Skip to main content
Log in

Production of Indigenous Food Crops: Implications for Children’s Nutritional Status of Farm Households in Northern Ghana

  • Original Article
  • Published:
The European Journal of Development Research Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

This paper examines the effect of indigenous food crops on the nutrition security outcomes of children in farm households. Using a standard treatment effect model, data on children under 5 years of age from 250 farm households in selected rural districts of northern Ghana were analysed. A multistage sampling procedure was used. Descriptive statistics show high rates of child wasting (16.7%), stunting (29.8%) and underweight (25.2%), but suggest better nutritional status for children in indigenous food crops producer households than those in non-producer households. Children in producer households have higher height-for-age; weight-for-height and weight-for-age z-scores than children in non-producer households. The findings suggest that, children in non-producer households are more at risk of being stunted, wasted and underweight than those in producer households. Exploring the empirical link between the production of indigenous food crops and the nutrition status of children in northern Ghana extends the literature on nutrition and crop production.

Résumé

Cet article étudie l'effet des cultures vivrières indigènes sur la sécurité nutritionnelle des enfants issus des ménages agricoles. À l'aide d'un modèle standard d'effet de traitement, nous avons analysé les données concenant les enfants de moins de cinq ans issus de 250 ménages agricoles sélectionnés dans des districts ruraux au nord du Ghana. Une procédure d'échantillonnage à plusieurs degrés a été utilisée. Les statistiques descriptives montrent chez les enfants des taux élevés d'émaciation (16,7 %), de retard de croissance (29,8 %) et d'insuffisance pondérale (25,2 %), mais elles suggèrent un meilleur état nutritionnel pour les enfants issus de ménages producteurs de cultures vivrières indigènes, par rapport aux enfants issus de ménages non producteurs. Les enfants issus de ménages producteurs ont un rapport taille-âge, poids-pour-taille et poids-pour-âge plus élevé que les enfants issus de ménages non producteurs. Les résultats suggèrent que les enfants issus de ménages non producteurs sont plus exposés au risque d'être chétifs, émaciés et en situation d'insuffisance pondérale par rapport aux enfants issus de ménages producteurs. L'exploration du lien empirique entre la production de cultures vivrières indigènes et l'état nutritionnel des enfants dans le nord du Ghana permet d’élargir la littérature sur la nutrition et la culture vivrière.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1

Source GSS (2009, 2015)

Fig. 2

Source Field Survey Data, May/June 2016

Similar content being viewed by others

Notes

  1. Accessed from https://docs.wfp.org/api/documents/WFP-0000016221/download/?_ga=2.214575125.306352121.1543124682-1425482959.1543124682 on 25th November 2018.

  2. The Heckman approach estimates impact in two stages. The first stage involves probit, that estimates the determinants of respondents belonging to treatment. The second stage involves estimation of impact of the treatment on outcomes of interest, conditional on treatment assignment and other control variables and the predicted Inverse Mills Ratio (IMR) from the first stage.

References

  • Aakvik, A., J.J. Heckman, and E.J. Vytlacil. 2005. Estimating treatment effects for discrete outcomes when responses to treatment vary: An application to Norwegian vocational rehabilitation programs. Journal of Econometrics 125 (1): 15–51.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Aboagye, L., N. Obirih-Opareh, L. Amissah, and H. Adu-Dapaah. 2007. Underutilsed species policies and strategies: analysis of existing national policies and legislation that enable or inhibit the wider use of underutilized plant species for food and agriculture in Ghana. Global Facilitation Unit for Underutilized Species (GFU) via Dei Tre Denari 472: 1–39.

    Google Scholar 

  • Alom, J., M.A. Islam, and M.A. Quddus. 2009. Socioeconomic factors influencing nutritional status of under-five children of agrarian families in Bangladesh: A multilevel analysis. The Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Economics 32 (1 & 2): 63–74.

    Google Scholar 

  • Benin, S., M. Smale, J. Pender, B. Gebremedhin, and S. Ehui. 2004. The economic determinants of cereal crop diversity on farms in the Ethiopian highlands. Agricultural Economics 31 (2–3): 197–208.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Blössner, M., and M. De Onis. 2005. Malnutrition: Quantifying the health impact at national and local levels. Geneva: WHO Nutrition for Health and development.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chivenge, P., T. Mabhaudhi, A.T. Modi, and P. Mafongoya. 2015. The potential role of neglected and underutilised crop species as future crops under water scarce conditions in sub-Saharan Africa. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 12 (6): 5685–5711.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cogill, B. 2003. Anthropometric indicators measurement guide. Retrieved from USA: https://www.fantaproject.org/sites/default/files/resources/anthropometry-2003-ENG.pdf

  • Cuesta, J. 2013. A world free of poverty… but of hunger and malnutrition? The European Journal of Development Research 25 (1): 1–4.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Donkoh, S.A., A. Eliasu, E.D. Setsoafia, and I.G.K. Ansah. 2016. Participation and output effect of a Block Farm Credit Programme in selected districts of Northern Ghana. Agricultural Finance Review 76 (3): 348–361.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ebert, A.W. 2014. Potential of underutilized traditional vegetables and legume crops to contribute to food and nutritional security, income and more sustainable production systems. Sustainability 6 (1): 319–335.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). 2008. Introduction to the basic concepts of food security. Rome: Food Security Information for Action.

    Google Scholar 

  • Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). 2014. The state of food insecurity in the world 2014: Strengthening the enabling enviroment for food security and nutrition; Agriculture Organization of The United Nations, Rome, 2014. Rome: Food & Agriculture Organization.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gross, R., H. Schoeneberger, H. Pfeifer, and H. Preuss. 2000. The four dimensions of food and nutrition security: Definitions and concepts. SCN News 20: 20–25.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ghana Statistical Service (GSS). 2009. Ghana Demographic and Health Survey 2008. Accra: GSS, GHS, and ICF Macro.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ghana Statistical Service (GSS). 2011. Ghana multiple indicator cluster survey with an enhanced malaria module and biomarker, 2011, Final Report. Accra, Ghana.

  • Ghana Statistical Service (GSS). 2012. 2010 Population and housing census: Final results.

  • Ghana Statistical Service (GSS). 2014. Ghana living standard survey: Poverty profile in Ghana (2005–2013). Accra: Ghana Statistical Service.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ghana Statistical Service (GSS). 2015. Ghana Demographic and Health Survey 2014. Rockville: GSS, GHS, and ICF International.

    Google Scholar 

  • Heckman, J.J. 1979. Sample selection bias as a specification error. Econometrica: Journal of the Econometric Society 47: 153–161.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Henson, S., J. Humphrey, and B. McClafferty. 2013. Nutritious agriculture by design: A tool for program planning. GAIN-IDS Discussion Paper. Geneva: GAIN.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ibok, O.W., I.C. Idiong, N.E. Bassey, and E.S. Udoh. 2014. Food security and productivity of urban food crop farming households in southern Nigeria. Agricultural Science 2 (3): 01–12.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • International Fund for Agriculture Development (IFAD). 2013. Enabling poor rural people to overcome poverty in Ghana Via Paolo di Dono, 44 - 00142 Rome, Italy.

  • International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI). 2013. 2013 Global Food Policy Report; International Food Policy Research Institute; 2033 K Street, NW; Washington, DC 20006–1002, USA. https://webteam.ifpri.info/files/2014/03/gfpr2013_overview_EN.pdf

  • Iram, U., and M.S. Butt. 2006a. Understanding the health and nutritional status of children in Pakistan. International Journal of Social Economics. 33: 1.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Iram, U., and M.S. Butt. 2006. Understanding the health and nutritional status of children in Pakistan: A study of the interaction of socioeconomic and environmental factors. International Journal of Social Economics 33 (2): 111–131.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jones, A.D., A. Shrinivas, and R. Bezner-Kerr. 2014. Farm production diversity is associated with greater household dietary diversity in Malawi: Findings from nationally representative data. Food Policy 46: 1–12.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kumar, N., J. Harris, and R. Rawat. 2015. If they grow it, will they eat and grow? Evidence from Zambia on agricultural diversity and child undernutrition. The Journal of Development Studies 51 (8): 1060–1077.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lewbel, A. 2007. Endogenous selection or treatment model estimation. Journal of Econometrics 141 (2): 777–806.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lovo, S., and M. Veronesi. 2014. Crop diversification and child health: Empirical evidence from Tanzania. Paper presented at the 2014 International Congress, August 26–29, 2014, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

  • Makate, C., R. Wang, M. Makate, and N. Mango. 2016. Crop diversification and livelihoods of smallholder farmers in Zimbabwe: Adaptive management for environmental change. Springerplus 5 (1): 1–18.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Malapit, H.J.L., S. Kadiyala, A.R. Quisumbing, K. Cunningham, and P. Tyagi. 2015. Women’s empowerment mitigates the negative effects of low production diversity on maternal and child nutrition in Nepal. The Journal of Development Studies 51 (8): 1097–1123.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Masters, W. A., S. Ghosh, J. A. Daniels, and D. B. Sarpong. 2013. Comprehensive assessment of the peanut value chain for nutrition improvement in Ghana final report, september 2013.

  • Padulosi, S., K. Amaya, M. Jäger, E. Gotor, W. Rojas, and R. Valdivia. 2014. A holistic approach to enhance the use of neglected and underutilized species: The Case of andean grains in Bolivia and Peru. Sustainability 6 (3): 1283–1312.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rajendran, S., V. Afari-Sefa, M. Bekunda, I. Dominick, and P. J. Lukumay. 2014. Does crop diversity contribute to dietary diversity? Evidence from integration of vegetables into maize based farming systems in Tanzania. Paper presented at the 88th Annual Conference, April 9–11, 2014, AgroParisTech, Paris, France.

  • Sadoulet, E., and A. De Janvry. 1995. Quantitative development policy analysis, vol. 5. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sassi, M. 2014. Economic and health determinants of child nutritional status in the Malawian District of Salima. The European Journal of Development Research 26 (5): 761–782.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shively, G., and C. Sununtnasuk. 2015. Agricultural diversity and child stunting in Nepal. The Journal of Development Studies 51 (8): 1078–1096.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sibhatu, K.T., V.V. Krishna, and M. Qaim. 2015. Production diversity and dietary diversity in smallholder farm households. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112 (34): 10657–10662.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sibhatu, K.T., and M. Qaim. 2018. Farm production diversity and dietary quality: Linkages and measurement issues. Food Security 10 (1): 47–59.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Stadlmayr, B., U. Charrondiere, V. Enujiugha, R. Bayili, E. Fagbohoun, B. Samb, P. Addy, I. Barikmo, F. Ouattara, and A. Oshaug. 2012. West African food composition table. Rome. http://www.fao.org/docrep/015/i2698b/i2698b00.pdf

  • StataCorp, L. 2015. Stata treatment-effects reference manual. College Station, TX: A Stata Press Publication.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tadele, Z. 2009) Role of orphan crops in enhancing and diversifying food production in Africa. Paper presented at the Afr. Techol. Develop. Forum Jour.

  • Taylor, J.E., and I. Adelman. 2003. Agricultural household models: Genesis, evolution, and extensions. Review of Economics of the Household 1 (1): 33–58.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tsiboe, F., Y.A. Zereyesus, and E. Osei. 2016. Non-farm work, food poverty, and nutrient availability in northern Ghana. Journal of Rural Studies 47: 97–107.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Van Dusen, M.E., and J.E. Taylor. 2005. Missing markets and crop diversity: Evidence from Mexico. Environment and Development Economics 10 (4): 513–531.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Watson, J. 1971. Investigations on the nutritive value of some Ghanaian foodstuffs. Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science 4 (1): 95–111.

    Google Scholar 

  • William, A., A. Donkoh Samuel, N. George, J. O'Reilly Patrick, and O. Olawale. 2016. Adoption of Bambara groundnut production and its effects on farmers’ welfare in Northern Ghana. African Journal of Agricultural Research 11 (7): 583–594. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJAR2015.10568.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • World Health Organization (WHO). 2006. Multicenter Growth Reference Study Group: WHO Child Growth Standards: Length/height-for-age, weight-for-age, weightfor-length, weight for-height and body mass index-for-age: Methods and development. Geneva: WHO.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Alhassan Andani.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Andani, A., Jatoe, J.B.D. & Al-Hassan, R.M. Production of Indigenous Food Crops: Implications for Children’s Nutritional Status of Farm Households in Northern Ghana. Eur J Dev Res 34, 2651–2665 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1057/s41287-021-00481-2

Download citation

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1057/s41287-021-00481-2

Keywords

JEL Classification

Navigation