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Firm Dynamics, Job Creation and Job Destruction in Africa: Is the Quality of Institutional Environment Relevant?

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Abstract

The central question we pose is: which firms are likely to create or destroy jobs and does the quality of institutional environment affect the pace of firm-level job creation or destruction? Using Enterprise Survey data for 30 African countries, we find that jobs are destroyed at almost half the rate at which they are created. Small and starter firms report higher rates of job destruction. Though services firms account for higher rates of gross job creation, they still have higher rates of gross job destruction. We use Pooled Ordinary Least Squares estimation technique and at some point, account for possible endogeneity using the Two Stage Least Squares estimation technique. Our results indicate that improving the quality of institutional environment reinforces firm-level job creation and reduces job destruction. This effect is more pronounced among firms in the manufacturing sector. Findings draw attention to the importance of the quality of institutional environment and support towards small and starter firms.

Résumé

La question centrale que nous posons est la suivante : quelles entreprises sont susceptibles de créer ou de détruire des emplois et la qualité de l'environnement institutionnel affecte-t-elle le rythme de création ou de destruction d'emplois dans les entreprises ? En utilisant les données d'enquête auprès d’entreprises dans 30 pays africains, nous constatons que les emplois sont détruits à près de la moitié du rythme auquel ils sont créés. Les petites entreprises et les start-up signalent des taux plus élevés de destruction d'emplois. Bien que les entreprises de services font état de taux plus élevés de création brute d'emplois, elles conservent également des taux plus élevés de destruction brute d'emplois. Nous utilisons la méthode d'estimation des moindres carrés ordinaires groupés et nous tenons compte de l'éventuelle endogénéité à l'aide de la méthode d'estimation des moindres carrés en deux étapes. Nos résultats indiquent que l'amélioration de la qualité de l'environnement institutionnel renforce la création d'emplois dans les entreprises et réduit le nombre d’emplois détruits. Cet effet est plus prononcé au sein des entreprises de l’industrie manufacturière. Ces résultats attirent l'attention sur l'importance de la qualité de l'environnement institutionnel et du soutien apporté aux petites entreprises et aux start-up.

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Notes

  1. Institutional environments refer to numerous structures and processes that affect economic outcomes. They involve the government’s capacity to effectively formulate and implement sound policies. They also encompass the economic and social interactions between all economic agents (Kraay et al. 2010).

  2. Conversely, low quality institutional environment induces production inefficiency which may undermine firm entry, survival and growth thereby leading to increased job destruction rates and sub-optimal firm entry and survival.

  3. Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Mozambique, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Tanzania, Uganda.

  4. Countries considered include: Burundi (2014); Rwanda (2019); Tanzania (2013); Uganda (2013); Kenya (2018); Benin (2016); Cameroon (2016); Central African Republic (CAR) (2011); Chad (2018); Democratic Republic of Congo (2013); Egypt (2016); Ethiopia (2015); Gambia (2018); Ghana (2013); Guinea (2016); Lesotho (2016); Liberia (2017) Malawi (2014); Mali (2016); Mauritania (2014); Morocco (2019); Mozambique (2018); Namibia (2014); Niger (2017); Nigeria (2014); Senegal (2014); Sierra Leone (2017); South Sudan (2014); Djibouti (2013); and Madagascar (2013).

  5. This is the rate at which the stock of employment is growing.

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Correspondence to Ibrahim Mike Okumu.

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Appendices

Appendices

Appendix 1: Quality Institutional Environment by Country

Country

Regulatory quality

Rule of law

Composite Index

Burundi

− 0.313

− 0.264

− 0.288

Rwanda

0.798

0.933

0.865

Tanzania

− 0.417

− 0.262

− 0.340

Uganda

− 0.0938

− 0.0483

− 0.0710

Kenya

0.0234

0.0377

0.0306

Benin

− 0.0112

0.116

0.0526

Cameroon

− 0.0883

0.00567

− 0.0413

Central Africa Republic

− 0.151

− 0.122

− 0.136

Chad

− 0.136

− 0.233

− 0.185

DRC

− 0.172

− 0.417

− 0.294

Egypt

− 0.179

− 0.356

− 0.267

Ethiopia

0.511

0.625

0.568

Gambia

0.109

0.301

0.205

Ghana

− 0.143

0.269

0.0634

Guinea

− 0.196

− 0.338

− 0.267

Lesotho

− 0.404

− 0.344

− 0.374

Liberia

0.146

0.195

0.170

Malawi

− 0.00259

0.156

0.0768

Mali

− 0.267

− 0.745

− 0.506

Mauritania

− 0.488

− 0.351

− 0.420

Morocco

− 0.311

− 0.351

− 0.331

Mozambique

0.392

0.135

0.263

Namibia

0.457

0.505

0.481

Niger

0.164

0.0648

0.115

Nigeria

0.155

0.102

0.128

Senegal

0.102

0.240

0.171

Sierra Leone

− 0.162

− 0.0553

− 0.109

South Sudan

− 0.444

− 0.267

− 0.355

Djibouti

0.123

0.147

0.135

Madagascar

0.274

− 0.0360

0.119

  1. The indices in bold indicate outstanding countries in terms of highest ranking and lowest ranking. Where lowest ranking are those with negative indices. While those with a highest ranking have positive indices

Appendix 2: Showing Country-Level Gross Job Creation and Gross Job Destruction Rates

figure a

Appendix 3: Gross Job Creation and Destruction Rate Within Sectors

figure b

Appendix 4: OLS results for Institutional quality and Firm-level Job creation in Africa

Variables

All sectors

Model (4a)

Manufacturing sector

Model (5a)

Services sector

Model (6a)

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

(11)

IQE

0.351***

  

0.492***

  

0.339*

0.246**

  

0.013

 

(0.085)

  

(0.132)

  

(0.177)

(0.112)

  

(0.164)

ROL

 

0.341***

  

0.546***

   

0.195*

  
  

(0.083)

  

(0.132)

   

(0.109)

  

RQ

  

0.269***

  

0.312***

   

0.230**

 
   

(0.075)

  

(0.113)

   

(0.101)

 

Interactions: IQE##Industry

Manufacturing

           

 Garments##IQE

      

0.232

    
       

(0.226)

    

 Food##IQE

      

0.148

    
       

(0.170)

    

 Fabrications##IQE

      

0.276

    
       

(0.258)

    

 Publishing##IQE

      

0.605*

    
       

(0.331)

    

 Non-metallic##IQE

      

− 0.039

    
       

(0.239)

    

Services

           

 Hotel##IQE

          

0.116

           

(0.181)

 Wholesale and retail##IQE

          

0.520***

           

(0.152)

 Motor vehicle##IQE

          

0.111

           

(0.206)

 Transport##IQE

          

0.102

           

(0.232)

Manufacturing

           

 Garments

      

0.140*

    
       

(0.072)

    

 Food

      

− 0.018

    
       

(0.058)

    

 Fabrications

      

− 0.064

    
       

(0.078)

    

 Publishing

      

0.138

    
       

(0.095)

    

 Non-metallic

      

0.009

    
       

(0.087)

    

Services

           

 Hotel

          

− 0.196***

           

(0.067)

 Wholesale and retail

          

0.032

           

(0.058)

 Motor vehicle

          

− 0.148*

           

(0.080)

 Transport

          

− 0.103

           

(0.081)

Constant

0.720***

0.713***

0.705***

0.595**

0.626**

0.526**

0.609**

0.825***

0.811***

0.830***

0.913***

 

(0.164)

(0.165)

(0.164)

(0.269)

(0.271)

(0.267)

(0.272)

(0.207)

(0.207)

(0.206)

(0.215)

Observations

15,376

15,376

15,376

6173

6173

6173

6173

9203

9203

9203

8201

R-squared

0.086

0.086

0.086

0.082

0.082

0.081

0.084

0.097

0.097

0.097

0.104

Country effects

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

  1. Standard errors in parentheses
  2. Models include the following control variables: Firm size, Firm age, Firm ownership, Innovativeness, Export status, Working capital, Infrastructure, Competition, Country effects
  3. IQE Stands for institutional quality environment, RQ regulatory quality, ROL rule of law
  4. ***P < 0.01, **P < 0.05, *P < 0.1

Appendix 5: 2SLS Results for Institutional Quality and Firm-Level Job Destruction in Africa

Variables

All sectors

Model (4b)

Manufacturing sector

Model (5b)

Services sector

Model (6b)

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

(11)

IQE

− 0.042

  

− 0.089

  

− 0.185

− 0.029

  

− 0.407**

 

(0.088)

  

(0.156)

  

(0.199)

(0. 112)

  

(0.107)

ROL

 

− 0.073

  

− 0. 118

   

− 0.114

  
  

(0.086)

  

(0.151)

   

(0.111)

  

RQ

  

− 0.005

  

− 0.035

   

− 0.046

 
   

(0.079)

  

(0.138)

   

(0.103)

 

Interactions: IQE##Industry

Manufacturing:

           

 Garments##IQE

      

0.040

    
       

(0.223)

    

 Food##IQE

      

0.025

    
       

(0.184)

    

 Fabrications##IQE

      

0.286

    
       

(0.252)

    

 Publishing##IQE

      

− 0.144

    
       

(0.327)

    

 Non-metallic##IQE

      

0.124

    
       

(0.266)

    

Services

           

 Hotel##IQE

          

− 0.429**

           

(0. 199)

 Wholesale and retail##IQE

          

− 0.432**

           

0.168

 Motor vehicle##IQE

          

− 0.504**

           

(0.224)

 Transport##IQE

          

− 0.246

           

(0.233

Manufacturing

           

 Garments

      

0.019

    
       

(0.068)

    

 Food

      

0.045

    
       

(0.056)

    

 Fabrications

      

0.006

    
       

(0.076)

    

 Publishing

      

0.061

    
       

(0.088)

    

 Non-metallic

      

0.235

    
       

(0.090)

    

Services

           

 Hotel

          

0.038

           

(0.062)

 Wholesale and retail

          

− 0.058

           

(0.052)

 Motor vehicle

          

− 0.078

           

(0.071)

 Transport

          

− 0.034

           

(0.079)

Observations

15,376

15,376

15,376

6173

6173

6173

6173

9203

9203

9203

9203

R-squared

0.1469

0.1474

0.1464

0.1285

0.1298

0.1274

0.0284

0.1686

0.1682

0.107

0.0204

Durbin (P values)

0.6586

0.8809

0.6531

0.8498

0.8288

0.9589

0.9997

0.7897

0.5968

0.4138

0.6113

Wu-Hausman (P values)

0.6591

0.8810

0.6536

0.8503

0.8294

0.9590

0.9997

0.7901

0.5977

0.4149

0.6148

Prob > F (First stage)

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

Cragg Donald F statistic

1003.44

843.026

875.121

334.069

313.004

291.109

 

584.016

461.882

502.765

 
  1. Standard errors in parentheses
  2. Models include the following control variables: Firm size, Firm age, Firm ownership, Innovativeness, Export status, Working capital, Infrastructure, Competition, Country effects
  3. IQE Stands for institutional quality environment, RQ regulatory quality, ROL rule of law
  4. ***P < 0.01, **P < 0.05, *P < 0.1

Appendix 6: OLS Results on the Quality of Institutional Environments and Firm Dynamics of Size and Age

Variables

Dep var. job creation

Dep var. job destruction

Interactions

A

B

D

E

Firm size (Medium##IQE base category):

    

 Small##IQE

0.207**

 

− 0.005

 
 

(0.092)

 

(0.074)

 

Large##IQE

0.296**

 

− 0.193***

 
 

(0.128)

 

(0.025)

 

Age categories (Young 3_5 years base category)

    

Starters (0_2 years) ##IQE

 

0.418***

 

0.933***

  

(0.156)

 

(0.196)

Young (6_10 years) ##IQE

 

0.356**

 

− 0.286***

  

(0.156)

 

(0.037)

Mature (10 years and above) ##IQE

 

0.395***

 

− 0.190***

  

(0.142)

 

(0.036)

IQE

− 0.156

− 0.114

− 0.098

− 0.040

 

(0.167)

(0.306)

(0.075)

(0.113)

Firm size

    

 Small

− 0.531

 

0.319***

 
 

(0.034)

 

(0.026)

 

 Large

0.222***

 

− 0.182**

 
 

(0.046)

 

(0.071)

 

Firm age (Young 3–5 base category):

    

 Starters

 

− 0.985*

 

2.057***

  

(0.064)

 

(0.076)

 Young (6_10 years)

 

− 0.100*

 

− 0.026

  

(0.060)

 

(0.112)

Mature (10 years and above)

 

− 0.462***

 

− 0.131

Observations

15,376

15,376

15,376

15,376

R-squared

0.148

0.1568

0.1274

0.1694

  1. Standard errors in parentheses
  2. Models include the following control variables: Firm size, Firm age, Firm ownership, Innovativeness, Export status, Working capital, Infrastructure, Competition, Country effects
  3. IQE Stands for institutional quality environment
  4. ***P < 0.01, **P < 0.05, *P < 0.1

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Okumu, I.M., Naluwooza, P. & Bbaale, E. Firm Dynamics, Job Creation and Job Destruction in Africa: Is the Quality of Institutional Environment Relevant?. Eur J Dev Res 34, 2970–3004 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1057/s41287-022-00507-3

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1057/s41287-022-00507-3

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