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Role of Education, Age, and Family Size on Food Insecurity in Pakistan: A Quantile Regression Analysis

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This study estimates factors affecting food insecurity employing quantile regression never priorly used at least in Pakistan using micro-level data. The study depicts that the effects of education, age, and family size on food insecurity are different among quantiles and their effects are statistically significant. All these differences in slope coefficients are statistically significant. The effects of 12 or more years of education of the richer families (80th and 90th quantile) on food insecurity are almost four times greater than for the poorest families (10th quantile). Furthermore, the impacts of age and family size are also about three times greater. Our findings are robust and are not sensitive to food insecurity measures (i.e., Food Expenditure and Calorie Intake). The policy insinuation is that the quality of education, life span enhancing, as well as family planning facilities should be arranged especially for poor families.


Cette étude fait une estimation des facteurs affectant l'insécurité alimentaire en utilisant une régression quantile jamais utilisée auparavant, du moins au Pakistan, avec des données collectées à un niveau micro. L'étude montre que les effets de l'éducation, de l'âge et de la taille de la famille sur l'insécurité alimentaire diffèrent selon les quantiles et que leurs effets sont statistiquement significatifs. Toutes ces différences de coefficients de pente sont statistiquement significatives. Pour les familles les plus riches (80ème et 90ème quantile), 12 années ou plus d'éducation ont un effet sont presque quatre fois plus important sur l'insécurité alimentaire que pour les familles les plus pauvres (10ème quantile). De plus, l’impact de l'âge et de la taille de la famille est également environ trois fois plus important. Nos résultats sont robustes et ne sont pas sensibles aux mesures d'insécurité alimentaire (c'est-à-dire les dépenses alimentaires et l'apport calorique). Cela signifie, en terme politique, que les mesures visant la qualité de l'éducation, l'amélioration de la durée de vie, et les structures de planification familiale devraient être mises en place plus particulièrement pour les familles en situation de pauvreté.

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See Figs. 2, 3, and Table 5.

Fig. 2
figure 2

Quantile regression results

Fig. 3
figure 3

Source: Author’s own estimations

Food insecurity by quantiles in Pakistan with rural/urban breakup.

figure a

Food security and agriculture policy elements

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Cheema, A.R., Saleem, A., Visas, H. et al. Role of Education, Age, and Family Size on Food Insecurity in Pakistan: A Quantile Regression Analysis. Eur J Dev Res 34, 2576–2597 (2022).

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