Corporate Reputation Review

, Volume 19, Issue 3, pp 219–243 | Cite as

Building Corporate Reputation Through Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Reports: The Case of Extractive Industries

  • S. Prakash Sethi
  • Terrence F. Martell
  • Mert Demir


Large corporations and industry groups have always used mass communication media to inform and educate important stakeholders and the general public on issues where corporate reputation and public trust are intertwined, and where any deterioration in the linkage can have significant negative consequences. An emerging trend in this direction has been the explosive growth in the voluntary publication of corporate social responsibility (CSR) reports. These reports, however, are vulnerable to corporate embellishments, which may erode their value as reputation-building instruments. To examine this situation, this paper provides a detailed and systematic analysis of 48 of the world’s largest corporations in the extractive industry (i.e., mining and minerals, oil and gas, and support services) that have published CSR reports in 2012. The extractive industry’s operations invariably raise important environmental, sociopolitical, and governance issues that are subject to heightened levels of public and regulatory scrutiny. Hence, their CSR reports carry a heavy burden of providing high-quality information that would engender public trust. Our examination of CSR reports of corporations is conducted through an analytical structure called the CSR-Sustainability Monitor® – the first system of its kind in the world that enables overall evaluations and comparisons of each CSR report with any other CSR report or group of CSR reports in our database. Our analysis shows that these companies’ CSR reports generally provide extensive information on major environmental, social, and governance issues. But they are less forthcoming on many controversial aspects of their operations that impact the public domain. This is unfortunate because it reduces public trust in the quality of these reports and undermines the value of one of the most important instruments of public communication available to the companies. Finally, we provide some suggestions that companies may incorporate into their CSR reports going forward.


corporate social responsibility (CSR) reports extractive industries environmental, social, and governance (ESG) issues CSR-Sustainability Monitor corporate reputation integrity assurance in CSR reporting 


  1. Adams, C.A. and Evans, R. (2004) ‘Accountability, completeness, credibility and the audit expectations gap’, Journal of Corporate Citizenship, 2004(14), 97–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aerts, W., Cormier, D. and Magnan, M. (2006) ‘Intra-industry imitation in corporate environmental reporting: An international perspective. (Report)’, Journal of Accounting and Public Policy, 25(3), 299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Antal, A.B. and Sobczak, A. (2004) ‘Beyond CSR: Organisational learning for global responsibility’, Journal of General Management, 30(2), 77–98.Google Scholar
  4. Ayine, D. (2001) The human rights dimension to corporate mining in Ghana: The case of Tarkwa district. In: Mining, Development and Social Conflicts in Africa. Accra Ghana: Third World Network, pp. 85–101.Google Scholar
  5. Ball, R., Kothari, S.P. and Robin, A. (2000) ‘The effect of international institutional factors on properties of accounting earnings’, Journal of Accounting and Economics, 29(1) 1–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Banks, G. (2002) ‘Mining and the environment in Melanesia: Contemporary debates reviewed’, Contemporary Pacific, 14(1), 39–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Beck, A.C., Campbell, D. and Shrives, P.J. (2010) ‘Content analysis in environmental reporting research: Enrichment and rehearsal of the method in a British–German context’, The British Accounting Review, 42(3), 207–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Boutilier, R. and Thomson, I. (2011) Modelling and Measuring the Social License to Operate: Fruits of a Dialogue Between Theory and Practice; 2011, Queensland, Australia. Queensland: International Mine Management.Google Scholar
  9. Brenkert, G. (2010) ‘The limits and prospects of business ethics’, Business Ethics Quarterly, 20(4), 703–709.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Briscoe, F., Chin, M.K. and Hambrick, D.C. (2014) ‘CEO ideology as an element of the corporate opportunity structure for social activists’, Academy of Management Journal, 57(6), 1786–1809.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. BrØnn, C. and BrØnn, P.S. (2015) ‘A systems approach to understanding how reputation contributes to competitive advantage’, Corporate Reputation Review 18(2), 69–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brown, T.J., Dacin, P.A., Pratt, M.G. and Whetten, D.A. (2006) ‘Identity, intended image, construed image, and reputation: An interdisciplinary framework and suggested terminology’, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 34(2), 99–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bush, M. (2010) ‘Shell breaks industry silence with aggressive campaign’, Advertising Age, 28 Jun: p 10.Google Scholar
  14. Campbell, D., Craven, B. and Shrives, P. (2003) ‘Voluntary social reporting in three FTSE sectors: A comment on perception and legitimacy’, Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, 16(4), 558–581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Casselman, B. (2010) ‘Chevron ad campaign answers critics head-on’, Wall Street Journal, 18 October: p B10.Google Scholar
  16. Christensen, L.J., Mackey, A. and Whetten, D. (2014) ‘Taking responsibility for corporate social responsibility: The role of leaders in creating, implementing, sustaining, or avoiding socially responsible firm behaviors’, The Academy of Management Perspectives, 28(2), 164–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Conaway, R.N. and Wardrope, W.J. (2010) ‘Do their words really matter? Thematic analysis of us and Latin American CEO letters’, Journal of Business Communication, 47(2), 141–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cragg, W. and Greenbaum, A. (2002) ‘Reasoning about responsibilities: Mining company managers on what stakeholders are owed’, Journal of Business Ethics, 39(3), 319–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Craig, R. and Amernic, J. (2011) ‘Detecting linguistic traces of destructive narcissism at-a-distance in a CEO’s letter to shareholders’, Journal of Business Ethics, 101(4), 563–575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Craig, R.J. and Brennan, N.M. (2012) ‘An exploration of the relationship between language choice in CEO letters to shareholders and corporate reputation’, Accounting Forum, 36(3), 166–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Creed, W.E.D., Scully, M.A. and Austin, J.R. (2002) ‘Clothes make the person? The tailoring of legitimating accounts and the social construction of identity’, Organization Science, 13, 475–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Criado-Jiménez, I., Fernández-chulián, M., Husillos-Carqués, F.J. and Larriga-Gonzáles, C. (2008) ‘Compliance with mandatory environmental reporting in financial statements: The case of Spain’, Journal of Business Ethics, 79(3), 245–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dacin, P.A. and Brown. T.J. (2002) ‘Corporate identity and corporate associations: A framework for future research’, Corporate Reputation Review, 5(2/3), 254–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. David, C. (2001) ‘Mythmaking in annual reports’, Journal of Business and Technical Communication, 15(2), 195–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Davies, G., Chun, R., da Silva, R.V. and Roper, S. (2003) Corporate Reputation and Competitiveness. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  26. De Beelde, I. and Tuybens, S. (2013) ‘Enhancing the credibility of reporting on corporate social responsibility in Europe’, Business Strategy and the Environment, 24(3), 190–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. de Colle, S. and Werhane, P.H. (2008) ‘Moral motivation across ethical theories: What can we learn for designing corporate ethics programs?’, Journal of Business Ethics 81(4), 751–764.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. De George, R. (2006) ‘Information technology, globalization and ethics’, Ethics and Information Technology, 8(1), 29–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Deephouse, D.L. and Carter, S.M. (2005) ‘An examination of differences between organizational legitimacy and organizational reputation’, Journal of Management Studies, 42(2), 329–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Delmas, M.A. and Toffel, M.W. (2011) Institutional pressures and organizational characteristics: Implications for environmental strategy. In: P. Bansal and A.J. Hoffman (eds) The Oxford Handbook of Business and the Natural Environment. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 231–247.Google Scholar
  31. Donaldson, T. and Preston, L. (1995) ‘The stakeholder theory of the corporation: Concepts, evidence, and implications’, The Academy of Management Review, 20(1), 65–91.Google Scholar
  32. Downing, T., Garcia-Downing, C., Moles, J. and McIntosh I. (2003) Mining and Indigenous Peoples: Stakeholder Strategies and Tactics. In: International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED) Report: Finding Common Ground: Indigenous Peoples and Their Association with the Mining Sector. London, UK: IIED, pp. 11–44.Google Scholar
  33. European Commission. (2014) Non-financial reporting, 29 September:, accessed 15 August 2014.
  34. Federation of European Accountants. (2014) EU Directive on disclosure of non-financial and diversity information by certain large undertakings and groups, June:, accessed 15 August 2014.
  35. Fombrun, C.J. (1996) Reputation: Realizing Value from the Corporate Image. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press.Google Scholar
  36. Fram, E., Sethi, S.P. and Namiki, N. (1991) ‘Newspaper advocacy advertising—A medium for discussing controversial public issues’, Journal of Promotion Management, 1991(Fall), 77–98.Google Scholar
  37. Gond, J.P. and Herrbach, O. (2006) ‘Social reporting as an organizational learning tool? A theoretical framework’, Journal of Business Ethics, 65(4), 359–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Goodpaster, K. (2011) ‘Goods that are truly good and services that truly serve: Reflections on “Caritas in Veritate.”’ Journal of Business Ethics, 100(1), 9–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hajkowicz, S., Heyenga, S. and Moffat, K. (2010) ‘The relationship between mining and socio-economic well being in Australia’s regions’, Resources Policy, 36(1), 30–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hall, E.T. (1973) The silent language. New York: Anchor.Google Scholar
  41. He, H. and Baruch, Y. (2010) ‘Organizational identity and legitimacy under major environmental changes: Tales of two UK building societies’, British Journal of Management, 21(1), 44–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hess, D. (2007) ‘Social reporting and new governance regulation: the prospects of achieving corporate accountability through transparency’, Business Ethics Quarterly, 17(3), 453–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hicks, Michael J. (2010) ‘BP: Social responsibility and the easy life of the monopolist’, American Journal of Business, 25(2), 9–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hodge, K., Subramaniam N. and Stewart, J. (2009) ‘Assurance of sustainability reports: Impact on report users’ confidence and perceptions of information credibility’, Australian Accounting Review, 19(3), 178–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hofstede, G. (1984) Culture’s Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values (Vol. 5). Beverly, CA: SAGE Publications.Google Scholar
  46. Hope, A. and Kwarteng. A. (2014) CSR and Sustainable Development in the Mining Industry: The Case of Newmont Ghana Gold, Proceedings of CRR Conference; 15–17 September 2014, University of Leeds, UK. University of Leeds: Sustainability Research Institute, University of Leeds (UK).Google Scholar
  47. International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board (IAASB). (2010a) International Framework for Assurance Engagements (Framework). In: Handbook of International Quality Control, Auditing, Review, Other Assurance, and Related Services Pronouncements, Part II. New York, NY: The International Federation of Accountants.Google Scholar
  48. International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board (IAASB). (2010b) International Standards on Assurance Engagements ISAE 3000: Assurance Engagements Other than Audits or Reviews of Historical Financial Information. In: Handbook of International Quality Control, Auditing, Review, Other Assurance, and Related Services Pronouncements, Part II. New York, NY: The International Federation of Accountants.Google Scholar
  49. Jenkins, H. (2004) ‘Corporate social responsibility and the mining industry: Conflicts and constructs’, Corporate Social - Responsibility and Environmental Management, 11(1), 23-34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Jones, P., Hillier, D. and Comfort, D. (2014) ‘Assurance of the leading UK food retailers’ corporate social responsibility/sustainability reports’, Corporate Governance, 14(1), 130–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Junior, R.M., Best, P.J. and Cotter, J. (2014) ‘Sustainability reporting and assurance: A historical analysis on a world-wide phenomenon’, Journal of Business Ethics, 120(1), 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kang, M. and Yang, S.U. (2010) ‘Comparing effects of country reputation and the overall corporate reputations of a country on international consumers’ product attitudes and purchase intentions’, Corporate Reputation Review, 13(1), 52–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kapelus, P. (2002) ‘Mining, corporate social responsibility and the “Community”: The case of Rio Tinto, Richards Bay Minerals and the Mbonambi’, Journal of Business Ethics, 39(3), 275–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kolk, A. (2008) ‘Sustainability, accountability and corporate governance: Exploring multinational’s reporting practices’, Business Strategy and the Environment, 17(1), 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kolk, A., Walhain, S. and Van de Wateringen, S. (2001) ‘Environmental reporting by the Fortune Global 250: Exploring the influence of nationality and sector’, Business Strategy and the Environment, 10(1), 15–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. KPMG. (2008). KPMG international survey of corporate sustainability reporting.
  57. Littlewood, D. (2014) ‘‘Cursed’ Communities? Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), company towns and the mining industry in Namibia’, Journal of Business Ethics, 120, 39–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Manetti, G. and Toccafondi, S. (2012) ‘The role of stakeholders in sustainability reporting assurance’, Journal of Business Ethics, 107(3), 363–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Mares, R. (2012) ‘Corporate responsibility and compliance with the law: A case study of land, dispossession, and aftermath at Newmont’s Ahafo Project in Ghana.’ Business and Society Review, 117(2), 233–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. McIntyre, M., Murphy, S. and Sirsly, C. (2015) ‘Do firms seek social license to operate when stakeholders are poor? Evidence from Africa’, Corporate Governance, 15(3), 306–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Michelon, G., Pilonato, S. and Ricceri, F. (2015) ‘CSR reporting practices and the quality of disclosure: An empirical analysis’, Critical Perspectives on Accounting, 33, 59–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Milne, M.J. and Adler, R.A. (1999) ‘Exploring the reliability of social and environmental disclosures content analysis’, Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, 12(2), 237–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Mishra, S. and Modi, S.B. (2013) ‘Positive and negative corporate social responsibility, financial leverage, and idiosyncratic risk’, Journal of Business Ethics, 117(2), 431–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Newburry, W., Gardberg, N.A. and Belkin, L.Y. (2006) ‘Organizational attractiveness is in the eye of the beholder: The interaction of demographic characteristics with foreignness’, Journal of International Business Studies, 37, 666–686.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Newenham-Kahindi, A. (2011) A global mining corporation and local communities in the lake Victoria Zone: The Case of Barrick Gold Multinational in Tanzania’, Journal of Business Ethics, 99(2), 253–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. O’Dwyer, B. and Owen, D.L. (2005) ‘Assurance statement practice in environmental, social and sustainability reporting: A critical evaluation’, The British Accounting Review, 37(2), 205–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. O’Faircheallaigh, C. (2004) ‘Denying citizens their rights? Indigenous people, mining payments and service provision’, Australian Journal of Public Administration, 63(2), 42–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Olsen-Philips, P. and Fenton, J. (2015) Oil lobby launches Super Bowl ad blitz. Sunlight Foundation, 28 January, doi:
  69. Owen, J. and Kemp, D. (2013) ‘Social license and mining: A critical perspective’, Resources Policy, 38(1), 29–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Perez-Batres, L.A., Miller, V.V. and Pisani, M.J. (2010) ‘CSR, sustainability and the meaning of global reporting for Latin American corporations’, Journal of Business Ethics, 91(2), 193–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Pfeffer, J. (1972) ‘Size and composition of corporate boards of directors’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 17, 221–228.Google Scholar
  72. Pfeffer, J. and Salancik, G.R. (1978) The External Control of Organizations: A Resource Dependency Perspective. New York, NY: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  73. Prasad, A. and Mir, R. (2002) ‘Digging deep for meaning: A critical hermeneutic analysis of CEO letters to shareholders in the oil industry’, Journal of Business Communication, 39(1), 92–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Prno, J. (2013) ‘An analysis of factors leading to the establishment of a social license to operate in the mining industry’, Resources Policy, 38(4), 577–590CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Prno, J. and Slocombe, D. (2012) ‘Exploring the origins of ‘social license to operate’ in the mining sector: Perspectives from governance and sustainability theories’, Resources Policy, 37(3), 346–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Rao, K., Tilt, C.A. and Lester, L.H. (2012) ‘Corporate governance and environmental reporting: An Australian study’, Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, 12(2), 143–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Reynolds, M. and Yuthas, K. (2008) ‘Moral discourse and corporate social responsibility reporting’, Journal of Business Ethics, 78(1–2), 47–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Sagebien, J. and Lindsay, N.M. (2011) Governance Ecosystems CSR in the Latin American Mining Sector (International political economy series (Palgrave Macmillan (Firm))). Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire; New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  79. Sama, L.M. and Shoaf, V. (2008) ‘Ethical leadership for the professions: Fostering a moral community’, Journal of Business Ethics, 78(1), 39–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Sethi, S.P. (1976) ‘Issue-oriented corporate advertising: Tax treatment of expenditures’, California Management Review, 1976(1976), 5–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Sethi, S.P. (1977a) ‘The Schism between business and the news media’, Journalism Quarterly, 1977(Summer), 240–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Sethi, S.P. (1977b) ‘Business and the news media: The paradox of informed misunderstanding’, California Management Review, 1977(Spring), 52–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Sethi, S.P. (1977c) Advocacy Advertising and Large Corporations: Social Conflict, Big Business Image, the News Media, and Public Policy. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  84. Sethi, S.P. (1979a) ‘The role of advocacy advertising in external communications’, Journal of General Management, 1979(Spring), 33–44.Google Scholar
  85. Sethi, S.P. (1979b) ‘Institutional/Image advertising and idea/issue advertising as marketing tools: Some public policy issues’, Journal of Marketing, 1979(January), 3–14.Google Scholar
  86. Sethi, S.P. (1987a) Handbook of Advocacy Advertising: Concepts, Strategies, and Applications (Ballinger Series in Business in a Global Environment). Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.Google Scholar
  87. Sethi, S.P. (1987b) ‘Advocacy advertising: a novel communications approach to building effective relations with external constituencies’, International Journal of Advertising, 6(4), 279–298.Google Scholar
  88. Sethi, S.P. (1990) ‘Corporations and the environment: Greening or preening?’, Business and Society Review, 75, 4–6.Google Scholar
  89. Sethi, S.P. (1994) ‘Imperfect markets - business ethics as an easy virtue’, Journal of Business Ethics, 13(10), 803–815.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Sethi, S.P. and Sama, L. (1998) ‘Ethical behavior as a strategic choice by large corporations: The interactive effect of marketplace competition, industry structure and firm resources’, Business Ethics Quarterly, 8(1), 85–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Sethi, S.P., Lowry, D., Veral, E., Shapiro, H. and Emelianova, O. (2011) ‘Freeport-McMoRan Copper & Gold, Inc.: An innovative voluntary code of conduct to protect human rights, create employment opportunities, and economic development of the indigenous people’, Journal of Business Ethics, 103(1), 1–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Sethi, S.P., Martell, T.F. and Demir, M. (2015a) ‘Enhancing the role and effectiveness of corporate social responsibility (CSR) reports: The missing element of content verification and integrity assurance’, Journal of Business Ethics. doi: 10.1007/s10551-015-2862-3.Google Scholar
  93. Sethi, S.P., Martell, T.F. and Demir, M. (2015b) ‘An evaluation of the quality of corporate social responsibility reports by some of the world’s largest financial institutions’, Journal of Business Ethics. doi: 10.1007/s10551-015-2878-8.Google Scholar
  94. Sims, R.R. and Brinkmann, J. (2002) ‘Leaders as moral role models: The case Of John Gutfreund at Salomon Brothers’, Journal of Business Ethics, 35(4), 327–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Svensson, G. and Wood, G. (2008) ‘A model of business ethics’, Journal of Business Ethics, 77(3), 303–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Szablowski, D. (2002) ‘Mining, displacement and the World Bank: A case analysis of Compania Minera Antamina’s Operations in Peru’, Journal of Business Ethics, 39(3), 247–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. The CSR-S Monitor (2014). The CSR-Sustainability monitor. (Tech. Rep.). Weissman Center for International Business,, accessed 15 August 2014.
  98. Thomas, T., Schermerhorn, J.R. and Dienhart, J.W. (2004) ‘Strategic leadership of ethical behaviour in business’, Academy of Management Executive, 18(2), 56–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Van Halderen, M.D., van Riel, C.B. and Brown, T.J. (2011) ‘Balancing between legitimacy and distinctiveness in corporate messaging: A case study in the oil industry’, Corporate Reputation Review, 14(4), 273–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Van Wensen, K., Broer, W., Klein, J. and Knopf, J. (2011) The state of Play in Sustainability Reporting in the European Union 2010. CREM B.V. and Adelphi Consult., Brussels: European Union.Google Scholar
  101. Vidaver-Cohen, D., Gomez, C. and Colwell, S.R. (2015) ‘Country-of-origin effects and corporate reputation in multinational firms: Exploratory research in Latin America’, Corporate Reputation Review, 18(3), 131–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Wang, A. (2008) ‘Dimensions of corporate social responsibility and advertising practice.' Corporate Reputation Review (suppl. Special Issue: Globalization and Corporate Reputation), 11(2), 155–168.Google Scholar
  103. Werbach, A. (2010) The Failure of Chevron’s New ‘We Agree’ Ad Campaign. The Atlantic, 21 October,
  104. Wheeler, D. and Elkington, J. (2001) ‘The end of the corporate environmental report? Or the advent of cybernetic sustainability reporting and communication’, Business Strategy and the Environment, 10(1), 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Zsolnai, L. (2015) Materialistic versus non-materialistic value-orientation in management. In: K.J. Ims and L.J.T. Pedersen (eds) Business and the Greater Good, Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited, pp. 107–116.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Macmillan Publishers Ltd & Reputation Institute 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Prakash Sethi
    • 1
  • Terrence F. Martell
    • 2
  • Mert Demir
    • 1
  1. 1.Weissman Center for International Business, Zicklin School of BusinessBaruch College, City University of New YorkNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Weissman Center for International Business, Zicklin School of BusinessBaruch College, City University of New YorkNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations