Business ecosystem research agenda: more dynamic, more embedded, and more internationalized
- 161 Downloads
We explore the emerging body of research focusing on business ecosystems (BEs). The study of inter-organizational relationships has evolved from a focus at the level of firm, to the supply chain, the platform, and now towards the BE. The co-evolution of inter-related organizations is an essential element of BE research, rather than static structure. The success of leading internet companies in Asia, such as Alibaba in China, Naver in South Korea, Baharti Airtel in India, and Rakuten in Japan, reflects their strategies and practices of leveraging BEs within a fast-changing age. In order to better understand the mechanisms of BEs, in particular within the Asian context, we propose three key research directions within BEs, including dynamics, embeddedness, and internationalization.
KeywordsDynamics Embeddedness Internationalization Institutional Business ecosystems Research agenda
Asian business ecosystem studies, a research agenda
The study of business ecosystem (BE) research has attracted interest during the last decade. However, the main bulk of studies have focused on Western ecosystem leaders and conditions. For example, in a recent review of BE studies (Jacobides et al. 2018), only two studies relating to Asia could be identified. Nevertheless, in practice, leading Asian firms such as Rakuten (Japan), Naver (South Korea), and Alibaba (China) have developed ecosystem-leading positions. There are also other examples of innovation-driven Asian firms following their example and deviating from the traditional way of doing business in Asia (see Freeman 1988; Greve 2005; Imai and Itami 1984; Witt and Redding 2014; Nolan and Wang 1999). Nonetheless, these very successful firms have not gained equal attention from ecosystem researchers compared to their Western counterparts, despite the fact that it is well known that Western and Eastern societies differ in several significant business aspects. We therefore feel that this provides good grounds for proposing a specific future Asian BE research agenda.
A BE is defined as an economic community in which a variety of inter-related stakeholders co-evolve (Moore 1993, 1996; Iansiti and Levien 2004a). Several review articles have been conducted, with different focuses, on BE research. For example, Dedehayir et al. (2016) studied roles in BE; de Vasconcelos Gomes et al. (2016) focused on the innovation dimension of BE; Tsujimoto et al. (2017) aimed to provide a consensus definition of the BE concept; and Jacobides et al. (2018) studied why and how ecosystems emerge. In this paper, we aim to identify future perspectives for BE research in an Asian context.
With its roots in systems theory and biological evolution (Moore 1993), BE theory has developed various theoretical cross-disciplinary concepts that stretch far beyond an ecological metaphor for strategy thinking (Adner and Kapoor 2010; Gawer and Cusumano 2014; Rong and Shi 2015; Wareham et al. 2014). In this review, we depart from two major streams of research that have strongly affected BE research: network theory (Shang and Shi 2013; Rong et al. 2015a) and platform theory (Gawer and Cusumano 2014; Winter et al. forthcoming).
Although previous studies provide evidence of lessons learned from BE studies in the Asian context, knowledge regarding the role of networks and platforms in Asian BEs is very limited. The purpose of this paper is therefore to propose a future Asian BE agenda.
The research agenda is created by drawing on, and combining, literature on three streams: (1) BEs, (2) networks, and (3) platforms. Focusing on the Asian context, we initiate the discussion by first reviewing changes in the traditional value chain, and then go on to discuss the development of platforms and co-evolution in BEs. As a next step, we discuss and propose three research directions. Finally, we draw conclusions.
Global value chain: specialization and networks
The traditional view of competition is that firms compete according to the quality and price of their products, and the effectiveness and efficiency of the value chain in delivering their products (Ferdows 1997; Fleisher and Bensoussan 2003; Sanchez 1995; Shi and Gregory 1998). As a consequence, firms have been focused on optimizing structural and infrastructural elements and making strategic choices regarding key tasks and capabilities to create value for customers and remain competitive in the market (Hill and Hill 2009). As part of the traditional view on competition, firms also focus on specializing their business scope and retaining their core competences, while outsourcing those that are non-core (Christopher 2005; Kano 2017; Quinn and Hilmer 1994). The concept of value chain core competency has received increasing attention from managers and decision makers in terms of thinking about how to nurture and develop competences for competitive advantage (Hafeez et al. 2002; Javidan 1998; Prahalad and Hamel 2000).
Nonetheless, over the last two decades, along with the rapid development of outsourcing strategies and practices, we have seen a wave of globalization processes of multinational companies restructuring their operations internationally and developing international manufacturing networks (Colotla et al. 2003; Shi and Gregory 1998). The vast majority of manufacturing activities are being carried out in dispersed, but interdependently coordinated, locations around the world (Rudberg and Olhager 2003). Through networking, companies can gain better resources and partners, thereby improving their value chain output by increasing their efficiency and agility and reducing lead-time (Lakhani et al. 2013). Thus, from a traditional viewpoint, the success of business competition resides in management of the value chain, whether it is local or global (Antràs and Chor 2013; Gereffi et al. 2005; Kogut 1984).
Although it has brought valuable knowledge to the research community, the theory of value chains suffers from a problem: it is limited to issues of managing a sequential, controllable chain of events. Value chain theory therefore lacks the capability of explaining the dynamics and unforeseen events that firms experience in practice (Peppard and Rylander 2006; Sherer 2005). Thus, in parallel with the development of value chain theory, the theory of value networks developed. This perspective brings knowledge about key dimensions, such as process change and trust mechanisms (Sherer 2005). The notion of network is also important since networks can bring access to resources that the firm would otherwise lack (Birley 1985). Studies of value networks have brought significant knowledge about the dynamics in business life. For example, Christensen and Rosenbloom (1995) explained that new entrants can create technological disruption by managing emerging value networks. Indeed, value networks have been studied in a number of industries, such as e-commerce (Sherer 2005; Leong et al. 2016), mobile operators (Peppard and Rylander 2006) and wireless communication (Pagani and Fine 2008), and for the purpose of creating industrial symbioses (Hein et al. 2017).
A number of value network studies have also taken an Asian perspective. For example, Funk (2009) studied the mobile phone industry in Japan; Shoulian et al. (2003) studied the Chinese telecommunication industry; Bu and Gao (2010) studied the network trading environment in China; Lin and Zhang (2005) studied the Publishing industry in Taiwan; and Wang et al. (2015) studied mobile application services in Taiwan.
A feature of value networks that makes them particularly interesting to study is the fact that the structures and contents of the value network are always changing (Allee 2000; Lin and Zhang 2005). Such dynamics are of special interest from a BE perspective, since BEs consist of a combination of value chains and value networks.
Focal firm platform: network effect
Since early 2000, with the rapid emergence and business application of the internet, more and more platform-based business models have grown (Evans and Schmalensee 2010). Platform competition has received considerable attention in recent research (Tiwana 2015) across many industry sectors, for example, media (Reisinger 2012), broadband (Lee 2006), pay TV (Weeds 2016), online video (Liu 2013) and software (Economides and Katsamakas 2006), videogame (Cennamo and Santalo 2013). In the era of value-chain-centric businesses, firms could create value from information asymmetry. However, in the age of platform-based business, suppliers can instead link with customers directly, as information becomes available (Halaburda and Yehezkel 2013). Focal firms create value by accumulating more suppliers and customers, rather than through agency work (Armstrong 2006). Moreover, the value is co-created with various stakeholders, including complementary providers and customers (Scholten and Scholten 2012; Pera et al. 2016).
Platform competition emphasizes the role of network effects (Cennamo and Santalo 2013; Chakravorti and Roson 2006). That is, the value of a product/service increases in line with the number of people that use it. This indicates a two-sided market to explain the network effect in platform-based business competition: the focal firm will earn more benefits if its platform is home to more users, from both supply and demand sides (Katz and Shapiro 1994; Parker and Van Alstyne 2005; Rochet and Tirole 2003, 2006; Shankar and Bayus 2003). For instance, in the ICT (Information Communications Technology) industry the more complementors join the ecosystem to supply complementarities, the more valuable the platform becomes to consumers due to a greater variety of choice (Scholten and Scholten 2012). Hence, the network effect between supply and demand sides is key to sustaining the platform business (Armstrong 2006; Li and Pénard 2014; Rochet and Tirole 2003). Management scholars have also proposed a similar concept to restructure the industry and reduce the transaction cost between partners in order to leverage industrial-level innovation (Gawer and Cusumano 2014; Wulf and Butel 2017).
Platforms have become a core foundation to many technology industries, not only enabling new products and services but also influencing strategies, shaping business models, and even transforming entire industries (Basole and Karla 2011). For example, in the software industry, the platform concept has shifted business competition towards a platform-centric ecosystem (Tiwana et al. 2010). Platform research has been extended into several streams, including pricing structure over supply and demand (Armstrong 2006), platform competition (Zhu and Iansiti 2012), suppliers’ technology strategy (Cusumano 2010) and customers’ multi-homing strategy (Landsman and Stremersch 2011), as well as some social issues in the platform (Suarez 2005). Furthermore, various complementors besides the focal firm with the platform have been studied in order to identify the determinants of successfully nurturing a platform-based ecosystem (Boudreau and Jeppesen 2015; Kapoor and Agarwal 2017; Pierce 2009).
Business ecosystem: co-evolution
Due to the network effect, a large number and range of stakeholders accumulate around the platform, which forms the BE. A BE, in particular a healthy one, is believed to reinvent value (Kandiah and Gossain 1998; Li 2009; Mäkinen and Dedehayir 2012) and brings competitive advantages to companies participating in it (Adner 2006; Clarysse et al. 2014) by initiating, identifying, and integrating stakeholders to create value in the ecosystem (Rong et al. 2015b; Winter et al. 2017). The concept of BE is also believed to be capable of better explaining multi-sided business competition (Boudreau and Lakhani 2009; Eisenmann et al. 2006). Obviously, competition is no longer limited to being among individual firms, as firms are now relying on a network of business partners; thus, the competition is BE against BE (Gawer and Cusumano 2014; Liu and Rong 2015; Rong et al. 2015a).
Stakeholders in a BE can be tightly or loosely coupled. Some are organized into tight value networks or platforms, while others are still fragmented and loosely connected with each other (Iansiti and Levien 2004a; Shi and Shi 2017). Those loosely coupled stakeholders can be mobilized with a specific vision and embedded into a new value chain. In return, all of the newly created business will extend the embedded ecosystem’s resource pool. From this perspective, the key to the success of a BE is co-evolution among stakeholders and co-creation of value to customers (Adner 2006; Iansiti and Levien 2004b; Lu et al. 2014). The concept of BE highlights the process of co-evolution of industrial systems and their dynamic environment, which is full of uncertainties but also business opportunities (Breslin 2011; Moore 2006; Porter 2006; Rong et al. 2015a; Zhang and Liang 2011).
Companies in a BE are not only working cooperatively and competitively (or coopetitively (Basole et al. 2015; Gueguen 2009)), but also co-evolving around a new innovation to support new products and/or services to satisfy customer needs (Hearn et al. 2007; Moore 1993; Rong et al. 2010). The term co-evolution originated in biology. It refers to successive changes among two or more ecologically interdependent but unique species, such that their evolutionary trajectories become intertwined over time (Hackney et al. 2004). Within the BE, the evolution of one company will impact the evolution of others; hence, the core of the BE is co-evolution in a mutually beneficial manner (Xiaoren et al. 2014), where co-evolution can be explained as a result of the biological metaphor adoption (Corallo and Protopapa 2007). A company that undertakes strategic planning without understanding the impact on the BE as a whole is ignoring the reality of the networked environment in which it operates (Iansiti and Levien 2004b), while the “keystone,” leading companies have a stronger influence over the co-evolutionary process (Iansiti and Levien 2004a; Moore 1996). Recently, scholars have also deconstructed the co-evolution mechanisms into three pillars—co-vision, co-design, and co-create—to improve understanding of the nature of ecosystem stakeholders’ evolution (Liu and Rong 2015).
In summary, the business of competition has already evolved from the firm to a BE level, following the value chain and platform (Rong et al. 2013).
Three new research directions of business ecosystems
Research direction 1: dynamics
Considering BE as a complex, interconnected network of companies, we argue that the dynamics of a BE could be one of the most important areas for future research to explore (Liu and Rong 2015; Lu et al. 2014). In particular, given the rise of Asian digital economies, we know little about how BE strategy can be shaped by the local institutional and cultural structures of Asian countries to cope with those dynamics. In previous studies, many scholars have addressed the static structure of a BE, for example, the narrow scope of an innovation ecosystem (Adner 2017; Adner and Kapoor 2010; Kapoor and Lee 2013), role players, and platforms (Gawer and Cusumano 2014; Iansiti and Levien 2004a). These studies narrowed down the BE to a value chain structure or platform structure. However, a BE contains various stakeholders and involves many stakeholders’ interactions (Rong and Shi 2015; Wareham et al. 2014), and its structure evolves all the time in order to cope with the evolving business and social environment (Adomavicius et al. 2008; Liu and Rong 2015). In order to succeed in a BE, it is essential to have a comprehensive understanding of the dynamics within the ecosystem (Piepenbrock 2009; Winter et al. 2017). The effects of ecosystem dynamics are believed to easily breach traditional industry boundaries (Iansiti and Levien 2004b).
Previously, Moore (1996) proposed a lifecycle concept regarding BE, which includes stages such as birth, expansion, authority, and review. Subsequently, Rong and Shi (2015) conceptualized the nurturing strategies along those lifecycle stages. Meanwhile, we also can capture the sense of ecosystem dynamics from some industrial cases. Taking Alibaba as an example, originally this company only had a platform for business-to-business transactions. It then embarked into a different ecosystem by introducing a customer-to-customer platform. Then, in order to facilitate platform transactions, it introduced more stakeholders, such as Alipay, which made the ecosystem structure more complicated and diversified. However, those stakeholders were synthesized together to serve the core business process of the platform transaction. This type of BE emergence has also been acknowledged by Jacobides et al. (2018), who suggested that the dynamics behind ecosystem governance should be further studied.
Taking a similar approach to that of Jacobides et al. (2018), we propose that researchers should seek to understand more about the role dynamics and their interactions, rather than simply role structures themselves. McGrath (2010) argued that dynamic contexts like this lead to resource allocation decisions being made at a time when the environment is uncertain, and the components of the business model are not fully understood. A mechanism to govern those stakeholders and ensure their interactions towards the shared vision is the driving force for a healthy BE.
Hence, we propose that future research on BE should focus more on its dynamics in order to understand how to develop and share the ecosystem vision with other ecosystem partners, explore how to nurture a BE with the involvement of ecosystem partners, identify how the focal firms can explore the embedded resources to sustainably maintain the ecosystem, and identify key mechanisms for the co-evolution of partners within the BE.
Research direction 2: embeddedness
Previous studies have mainly focused on value creation and capture in the BE (Adner and Kapoor 2010; Ceccagnoli et al. 2012; Clarysse et al. 2014), which also largely overlaps with business model studies (Amit and Zott 2001; Baden-Fuller and Haefliger 2013; Teece 2010). However, they seem to have paid less attention to the embedded resource (Avgerou and Li 2013; Granovetter 1985) around the established value chain or platform ecosystem. The embedded resources will enable stakeholders by triggering a greater network effect (Suarez 2005) and more opportunities to connect and co-create value (Saarikko et al. forthcoming; Shi and Shi 2017). Shi and Shi (2017) suggested that the embedded resources will be mobilized by the ecosystem’s focal firms and transformed into a connected value chain or platform and renew the existing ones. The embedded resource pool contains different institutions (Abdi and Aulakh 2012; Ansari et al. 2013), social networks, governments, industrial associations, other industrial stakeholders, and local communities, who are not involved in the existing value network but could be potential contributors (Moore 1996; Parente et al. 2018; Rong et al. 2017).
Taking Uber as an example, we can see that it has embraced more and more stakeholders into its platform-based BE. Besides Uber ride, it has introduced Uber Eat (a platform-based takeaway business) by involving multiple freelancing delivery drivers in its platform ecosystem. In China, Didi acquired Uber and embraced even more stakeholders, including leasing companies, bus services, and designated-driver services. Obviously, the current business competition has moved beyond the traditional focus on the relationship between supplier and buyer to place more emphasis on the relationships between all stakeholders (Grönroos 2000). These relationships are complex, collaborative, unfolding, and reciprocal and should be viewed as elements embedded within the value co-creation processes (Vargo 2009).
It is believed that value is not created in a singular discrete production–consumption event, but rather unfolds over multiple time periods at the intersection of multiple networks of resources (Chandler and Wieland 2010). These embedded resources are organizationally complex, but play an important role to the competitiveness of a business or an industry sector (Ahn and York 2011). From the resource-based view, competitive advantages are based on embeddedness in the organization fabric and other factors such as value, rareness, and uniqueness (Barney 1991, 2001). Within the Asian context, the embedders of those social, cultural, and political factors in the BE are vital to the success of digital business (Avgerou and Li 2013; Martinsons 2008; Ou et al. 2013).
Hence, regarding the embedded resource pool, we propose that the second research direction should focus on the embeddedness of BE so as to explore how to mobilize the embedded resources to renew an existing BE, to understand the key stakeholder roles and their interaction within the embedded resources pool, and to investigate how to nurture the embedded resource pool and balance it with an existing or new business models.
Research direction 3: internationalization
After establishing BEs in their home country, many companies will try to explore the global market, competing for dominance and survival (Javalgi et al. 2005). Many companies from mobile internet business sectors have come to China but have failed when competing with local counterparts. For example, Uber was acquired by Didi in the ride-sharing industry, eBay left the Chinese market because of Alibaba, and Groupon was defeated by Meituan in the group-buying sector. Businesses engaged in the mobile internet field are more successful as a result of employing a BE strategy (Parente et al. 2018). One reason for this is that, in this sector, many and various stakeholders from other sectors will contribute to the core platform—for example, mobile payment, social network messengers—and these vary by country. Thus, besides the traditional liability of foreignness (Johanson and Vahlne 2009; Zaheer 1995), we also have to face the more complicated liability of the foreign “ecosystem,” as opposed to the direct network resource (Chen 2003; Chen and Chen 1998; Johanson and Mattsson 1988; Rong et al. 2015b). An alternative approach suggested by some scholars that businesses use social mechanisms to coordinate those key resources (Kano 2017).
Some countries have highly developed ecosystems to support firms (Neubert 2016); however, others entail considerable institutional uncertainties, where newly internationalizing firms have access to very limited social and economic resources and networks. For instance, within Asian countries, multinational companies confront serious difficulties when entering into or growing within markets due to limited access to the local BEs (Bhattacharya and Michael 2008; Oh and Larson 2011; Fuchs 2015). In this context, developing ecosystem stakeholders and nurturing local partners is essential when starting a business in a foreign market, in particular in the Asian countries. For example, ARM, the leading semiconductor company, spent its first two years after entering China in 2001 nurturing ecosystem partners, before it got its first business deal (Rong et al. 2015a). Based on this case, three steps related to nurturing BEs in foreign markets have been proposed: incubate complementary partners, identify leading partners, and integrate ecosystem partners (Rong et al. 2015b).
Furthermore, BEs have been shown to play a critical role in the growth of born-global firms (Tanev 2012). These born-global firms often act as key players in ecosystems that support large multinational enterprises (Zander et al. 2015); however, the most important thing is that those firms have the potential to become a leading species in the ecosystem of international trade (Bouncken et al. 2015; Knight 2015; Knight and Tamar Cavusgil 2004). As one of the core organizational capabilities of born-global firms, creating a BE of various stakeholders helps with internationalization and improves their international performance (Kudina et al. 2008; Carvalho et al. 2014). However, the way in which ecosystems advance the internationalization goals of young born-global firms remains still underexplored (Cavusgil and Knight 2015).
Hence, we propose that further research on BE should focus more on internationalization so as to understand the key challenges and opportunities during ecosystem internationalization, to explore how to internationalize the business via an ecosystem-based business model, and to identify how to govern the collective actions among ecosystem partners’ internationalization process.
A growing body of literature, across the disciplines of strategic management, systems science, and operational research, has been developed to uncover the mechanisms, structures, and strategic options of BEs in different sectors and different countries. However, very few studies have addressed Asian countries. Many fast-growing, leading firms in Asia have been successful at managing their BEs to achieve competitive advantages not only in their home market but also globally. In order to better understand their managerial and strategic practices, this paper proposes that future research address dynamics, embeddedness, and internationalization. In particular considering the Asian context, further in-depth BE-related research will help researchers and practitioners to better understand how businesses could successfully enter into or effectively operate in Asian countries.
We owe many thanks to our true friend–Dr.James Moore, who inspire us very much. James and I had many pleasant talks at Harvard, Concord and Walden Pond about the business ecosystem studies and how they evolve. He never stops thinking and his idea changes the world.
- Abdi, Majid, and Preet S. Aulakh. 2012. Do Country-Level Institutional Frameworks and Interfirm Governance Arrangements Substitute or Complement in International Business Relationships? Journal of International Business Studies 43 (5): 477–497.Google Scholar
- Adner, Ron. 2006. Match Your Innovation Strategy to Your Innovation Ecosystem. Harvard Business Review 84 (4): 98–107.Google Scholar
- Adner, Ron. 2017. Ecosystem as Structure An Actionable Construct for Strategy. Journal of Management 43 (1): 39–58.Google Scholar
- Adner, Ron, and Rahul Kapoor. 2010. Value Creation in Innovation Ecosystems: How the Structure of Technological Interdependence Affects Firm Performance in New Technology Generations. Strategic Management Journal 31 (3): 306–333.Google Scholar
- Adomavicius, Gediminas, Jesse Bockstedt, Alok Gupta, and Robert J. Kauffman. 2008. Understanding Evolution in Technology Ecosystems. Communications of the ACM 51 (10): 117–122.Google Scholar
- Ahn, Mark J., and Anne S. York. 2011. Resource-Based and Institution-Based Approaches to Biotechnology Industry Development in Malaysia. Asia Pacific Journal of Management 28 (2): 257–275.Google Scholar
- Allee, Vema. 2000. Reconfiguring the Value Network. Journal of Business Strategy 21 (4): 36–39.Google Scholar
- Amit, Raphael, and Christoph Zott. 2001. Value Creation in E-Business. Strategic Management Journal 22 (6–7): 493–520.Google Scholar
- Ansari, Shahzad, Frank Wijen, and Barbara Gray. 2013. Constructing a Climate Change Logic: An Institutional Perspective on the ‘Tragedy of the Commons’. Organization Science 24 (4): 1014–1040.Google Scholar
- Antràs, Pol, and Davin Chor. 2013. Organizing the Global Value Chain. Econometrica 81 (6): 2127–2204.Google Scholar
- Armstrong, Mark. 2006. Competition in Two-Sided Markets. The Rand Journal of Economics 37 (3): 668–691.Google Scholar
- Avgerou, Chrisanthi, and Boyi Li. 2013. Relational and Institutional Embeddedness of Web-Enabled Entrepreneurial Networks: Case Studies of Netrepreneurs in China. Information Systems Journal 23 (4): 329–350.Google Scholar
- Baden-Fuller, Charles, and Stefan Haefliger. 2013. Business Models and Technological Innovation. Long Range Planning 46 (6): 419–426.Google Scholar
- Barney, Jay. 1991. Firm Resources and Sustained Competitive Advantage. Journal of Management 17 (1): 99–120.Google Scholar
- Barney, Jay B. 2001. Resource-Based Theories of Competitive Advantage: A Ten-Year Retrospective on the Resource-Based View. Journal of Management 27 (6): 643–650.Google Scholar
- Basole, Rahul C., and Jürgen Karla. 2011. On the Evolution of Mobile Platform Ecosystem Structure and Strategy. Business & Information Systems Engineering 3 (5): 313–322.Google Scholar
- Basole, Rahul C., Martha G. Russell, Jukka Huhtamäki, Neil Rubens, Kaisa Still, and Hyunwoo Park. 2015. Understanding Business Ecosystem Dynamics: A Data-Driven Approach. ACM Transactions on Management Information Systems (TMIS) 6 (2): 1–32.Google Scholar
- Bhattacharya, Arindam K., and David C. Michael. 2008. How Local Companies Keep Multinationals at Bay. Harvard Business Review 86 (3): 20–33.Google Scholar
- Birley, Sue. 1985. The Role of Networks in the Entrepreneurial Process. Journal of Business Venturing 1 (1): 107–117.Google Scholar
- Boudreau, Kevin J., and Lars B. Jeppesen. 2015. Unpaid Crowd Complementors: The Platform Network Effect Mirage. Strategic Management Journal 36 (12): 1761–1777.Google Scholar
- Boudreau, Kevin, and Karim Lakhani. 2009. How to Manage Outside Innovation. MIT Sloan Management Review 50 (4): 69–76.Google Scholar
- Bouncken, Ricarda B., Miriam Muench, and Sascha Kraus. 2015. Born Globals: Investigating the Influence of their Business Models On Rapid Internationalization. The International Business & Economics Research Journal (Online); Littleton 14 (2): 247–256.Google Scholar
- Breslin, Dermot. 2011. Reviewing a Generalized Darwinist Approach to Studying Socio-Economic Change. International Journal of Management Reviews 13 (2): 218–235.Google Scholar
- Bu, Huabai, and Yang Gao. 2010. The Reflection and Rebuilding of the Enterprise Value Chain Mode in the Network Trading Environment Based on the Value Network. International Business Research 4 (1): 260–265.Google Scholar
- Carvalho, Luís, Inês Plácido Santos, and Willem van Winden. 2014. Knowledge Spaces and Places: From the Perspective of a ‘Born-Global’ Start-up in the Field of Urban Technology. Expert Systems with Applications, Empirical Approaches in Knowledge City Research 41 (12): 5647–5655.Google Scholar
- Cavusgil, S.Tamer, and Gary Knight. 2015. The Born Global Firm: An Entrepreneurial and Capabilities Perspective on Early and Rapid Internationalization. Journal of International Business Studies 46 (1): 3–16.Google Scholar
- Ceccagnoli, Marco, Chris Forman, Peng Huang, and D.J. Wu. 2012. Cocreation of Value in a Platform Ecosystem: The Case of Enterprise Software. MIS Quarterly 36 (1): 263–290.Google Scholar
- Cennamo, Carmelo, and Juan Santalo. 2013. Platform Competition: Strategic Trade-offs in Platform Markets. Strategic Management Journal 34 (11): 1331–1350.Google Scholar
- Chakravorti, Sujit, and Roberto Roson. 2006. Platform Competition in Two-Sided Markets: The Case of Payment Networks. Review of Network Economics 5 (1): 118–142.Google Scholar
- Chandler, Jennifer D., and Heiko Wieland. 2010. Embedded Relationships: Implications for Networks, Innovation, and Ecosystems. Journal of Business Market Management 4 (4): 199–215.Google Scholar
- Chen, Homin, and Tain-Jy Chen. 1998. Network Linkages and Location Choice in Foreign Direct Investment. Journal of International Business Studies 29 (3): 445–467.Google Scholar
- Chen, Tain-Jy. 2003. Network Resources for Internationalization: The Case of Taiwan’s Electronics Firms. Journal of Management Studies 40 (5): 1107–1130.Google Scholar
- Christensen, Clayton M., and Richard S. Rosenbloom. 1995. Explaining the Attacker’s Advantage: Technological Paradigms, Organizational Dynamics, and the Value Network. Research Policy 24 (2): 233–257.Google Scholar
- Christopher, Martin. 2005. Logistics and Supply Chain Management: Creating Value-Added Networks. Harlow: Pearson education.Google Scholar
- Clarysse, Bart, Mike Wright, Johan Bruneel, and Aarti Mahajan. 2014. Creating Value in Ecosystems: Crossing the Chasm between Knowledge and Business Ecosystems. Research Policy 43 (7): 1164–1176.Google Scholar
- Colotla, Ian, Yongjiang Shi, and Michael J. Gregory. 2003. Operation and Performance of International Manufacturing Networks. International Journal of Operations & Production Management 23 (10): 1184–1206.Google Scholar
- Corallo, Angelo, and Stefania Protopapa. 2007. Business Networks and Ecosystems: Rethinking the Biological Metaphor. Digital Business Ecosystems 6064: 1–6.Google Scholar
- Cusumano, Michael. 2010. Technology Strategy and Management: The Evolution of Platform Thinking. Communications of the ACM 53 (1): 32–34.Google Scholar
- de Vasconcelos Gome, Leonardo A., Ana Lucia Figueiredo Facin, Mario Sergio Salerno, and Rodrigo Kazuo Ikenami. 2016. Unpacking the innovation ecosystem construct: Evolution, gaps and trends. Technological Forecasting and Social Change (In Press). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2016.11.009.Google Scholar
- Economides, Nicholas, and Evangelos Katsamakas. 2006. Two-Sided Competition of Proprietary vs. Open Source Technology Platforms and the Implications for the Software Industry. Management Science 52 (7): 1057–1071.Google Scholar
- Eisenmann, Thomas, Geoffrey Parker, and Marshall W. Van Alstyne. 2006. Strategies for Two-Sided Markets. Harvard Business Review 84 (10): 92–101.Google Scholar
- Evans, David S., and Richard Schmalensee. 2010. Failure to Launch: Critical Mass in Platform Businesses. Review of Network Economics 9 (4): 1–28.Google Scholar
- Ferdows, Kasra. 1997. Making the Most of Foreign Factories. Harvard Business Review 75: 73–91.Google Scholar
- Fleisher, Craig S., and Babette E. Bensoussan. 2003. Strategic and Competitive Analysis: Methods and Techniques for Analyzing Business Competition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
- Freeman, Christopher. 1988. Japan: A New National System of Innovation? In Technical Change and Economic Theory, ed. Giovanni Dosi, and Christopher Freeman, 330–348. London: Pinter.Google Scholar
- Fuchs, Christian. 2015. Baidu, Weibo and Renren: The Global Political Economy of Social Media in China. Asian Journal of Communication 26 (1): 14–41.Google Scholar
- Funk, Jeffrey L. 2009. The Emerging Value Network in the Mobile Phone Industry: The Case of Japan and Its Implications for the Rest of the World. Telecommunications Policy 33 (1–2): 4–18.Google Scholar
- Gawer, Annabelle, and Michael A. Cusumano. 2014. Industry Platforms and Ecosystem Innovation. Journal of Product Innovation Management 31 (3): 417–433.Google Scholar
- Gereffi, Gary, John Humphrey, and Timothy Sturgeon. 2005. The Governance of Global Value Chains. Review of International Political Economy 12 (1): 78–104.Google Scholar
- Granovetter, Mark. 1985. Economic Action and Social Structure: The Problem of Embeddedness. American Journal of Sociology 91 (3): 481–510.Google Scholar
- Greve, Henrich R. 2005. Japan’s Network Economy: Structure, Persistence, and Change. Administrative Science Quarterly 50: 140–143.Google Scholar
- Grönroos, Christian. 2000. Relationship Marketing: The Nordic School Perspective. (Reprint). In Handbook of Relationship Marketing, ed. J.N. Sheth, and A. Prvatiyar, 95–117. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
- Gueguen, Gael. 2009. Coopetition and Business Ecosystems in the Information Technology Sector: The Example of Intelligent Mobile Terminals. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business 8 (1): 135–153.Google Scholar
- Hackney, Ray, Janice Burn, and Angel Salazar. 2004. Strategies for Value Creation in Electronic Markets: Towards a Framework for Managing Evolutionary Change. The Journal of Strategic Information Systems, Strategic Information Systems in the Post-Net Era 13 (2): 91–103.Google Scholar
- Hafeez, Khalid, YanBing Zhang, and Naila Malak. 2002. Core Competence for Sustainable Competitive Advantage: A Structured Methodology for Identifying Core Competence. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management 49 (1): 28–35.Google Scholar
- Halaburda, Hanna, and Yaron Yehezkel. 2013. Platform Competition under Asymmetric Information. American Economic Journal: Microeconomics 5 (3): 22–68.Google Scholar
- Hearn, Greg, Simon Roodhouse, and Julie Blakey. 2007. From Value Chain to Value Creating Ecology: Implications for Creative Industries Development Policy. International Journal of Cultural Policy 13 (4): 419–436.Google Scholar
- Hein, Andreas M., Marija Jankovic, Wen Feng, Romain Farel, Jeremy H. Yune, and Bernard Yannou. 2017. Stakeholder Power in Industrial Symbioses: A Stakeholder Value Network Approach. Journal of Cleaner Production 148: 923–933.Google Scholar
- Hill, Terry, and Alex Hill. 2009. Manufacturing Strategy: Text and Cases. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
- Iansiti, Marco, and Roy Levien. 2004a. The Keystone Advantage: What the New Dynamics of Business Ecosystems Mean for Strategy, Innovation, and Sustainability. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Pr.Google Scholar
- Iansiti, Marco, and Roy Levien. 2004b. Keystones and Dominators: Framing Operating and Technology Strategy in a Business Ecosystem. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School.Google Scholar
- Imai, Ken-ichi, and Hiroyuki Itami. 1984. Interpenetration of organization and market. Japan’s firm and market in comparison with the U.S. International Journal of Industrial Organization 2: 285–310.Google Scholar
- Jacobides, Michael, Carmelo Cennamo, and Annabelle Gawer. 2018. Towards a Theory of Ecosystems. Strategic Management Journal. (In Press).Google Scholar
- Javalgi, Rajshekhar G., Patricia R. Todd, and Robert F. Scherer. 2005. The Dynamics of Global E-Commerce: An Organizational Ecology Perspective. International Marketing Review 22 (4): 420–435.Google Scholar
- Javidan, Mansour. 1998. Core Competence: What Does It Mean in Practice? Long Range Planning 31 (1): 60–71.Google Scholar
- Jiang, Min. 2013. The Business and Politics of Search Engines: A Comparative Study of Baidu and Google’s Search Results of Internet Events in China. New Media & Society 16 (2): 212–233.Google Scholar
- Johanson, J., and L.G. Mattsson. 1988. Internationalization in Industrial Systems—A Network Approach. In The Internationalization of the Firm: A Reader, ed. Peter J. Buckley, and Pervez N. Ghauri, 303–321. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
- Johanson, Jan, and Jan-Erik Vahlne. 2009. The Uppsala Internationalization Process Model Revisited: From Liability of Foreignness to Liability of Outsidership. Journal of International Business Studies 40 (9): 1411–1431.Google Scholar
- Kandiah, Gajen, and Sanjiv Gossain. 1998. Reinventing Value: The New Business Ecosystem. Strategy & Leadership 26 (5): 28–33.Google Scholar
- Kano, Liena. 2017. Global Value Chain Governance: A Relational Perspective. Journal of International Business Studies 217 (30): 1–22.Google Scholar
- Kapoor, Rahul, and Shiva Agarwal. 2017. Sustaining Superior Performance in Business Ecosystems: Evidence from Application Software Developers in the IOS and Android Smartphone Ecosystems. Organization Science 28 (3): 531–551.Google Scholar
- Kapoor, Rahul, and Joon Mahn Lee. 2013. Coordinating and Competing in Ecosystems: How Organizational Forms Shape New Technology Investments. Strategic Management Journal 34 (3): 274–296.Google Scholar
- Katz, Michael L., and Carl Shapiro. 1994. Systems Competition and Network Effects. Journal of Economic Perspectives 8 (2): 93–115.Google Scholar
- Knight, Gary. 2015. Born Global Firms: Evolution of a Contemporary Phenomenon. In Entrepreneurship in International Marketing, ed. Shaoming Zou, Hui Xu, and Linda Hui Shi, 3–19. Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing.Google Scholar
- Knight, Gary A., and S. Tamar Cavusgil. 2004. Innovation, Organizational Capabilities, and the Born-Global Firm. Journal of International Business Studies 35 (2): 124–141.Google Scholar
- Kogut, Bruce. 1984. Normative Observations on the International Value-Added Chain and Strategic Groups. Journal of International Business Studies 15 (2): 151–167.Google Scholar
- Kudina, Alina, George S. Yip, and Harry G. Barkema. 2008. Born Global. Business Strategy Review 19 (4): 38–44.Google Scholar
- Lakhani, Tashlin, Sarosh Kuruvilla, and Ariel Avgar. 2013. From the Firm to the Network: Global Value Chains and Employment Relations Theory. British Journal of Industrial Relations 51 (3): 440–472.Google Scholar
- Landsman, Vardit, and Stefan Stremersch. 2011. Multihoming in Two-Sided Markets: An Empirical Inquiry in the Video Game Console Industry. Journal of Marketing 75 (6): 39–54.Google Scholar
- Lee, Sangwon. 2006. Broadband Deployment in the United States: Examining the Impacts of Platform Competition. The International Journal on Media Management 8 (4): 173–181.Google Scholar
- Leong, Carmen, L. Shan Pan, Sue Newell, and Lili Cui. 2016. The Emergence of Self-Organizing E-Commerce Ecosystems in Remote Villages of China: A Tale of Digital Empowerment for Rural Development. MIS Quarterly 40 (2): 475–484.Google Scholar
- Li, Yan-Ru. 2009. The Technological Roadmap of Cisco’s Business Ecosystem. Technovation 29 (5): 379–386.Google Scholar
- Li, Zhiwen, and Thierry Pénard. 2014. The Role of Quantitative and Qualitative Network Effects in B2b Platform Competition. Managerial and Decision Economics 35 (1): 1–19.Google Scholar
- Lin, Carol Yeh-Yun Y., and Jing Zhang. 2005. Changing Structures of SME Networks: Lessons From the Publishing Industry in Taiwan. Long Range Planning 38 (2): 145–162.Google Scholar
- Liu, Gordon, and Ke Rong. 2015. The Nature of the Co-Evolutionary Process Complex Product Development in the Mobile Computing Industry’s Business Ecosystem. Group & Organization Management 40 (6): 809–842.Google Scholar
- Liu, Xin. 2013. Platform Competition in the Online Video Industry: A Comparison between the United States and Chinese Markets. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. http://hdl.handle.net/1721.1/80691.
- Lu, Chao, Ke Rong, Jianxin You, and Yongjiang Shi. 2014. Business Ecosystem and Stakeholders’ Role Transformation: Evidence from Chinese Emerging Electric Vehicle Industry. Expert Systems with Applications 41 (10): 4579–4595.Google Scholar
- Mäkinen, Saku J., and Ozgur Dedehayir. 2012. Business Ecosystem Evolution and Strategic Considerations: A Literature Review. Paper presented at 2012 18th International ICE Conference on Engineering, Technology and Innovation (ICE), IEEE, Munich, Germany, June 18–20.Google Scholar
- Martinsons, Maris G. 2008. Relationship-based E-commerce: Theory and Evidence from China. Information Systems Journal 18 (4): 331–356.Google Scholar
- McGrath, Rita Gunther. 2010. Business Models: A Discovery Driven Approach. Business Models 43 (2): 247–261.Google Scholar
- Moore, James F. 1993. Predators and Prey: A New Ecology of Competition. Harvard Business Review 71 (3): 75–86.Google Scholar
- Moore, James F. 1996. The Death of Competition: Leadership and Strategy in the Age of Business Ecosystems. Boston, MA: Harper Paperbacks.Google Scholar
- Moore, James F. 2006. Business Ecosystems and the View From the Firm. Antitrust Bulletin 51: 31–75.Google Scholar
- Neubert, Michael. 2016. Significance of the Speed of Internationalisation for Born Global Firms-a Multiple Case Study Approach. International Journal of Teaching and Case Studies 7 (1): 66–81.Google Scholar
- Nolan, Peter, and Xiaoqiang Wang. 1999. Beyond Privatization: Institutional Innovation and Growth in China’s Large State-Owned Enterprises. World Development 27: 169–200.Google Scholar
- Oh, Myung, and James Larson. 2011. Digital Development in Korea: Building an Information Society. Oxon: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Ou, Carol Xiaojuan, Paul Pavlou, and Robert Davison. 2013. Swift Guanxi in Online Marketplaces: The Role of Computer-Mediated Communication Technologies. MIS Quarterly 38 (1): 209–230.Google Scholar
- Pagani, Margherita, and Charles H. Fine. 2008. Value Network Dynamics in 3G–4G Wireless Communications: A Systems Thinking Approach to Strategic Value Assessment. Journal of Business Research 61 (11): 1102–1112.Google Scholar
- Parente, Ronaldo, Jose-Maurico Geleilate, and Ke Rong. 2018. The Sharing Economy Globalization Phenomenon: A Research Agenda. Journal of International Management 24 (1): 52–64.Google Scholar
- Parker, Geoffrey G., and Marshall W. Van Alstyne. 2005. Two-Sided Network Effects: A Theory of Information Product Design. Management Science 51 (10): 1494–1504.Google Scholar
- Peppard, Joe, and Anna Rylander. 2006. From Value Chain to Value Network: Insights for Mobile Operators. European Management Journal 24 (2–3): 128–141.Google Scholar
- Pera, Rebecca, Nicoletta Occhiocupo, and Jackie Clarke. 2016. Motives and Resources for Value Co-Creation in a Multi-Stakeholder Ecosystem: A Managerial Perspective. Journal of Business Research 69 (10): 4033–4041.Google Scholar
- Piepenbrock, Theodore Frederick. 2009. Toward a Theory of the Evolution of Business Ecosystems: Enterprise Architectures, Competitive Dynamics, Firm Performance & Industrial Co-Evolution. PhD diss., MIT.Google Scholar
- Pierce, Lamar. 2009. Big Losses in Ecosystem Niches: How Core Firm Decisions Drive Complementary Product Shakeouts. Strategic Management Journal 30 (3): 323–347.Google Scholar
- Porter, Terry B. 2006. Coevolution as a Research Framework for Organizations and the Natural Environment. Organization & Environment 19 (4): 479–504.Google Scholar
- Prahalad, Coimbatore K., and Gary Hamel. 2000. The Core Competence of the Corporation. In Strategic Learning in a Knowledge Economy, ed. Rob Cross, 3–22. Wobum, MA: Elsevier.Google Scholar
- Quinn, James Brian, and Frederick G. Hilmer. 1994. Strategic Outsourcing. Sloan Management Review 35 (4): 43–55.Google Scholar
- Reisinger, Markus. 2012. Platform Competition for Advertisers and Users in Media Markets. International Journal of Industrial Organization 30 (2): 243–252.Google Scholar
- Rochet, Jean-Charles, and Jean Tirole. 2003. Platform Competition in Two-Sided Markets. Journal of the European Economic Association 1 (4): 990–1029.Google Scholar
- Rochet, Jean-Charles, and Jean Tirole. 2006. Two-Sided Markets: A Progress Report. The Rand Journal of Economics 37 (3): 645–667.Google Scholar
- Rong, Ke, Jie Hou, Yongjiang Shi, and Qiang Lu. 2010. From Value Chain, Supply Network, towards Business Ecosystem (BE): Evaluating the BE Concept’s Implications to Emerging Industrial Demand. Paper presented at 2010 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management (IEEM), IEEE, Marco, China, December 7–10.Google Scholar
- Rong, Ke, Hu Guangyu, Yong Lin, Yongjiang Shi, and Liang Guo. 2015a. Understanding Business Ecosystem Using a 6C Framework in Internet-of-Things-Based Sectors. International Journal of Production Economics 159: 41–55.Google Scholar
- Rong, Ke, and Yongjiang Shi. 2015. Business Ecosystems: Constructs, Configurations, and the Nurturing Process. London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
- Rong, Ke, Yongjiang Shi, Tianjiao Shang, Yantai Chen, and Han Hao. 2017. Organizing Business Ecosystems in Emerging Electric Vehicle Industry: Structure, Mechanism, and Integrated Configuration. Energy Policy 107: 234–247.Google Scholar
- Rong, Ke, Yongjiang Shi, and Yu. Jiang. 2013. Nurturing Business Ecosystem to Deal with Industry Uncertainties. Industrial Management & Data Systems 133 (3): 385–402.Google Scholar
- Rong, Ke, Wu Jinxi, Yongjiang Shi, and Liang Guo. 2015b. Nurturing Business Ecosystems for Growth in a Foreign Market: Incubating, Identifying and Integrating Stakeholders. Journal of International Management 21 (4): 293–308.Google Scholar
- Rudberg, Martin, and Jan Olhager. 2003. Manufacturing Networks and Supply Chains: An Operations Strategy Perspective. Omega 31 (1): 29–39.Google Scholar
- Saarikko, T., K. Jonsson, and T. Burström. Forthcoming. Software Platform Establishment: Effectuation and Entrepreneurial Awareness. Information Technology and People.Google Scholar
- Sanchez, Ron. 1995. Strategic Flexibility in Product Competition. Strategic Management Journal 16 (S1): 135–159.Google Scholar
- Scholten, Simone, and Ulrich Scholten. 2012. Platform-Based Innovation Management: Directing External Innovational Efforts in Platform Ecosystems. Journal of the Knowledge Economy 3 (2): 164–184.Google Scholar
- Shankar, Venkatesh, and Barry L. Bayus. 2003. Network Effects and Competition: An Empirical Analysis of the Home Video Game Industry. Strategic Management Journal 24 (4): 375–384.Google Scholar
- Shang, Tianjiao, and Yongjiang Shi. 2013. The Emergence of the Electric Vehicle Industry in Chinese Shandong Province: A Research Design for Understanding Business Ecosystem Capabilities. Journal of Chinese Entrepreneurship 5: 61–75.Google Scholar
- Sherer, Susan A. 2005. From Supply-chain Management to Value Network Advocacy: Implications for E-Supply Chains. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal 10 (2): 77–83.Google Scholar
- Shi, Yongjiang, and Mike Gregory. 1998. International Manufacturing Networks—To Develop Global Competitive Capabilities. Journal of Operations Management 16 (2–3): 195–214.Google Scholar
- Shi, Xianwei, and Xingkun Liang. 2015. Understanding Latecomer Strategy from a Business Ecosystem Perspective. Academy of Management Proceedings 2015 (1): 18506.Google Scholar
- Shi, Xianwei, and Yongjiang Shi. 2017. Unpacking Entrepreneurial Ecosystem Health. Academy of Management Proceedings 2017 (1): 16215.Google Scholar
- Shoulian, Tang, Zheng Li, and Wang Jianglei. 2003. The Change From Value Chain to Value Network on Telecommunication. Telecommunications Science 9: 2–10.Google Scholar
- Suarez, Fernando F. 2005. Network Effects Revisited: The Role of Strong Ties in Technology Selection. Academy of Management Journal 48 (4): 710–720.Google Scholar
- Tanev, Stoyan. 2012. Global From the Start: The Characteristics of Born-Global Firms in the Technology Sector. Technology Innovation Management Review 2 (3): 5–8.Google Scholar
- Teece, David J. 2010. Business Models, Business Strategy and Innovation. Long Range Planning 43 (2–3): 172–194.Google Scholar
- The Economist. 2011. Entrepreneurship in China: Let a Million Flowers Bloom. The Economist. https://www.economist.com/node/18330120.
- Tiwana, Amrit. 2015. Evolutionary Competition in Platform Ecosystems. Information Systems Research 26 (2): 266–281.Google Scholar
- Tiwana, Amrit, Benn Konsynski, and Ashley A. Bush. 2010. Research Commentary—Platform Evolution: Coevolution of Platform Architecture, Governance, and Environmental Dynamics. Information Systems Research 21 (4): 675–687.Google Scholar
- Vargo, Stephen L. 2009. Toward a Transcending Conceptualization of Relationship: A Service-Dominant Logic Perspective. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing 24 (5/6): 373–379.Google Scholar
- Wang, Juite, Jung-Yu. Lai, and Li-Chun Hsiao. 2015. Value Network Analysis for Complex Service Systems: A Case Study on Taiwan’s Mobile Application Services. Service Business 9 (3): 381–407.Google Scholar
- Wareham, Jonathan, Paul B. Fox, and Josep Lluís Cano Giner. 2014. Technology Ecosystem Governance. Organization Science 25 (4): 1195–1215.Google Scholar
- Weeds, Helen. 2016. TV Wars: Exclusive Content and Platform Competition in Pay TV. The Economic Journal 126 (594): 1600–1633.Google Scholar
- Witt, Michael, and Gordon Redding. 2014. Oxford Handbook of Asian Business Systems. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Wulf, Anna, and Lynne Butel. 2017. Knowledge Sharing and Collaborative Relationships in Business Ecosystems and Networks: A Definition and a Demarcation. Industrial Management & Data Systems 117 (7): 1407–1425.Google Scholar
- Xiaoren, Zhang, Ding Ling, and Chen Xiangdong. 2014. Interaction of Open Innovation and Business Ecosystem. International Journal of U-and e-Service, Science and Technology 7 (1): 51–64.Google Scholar
- Zaheer, Srilata. 1995. Overcoming the Liability of Foreignness. Academy of Management Journal 38 (2): 341–363.Google Scholar
- Zander, Ivo, Patricia McDougall-Covin, and Elizabeth L. Rose. 2015. Born Globals and International Business: Evolution of a Field of Research. Journal of International Business Studies 46 (1): 27–35.Google Scholar
- Zhang, Jing, and Xiong-Jian Liang. 2011. Business Ecosystem Strategies of Mobile Network Operators in the 3G Era: The Case of China Mobile. Telecommunications Policy 35 (2): 156–171.Google Scholar
- Zhu, Feng, and Marco Iansiti. 2012. Entry into Platform-Based Markets. Strategic Management Journal 33 (1): 88–106.Google Scholar