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Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia Vaccine Delivery and Adoption by Women and Men in North-Eastern Kenya


Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is an endemic transboundary disease of cattle controlled by vaccination, with a vaccine characterized by low efficacy and safety. To contribute towards its eradication, social scientists have sought ways of improving the delivery and adoption of the vaccine, whereas vaccine scientists have attempted to develop safer and more efficacious vaccines. To understand the status of CBPP vaccine delivery and the effect of gender on vaccine adoption, qualitative and quantitative data were collected from vaccine delivery stakeholders, including men and women cattle owners from north-eastern Kenya. The results indicate that the main constraints to vaccine delivery include restricted distribution due to stringent government regulation and the need for a cold supply chain, which is exacerbated by poor transport infrastructure. On vaccine adoption, men and women accepted the vaccine, but men were willing to pay significantly higher prices than women because they were significantly wealthier.


La péripneumonie contagieuse bovine (PCB) est une maladie transfrontalière endémique des bovins contrôlés par la vaccination, avec un vaccin caractérisé par une faible efficacité et une faible sécurité. Pour contribuer à son éradication, les chercheurs en sciences sociales ont cherché des moyens d’améliorer l’administration et l’adoption du vaccin, tandis que les scientifiques du vaccin ont tenté de développer des vaccins plus sûrs et plus efficaces. Pour comprendre le statut de l’administration du vaccin PCB et l’effet du genre sur l’adoption des vaccins, des données qualitatives et quantitatives ont été recueillies auprès des acteurs de la vaccination, notamment des hommes et des femmes propriétaires de bétail au nord-est du Kenya. Les résultats indiquent que les principales contraintes à l’administration des vaccins comprennent une distribution restreinte en raison de la réglementation gouvernementale rigoureuse et de la nécessité de la chaîne du froid, qui est exacerbée par une infrastructure de transport médiocre. En ce qui concerne l’adoption des vaccins, les hommes et les femmes ont accepté le vaccin, mais les hommes étaient disposés à payer des prix sensiblement plus élevés que les femmes parce qu’ils étaient sensiblement plus riches.

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Photos by Mustafa Maalim Ahmed, March 2014

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  1. The US dollar was retailing at around Kenya shillings 87 at the time of the study (March 2014).

  2. USD 1.5 = Ksh 130.5. 30% of 130.5 = 39.15. 130.5 + 39.15 = 169.65—rounded off to Sh 200 to cater for currency fluctuation and vaccine delivery costs from source to end user in the study location.

  3. The Kenyan government provides free or subsidize cattle vaccination as a public good from time to time, especially during disease outbreaks.


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Canadian International Food Security Research Fund (CIFSRF)—a program of the International Development Research Centre (IDRC); CGIAR research program on Policies, Institutions and Markets (PIM).

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Correspondence to Elizabeth Waithanji.

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Elizabeth Waithanji—Gender Consultant, P.O. Box 51834, Nairobi 00200, Kenya.

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Waithanji, E., Mtimet, N. & Muindi, P. Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia Vaccine Delivery and Adoption by Women and Men in North-Eastern Kenya. Eur J Dev Res 31, 364–387 (2019).

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  • Cattle
  • Vaccine
  • Delivery
  • Adoption
  • Gender
  • Kenya
  • Gender Studies
  • Economics