 301–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Balabanis, G., and A. Diamantopoulos. 2004. Domestic country bias, country-of-origin effects, and consumer ethnocentrism: A multidimensional unfolding approach. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 32 (1): 80–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baron, R.M., and D.A. Kenny. 1986. The moderator–mediator variable distinction in social behaviours. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 51 (6): 443–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bender, R. 2015. Volkswagen scandal tests auto-loving Germany. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from
  8. Bhattacharya, C.B., and S. Sen. 2003. Consumer-company identification: A framework for understanding consumers’ relationships with companies. Journal of Marketing 67 (2): 76–88. Scholar
  9. Brown, K.A., and E.J. Ki. 2013. Developing a valid and reliable measure of organizational crisis responsibility. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly 90 (2): 363–384. Scholar
  10. Byrne, B.M. 2013. Structural equation modeling with AMOS: Basic concepts, applications, and programming. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  11. Carroll, C. 2009. Defying a reputational crisis–Cadbury’s salmonella scare: Why are customers willing to forgive and forget? Corporate Reputation Review 12 (1): 64–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Celsi, R.L., and J.C. Olson. 1988. The role of involvement in attention and comprehension processes. Journal of Consumer Research 15 (2): 210–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Choi, J., and W. Chung. 2013. Analysis of the interactive relationship between apology and product involvement in crisis communication: Study on the Toyota recall crisis. Journal of Business and Technical Communication 27 (1): 3–31. Scholar
  14. Choi, Y., and Y.H. Lin. 2009a. Consumer response to crisis: Exploring the concept of involvement in Mattel product recalls. Public Relations Review 35: 18–22. Scholar
  15. Choi, Y., and Y.H. Lin. 2009b. Consumer responses to Mattel product recalls posted on online bulletin boards: Exploring two types of emotion. Journal of Public Relations Research 21 (2): 198–207. Scholar
  16. Choi, Y., and Y.H. Lin. 2009c. Individual difference in crisis response perception: How do legal experts and lay people perceive apology and compassion responses? Public Relations Review 35: 452–454. Scholar
  17. Chu, K.K., and C.H. Li. 2012. The study of the effects of identity-related judgment, affective identification and continuance commitment on WOM behavior. Quality & Quantity 46 (1): 221–236. Scholar
  18. Claeys, A.S., and V. Cauberghe. 2014. What makes crisis response strategies work? The impact of crisis involvement and message framing. Journal of Business Research 67 (2): 182–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Claeys, A.S., and V. Cauberghe. 2015. The role of a favorable pre-crisis reputation in protecting organizations during crises. Public Relations Review 41 (1): 64–71. Scholar
  20. Claeys, A., V. Cauberghe, and P. Vyncke. 2010. Restoring reputations in times of crisis: An experimental study of the situational crisis communication theory and the moderating effects of locus of control. Public Relations Review 36: 256–262. Scholar
  21. Conway, E., N. Fu, K. Monks, K. Alfes, and C. Bailey. 2015. Demands or resources? The relationship between HR practices, employee engagement, and emotional exhaustion within a hybrid model of employment relations. Human Resource Management. Scholar
  22. Coombs, W.T. 2004. Impact of past crises on current crisis communication insights from situational crisis communication theory. Journal of business Communication 41 (3): 265–289. Scholar
  23. Coombs, W.T. 2007. Protecting organization reputations during a crisis: The development and application of situational crisis communication theory. Corporate Reputation Review 10 (3): 163–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Coombs, W.T. 2010. Parameters for crisis communication. In The handbook of crisis communication, ed. W.T. Coombs, and S.J. Holladay, 17–53. Malden, MA: Blackwell.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Coombs, W.T. 2014. Crisis communication: A developing field. In Crisis communication, vol. I, ed. W.T. Coombs, 3–18. London: SAGE.Google Scholar
  26. Coombs, W.T. 2015. The value of communication during a crisis: Insights from strategic communication research. Business Horizons 58: 141–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Coombs, W.T., and S.J. Holladay. 1996. Communication and attributions in a crisis: An experimental study in crisis communication. Journal of Public Relations Research 8 (4): 279–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Coombs, W.T., and S.J. Holladay. 2002. Helping crisis managers protect reputational assets initial tests of the situational crisis communication theory. Management Communication Quarterly 16 (2): 165–186. Scholar
  29. Coombs, W.T., and S.J. Holladay. 2004. Reasoned action in crisis communication: An attribution theory-based approach to crisis management. In. In Responding to crisis: A rhetorical approach to crisis communication, ed. D.P. Millar, and R.L. Heath, 95–115. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  30. Coombs, W.T., and S.J. Holladay. 2005. An exploratory study of stakeholder emotions: Affect and crises. The Effect of Affect in Organizational Settings 1: 263–280. Scholar
  31. Coombs, W.T., and S.J. Holladay. 2006. Unpacking the halo effect: Reputation and crisis management. Journal of Communication Management 10 (2): 123–137. Scholar
  32. Coombs, W.T., and S.J. Holladay. 2007. The negative communication dynamic. Exploring the impact of stakeholder affect on behavioral intentions. Journal of Communication Management 11 (4): 300–312. Scholar
  33. Coombs, W.T., and S.J. Holladay. 2008. Comparing apology to equivalent crisis response strategies: Clarifying apology’s role and value in crisis communication. Public Relations Review 34: 252–257. Scholar
  34. Coombs, W.T., and S.J. Holladay. 2009. Further explorations of post-crisis communication: Effects of media and response strategies on perceptions and intentions. Public Relations Review 35: 1–6. Scholar
  35. Coombs, W.T., and S.J. Holladay. 2014. How publics react to crisis communication efforts: Comparing crisis response reactions across sub-arenas. Journal of Communication Management 18 (1): 40–57. Scholar
  36. Coombs, W.T., T.A. Fediuk, and S.J. Holladay. 2007. Further explorations of post-crisis communication and stakeholder anger: The negative communication dynamic model. Paper presented at the international public relations research conference.Google Scholar
  37. Dawar, N., and M. Pillutla. 2000. Impact of product-harm crises on brand equity: The moderating role of consumer expectations. Journal of Marketing Research 37: 215–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Dean, D.H. 2004. Consumer reaction to negative publicity effects of corporate reputation, response, and responsibility for a crisis event. Journal of Business Communication 41 (2): 192–211. Scholar
  39. Du, S., C.B. Bhattacharya, and S. Sen. 2007. Reaping relational rewards from corporate social responsibility: The role of competitive positioning. International Journal of Research in Marketing 24 (3): 224–241. Scholar
  40. Dutton, J.E., J.M. Dukerich, and C.V. Harquail. 1994. Organizational images and member identification. Administrative Science Quarterly 39 (2): 239–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Einwiller, S.A., A. Fedorikhin, A.R. Johnson, and M.A. Kamins. 2006. Enough is enough! When identification no longer prevents negative corporate associations. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 34 (2): 185–194. Scholar
  42. Etayankara, M., & Bapuji, H. 2009. Product recalls: A review of literature. Paper presented at Administrative Sciences Association of Canada (30), Niagara Falls, Canada.Google Scholar
  43. Folkman, S., and J.T. Moskowitz. 2000. Positive affect and the other side of coping. American Psychologist 55 (6): 647–654. Scholar
  44. Fombrun, C. 2015. About Volkswagen, reputation, and social responsibility [Blog post]. Retrieved 26 January 2016, from
  45. Fombrun, C.J., and C.B.M. van Riel. 2004. Fame & Fortune: How successful companies build winning reputation. New York: Prentice-Hall Financial Times.Google Scholar
  46. Fornell, C., and D.F. Larcker. 1981. Structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error: Algebra and statistics. Journal of Marketing Research 18: 382–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Garcia, T. 2015. Volkswagen’s PR response made problem worse, experts say. MarketWatch. Retrived from
  48. Geier, B. 2015. Everything to know about Volkswagen’s emissions crisis. Fortune. Retrieved from
  49. Gibson, D., J.L. Gonzales, and J. Castanon. 2006. The importance of reputation and the role of public relations. Public Relations Quarterly 51 (3): 15–18.Google Scholar
  50. Goyette, I., L. Ricard, J. Bergeron, and F. Marticottte. 2010. e-WOM Scale: Word-of-mouth measurement scale for e-services context. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences 27: 5–23. Scholar
  51. Gruen, R.J., and G. Mendelsohn. 1986. Emotional responses to affective displays in others: The distinction between empathy and sympathy. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 51 (3): 609–614.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Grunwald, G., and B. Hempelmann. 2011. Impacts of reputation for quality on perceptions of company responsibility and product-related dangers in times of product-recall and public complaints crises: Results from an empirical investigation. Corporate Reputation Review 13 (4): 264–283. Scholar
  53. Harrison-Walker, L.J. 2001. The measurement of word-of-mouth communication and an investigation of service quality and customer commitment as potential antecedents. Journal of Service Research 4 (1): 60–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Härtel, C.E., J.R. McColl-Kennedy, and L. McDonald. 1998. Incorporating attributional theory and the theory of reasoned action within an affective events theory framework to produce a contingency predictive model of consumer reactions to organizational mishaps. Advances in Consumer Research 25: 428–432.Google Scholar
  55. heise online. 2016. Abgas-Skandal: VW beginnt mit Rückruf – zunächst für das Modell Amarok. Retrieved from
  56. Hair, J.F., W.C. Black, B.J. Babin, and R.E. Anderson. 2010. Multivariate data analysis, 7th ed. Upper Sadle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  57. Heath, R.L., and W. Douglas. 1990. Involvement: A key variable in people’s reaction to public policy issues. In Public relations research annual, ed. L.A. Grunig, and J.E. Grunig, 193–204. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  58. Hennig-Thurau, T., K.P. Gwinner, G. Walsh, and D.D. Gremler. 2004. Electronic word-of-mouth via consumer-opinion platforms: What motivates consumers to articulate themselves on the internet? Journal of Interactive Marketing 18 (1): 38–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Iyer, A., and J. Oldmeadow. 2006. Picture this: Emotional and political responses to photographs of the Kenneth Bigley kidnapping. European Journal of Social Psychology 36 (5): 635–647. Scholar
  60. Jin, Y. 2009. The effects of public’s cognitive appraisal of emotions in crises on crisis coping and strategy assessment. Public Relations Review 35: 310–313. Scholar
  61. Jin, Y. 2010. Making sense sensibly in crisis communication: How publics’ crisis appraisals influence their negative emotions, coping strategy preferences, and crisis response acceptance. Communication Research 37 (4): 522–552. Scholar
  62. Jin, Y. 2014. Examining publics’ crisis responses according to different shades of anger and sympathy. Journal of Public Relations Research 26 (1): 79–101. Scholar
  63. Jin, Y., A. Pang, and G.T. Cameron. 2007. Integrated crisis mapping: Towards a publics-based, emotion-driven conceptualization in crisis communication. Sphera Publica 7 (1): 81–96.Google Scholar
  64. Jin, Y., A. Pang, and G.T. Cameron. 2012. Toward a publics-driven, emotion-based conceptualization in crisis communication: Unearthing dominant emotions in multi-staged testing of the integrated crisis mapping (ICM) model. Journal of Public Relations Research 24: 266–298. Scholar
  65. Keh, H.T., and Y. Xie. 2009. Corporate reputation and customer behavioral intentions: The roles of trust, identification and commitment. Industrial Marketing Management 38 (7): 732–742. Scholar
  66. Kiambi, D.M., and A. Shafer. 2015. Corporate crisis communication: Examining the interplay of reputation and crisis response strategies. Mass Communication and Society. Scholar
  67. Kim, H.J., and G.T. Cameron. 2011. Emotions matter in crisis: The role of anger and sadness in the publics’ response to crisis news framing and corporate crisis response. Communication Research 38 (6): 826–855. Scholar
  68. Kim, H.R., M. Lee, H.T. Lee, and N.M. Kim. 2010. Corporate social responsibility and employee-company identification. Journal of Business Ethics 95 (4): 557–569.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Kollewe, J. 2015. Volkswagen emissions scandal—timeline. The Guardian. Retrieved from
  70. Laczniak, R., T. DeCarlo, and S. Ramaswami. 2001. Consumers’ responses to negative word-of-mouth communication: An attributions theory perspective. Journal of Consumer Psychology 11 (1): 57–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Laufer, D., and J.M. Jung. 2010. Incorporating regulatory focus theory in product recall communications to increase compliance with a product recall. Public Relations Review 36: 147–151. Scholar
  72. Laufer, D., and W.T. Coombs. 2006. How should a company respond to a product harm crisis? The role of corporate reputation and consumer-based cues. Business Horizons 49 (5): 379–385. Scholar
  73. Laufer, D., and Y. Wang. 2017. Guilty by association: The risk of crisis contagion. Business Horizons. Scholar
  74. Lee, B.K. 2004. Audience-oriented approach to crisis communication: A study of Hong Kong consumers’ evaluation of an organizational crisis. Communication Research 31 (5): 600–618. Scholar
  75. Leventhal, R.C. 1997. Aging consumers and their effects on the marketplace. Journal of consumer Marketing 14 (4): 276–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Liao, H., K. Toya, D.P. Lepak, and Y. Hong. 2009. Do they see eye to eye? Management and employee perspectives of high-performance work systems and influence processes on service quality. Journal of Applied Psychology 94 (2): 371–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Lichtenstein, D.R., M.E. Drumwright, and B.M. Braig. 2004. The effect of corporate social responsibility on customer donations to corporate-supported nonprofits. Journal of Marketing 68 (4): 16–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Lin, C.P., S.C. Chen, C.K. Chiu, and W.Y. Lee. 2011. Understanding purchase intention during product-harm crises: Moderating effects of perceived corporate ability and corporate social responsibility. Journal of Business Ethics 102 (3): 455–471. Scholar
  79. Lindner, E.G. 2006. Emotion and conflict: Why it is important to understand how emotions affect conflict and how conflict affects emotions. In The handbook of conflict resolution: Theory and practice, ed. M. Deutsch, P.T. Coleman, and E. Marcus, 268–293. San Francisco: Wiley.Google Scholar
  80. Luo, X., and C.B. Bhattacharya. 2006. Corporate social responsibility, customer satisfaction, and market value. Journal of Marketing 70 (4): 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Mael, F., and B.E. Ashforth. 1992. Alumni and their alma mater: A partial test of the reformulated model of organizational identification. Journal of Organizational Behavior 13 (2): 103–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. MacInnis, D.J., A.G. Rao, and A.M. Weiss. 2002. Assessing when increased media weight of real-world advertisements helps sales. Journal of Marketing Research 39 (4): 391–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. McDonald, L., and C.E. Härtel. 2000. Applying the involvement construct to organisational crises. In Proceedings of the Australian and New Zealand marketing academy conference, Gold Coast, Australia.Google Scholar
  84. McDonald, L., A.I. Glendon, and B. Sparks. 2011. Measuring consumers’ emotional reactions to company crises: Scale development and implications. Advances in Consumer Research 39: 333–340.Google Scholar
  85. McDonald, L.M., B. Sparks, and A.I. Glendon. 2010. Stakeholder reactions to company crisis communication and causes. Public Relations Review 36: 263–271. Scholar
  86. McGee, P. 2017. VW rebounds from crisis as earnings beat forecasts. Financial Times. Retrieved from
  87. Nunnally, J.C. 1978. Psychometric Theory, 2d ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  88. Pérez, R.C. 2009. Effects of perceived identity based on corporate social responsibility: The role of consumer identification with the company. Corporate Reputation Review 12 (2): 177–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Petty, R.E., and J.T. Cacioppo. 1981. Attitudes and persuasion: Classic and contemporary approaches. Dubuque: Wm. C. Brown Company Publishers.Google Scholar
  90. Petty, R.E., and J.T. Cacioppo. 1986. Communication and persuasion. Central and peripheral routes to attitude change. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  91. Rauwald, C. 2017. VW says it’s ‘back on track’ after restructuring, Bloomberg. Retrieved from
  92. Rea, B., Y.J. Wang, and J. Stoner. 2014. When a brand caught fire: The role of brand equity in product-harm crisis. Journal of Product & Brand Management 23 (7): 532–542. Scholar
  93. Reputation Institute. 2013. The global RepTrak® 100: The world’s most reputable companies (2013). RI report on consumer perceptions of companies in 15 Countries [Report]. Retrieved from®-100-Results-and-Report.aspx.
  94. Reputation Institute. 2014. The global RepTrak® 100: The world’s most reputable companies (2014). RI report on consumer perceptions of companies in 15 countries [Report]. Retrieved from
  95. Reputation Institute. 2015. The global RepTrak® 100: The world’s most reputable companies (2015). RI report on consumer perceptions of companies in 15 countries [Report]. Retrieved from
  96. Rhee, M., and P.R. Haunschild. 2006. The liability of good reputation: A study of product recalls in the US automobile industry. Organization Science 17 (1): 101–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Richins, M.L. 1984. Word of mouth communication as negative information. Advances in Consumer Research 11 (1): 697–702.Google Scholar
  98. Roehm, M.L., and A.M. Tybout. 2006. When will a brand scandal spill over, and how should competitors respond? Journal of Marketing Research 43 (3): 366–373. Scholar
  99. Salovey, P., and D.L. Rosenhan. 1989. Mood states and prosocial behaviour. In Handbook of psychology, ed. H. Wagner, and A. Manstead, 371–391. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  100. Schultz, F., S. Utz, and A. Göritz. 2011. Is the medium the message? Perceptions of and reactions to crisis communication via twitter, blogs and traditional media. Public Relations Review 37: 20–27. Scholar
  101. Sen, S., and C.B. Bhattacharya. 2001. Does doing good always lead to doing better? Consumer reactions to corporate social responsibility. Journal of Marketing Research 38 (2): 225–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Silverman, G. 2001. The power of word of mouth. Direct Marketing 64 (5): 47–52.Google Scholar
  103. SoSci Panel für Wissenschaftler. 2015. Retrieved from
  104. Sohn, Y.J., and R.W. Lariscy. 2015. A “buffer” or “boomerang?”—The role of corporate reputation in bad times. Communication Research 42 (2): 237–259. Scholar
  105. Szmigin, I., and M. Carrigan. 2001. Learning to love the older consumer. Journal of Consumer Behaviour 1 (1): 22–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Tajfel, H., and J.C. Turner. 1985. The social identity theory of intergroup behavior. In Psychology of intergroup relations, 2nd ed, ed. S. Worchel, and W.G. Austin, 7–24. Chicago: Nelson-Hall.Google Scholar
  107. The Guardian. 2016. VW global sales fell 2% in year emissions scandal hit. Retrieved from
  108. Theo, T., L. Ting Tsai, and C.-C. Yang. 2013. Applying structural equation modeling (SEM) in educational research: An introduction. In Application of structural equation modeling in educational research and practice, ed. M.S. Khine, 3–22. Rotterdam, NL: Sense Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Turk, J.V., Y. Jin, S. Stewart, J. Kim, and J.R. Hipple. 2012. Examining the interplay of an organization’s prior reputation, CEO’s visibility, and immediate response to a crisis. Public Relations Review 38 (4): 574–583. Scholar
  110. Utz, S., F. Schultz, and S. Glocka. 2013. Crisis communication online: How medium, crisis type and emotions affected public reactions in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster. Public Relations Review 39 (1): 40–46. Scholar
  111. van Riel, C.B.M., and C.J. Fombrun. 2007. Essentials of corporate communication. New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Vassilikopoulou, A., G. Siomkos, K. Chatzipanagiotou, and A. Pantouvakis. 2009. Product-harm crisis management: Time heals all wounds? Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 16 (3): 174–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Verlegh, P.W. 2007. Home country bias in product evaluation: The complementary roles of economic and socio-psychological motives. Journal of International Business Studies 38 (3): 361–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Vizard, S. 2015. Why Volkswagen cannot survive the emissions scandal unscathed. Marketing Week. Retrieved from
  115. Weiner, B. 1985. An attributional theory of achievement motivation and emotion. Psychological Review 92 (4): 548–573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Weiner, B. 1986. An attributional theory of motivation and emotion. New York: Springer Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Weiner, B. 2006. Social motivation, justice, and the moral emotions: An attributional approach. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc.Google Scholar
  118. Weiss, H.M., and R. Cropanzano. 1996. Affective events theory: A theoretical discussion of the structure, causes and consequences of affective experiences at work. Research in Organizational Behaviour 18: 1–74.Google Scholar
  119. Wetzer, I.M., M. Zeelenberg, and R. Pieters. 2007. “Never eat in that restaurant, I did!”: Exploring why people engage in negative word-of-mouth communication. Psychology & Marketing 24 (8): 661–680. Scholar
  120. Wigley, S., and M. Pfau. 2010. Communicating before a crisis: An exploration of bolstering, CSR, and inoculation practices. In The handbook of crisis communication, ed. W.T. Coombs, and S.J. Holladay, 607–634. Malden, MA: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  121. Xiao, N., and S. Hwan (Mark) Lee. 2014. Brand identity fit in co-branding: The moderating role of CB identification and consumer coping. European Journal of Marketing 48 (7/8): 1239–1254. Scholar
  122. Yu, T., M. Sengul, and R.H. Lester. 2008. Misery loves company: The spread of negative impacts resulting from an organizational crisis. Academy of Management Review 33 (2): 452–472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Zaichkowsky, J.L. 1985. Measuring the involvement construct. Journal of Consumer Research 12: 341–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Macmillan Publishers Ltd., part of Springer Nature & Reputation Institute 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Erasmus University RotterdamRotterdamNetherlands

Personalised recommendations