Urban design context continually influences cognition and behavior and shapes human responses for pedestrians. Researchers have studied established the role of context well (Sussman and Hollander 2015; Robinson and Pallasmaa 2015; Zeisel et al. 2003; Wells et al. 2007), but less is known about how variations in the built environment impact behavior performance. The book, Cognitive Architecture: Designing for How We Respond to the Built Environment (Sussman and Hollander 2015), argues that a set of four architectural principles might explain impacts on human mental states. This study uses those four principles to provide a framework to empirically test the relationship between variations in the built environment and behavior performance using a go–no-go task. The findings suggest that context matters and the paper offers key implications for urban design theory and practice.
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This work was supported by the U.S. Army Combat Capabilities Development Command Soldier Center, and was accomplished under Cooperative Agreement Number W911QY-15-2-0001. The views and conclusions contained in this document are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as representing the official policies, either expressed or implied, of the U.S. Army Combat Capabilities Development Command Soldier Center, or the U.S. Government. The U.S. Government is authorized to reproduce and distribute reprints for Government purposes notwithstanding any copyright notation hereon.
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Appendix A: Indoor stimuli photos
Image #1: CA (Score 20). Source Wikimedia Commons.
Image #2: Non-CA (Score 3). Source Photo by Nina Callahan, Boston MA, 2015.
Image #3: CA (Score 15). Source Photo by Nina Callahan, Boston MA, 2015.
Image #4: CA (Score 13). Source Photo by Nina Callahan, Boston MA, 2015.
Image #5: Non-CA (Score 6). Source Photo by Nina Callahan, Boston MA, 2015.
Image #6: CA (Score 21). Source Wikimedia Commons.
Image #7: Non-CA (Score 5). Source Photo by Nina Callahan, Boston MA, 2015.
Image #8: Non-CA (Score 6). Source Photo by Nina Callahan, Boston MA, 2015.
Image #9: Non- CA (Score 7). Source Wikimedia Commons.
Image #10: CA (Score 12). Source Photo by Nina Callahan, Boston MA, 2015.
Image #11: Non-CA (Score 7). Source Wikimedia Commons.
Image #12: CA (Score 11). Source Wikimedia Commons.
Appendix B: Outdoor walking route in downtown Boston
Appendix C: CA Scorecard
Appendix D: External stimuli: Photos of 8 Stops
Cambridge St. & Joy St.
Cambridge St. & Sudbury St.
Sudbury St. before Bullfinch St.
Sudbury St. before Merrimack St.
Salem St. & Bartlett Place.
Salem St. & Prince St.
Salem St & Tileston St.
Salem St & Charter St.
1 of 10 images that generally do not demonstrate CA principles:
1 of 10 images that generally do demonstrate CA principles:
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Hollander, J.B., Levering, A.P., Lynch, L. et al. Cognitive responses to urban environments: behavioral responses in lab and field conditions. Urban Des Int 26, 256–271 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1057/s41289-020-00122-w