A critical approach of cash-in-transit regulation and organisation from a situational crime prevention perspective

Abstract

This article aims to assess the current Belgian CIT Decree of 2003, which can be considered to be the most stringent of all European Countries, from a situational crime preventive perspective in order to formulate recommendations as the current legal framework is due to be reviewed. It is argued that although the legislator clearly bases the underlying CIT policy on theoretical principles of situational crime prevention, the practical translation lacks consistency and direction: several measures contradict each other, the added value is questionable and/or gives rise to practical implementation issues. This article generates an insight of how situational crime prevention is and can be used in a CIT-setting.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Notes

  1. 1.

    Eight attacks and 2 attempts in 2005 and 5 attacks and 3 attempts in 2006; since April 24th 2006, no more attacks on notes transport were registered.

  2. 2.

    Options for notes transport: 1—Art. 14: transport of banknotes in an unarmoured CIT-vehicle of ordinary appearance equipped with IBNS. 2—Art. 15: transport of banknotes in an unarmoured CIT-vehicle with a clear marking indicating that it is equipped with IBNS. 3—Art. 16: transport of banknotes in a cabin-armoured CIT-vehicle equipped with IBNS. 4—Art. 17: transport of banknotes in a fully armoured CIT-vehicle not equipped with IBNS. 5—Art. 18: transport of banknotes in a fully armoured CIT-vehicle equipped with IBNS.

  3. 3.

    In Belgium, the main legal instrument is a law which needs to approved by the parliament and is—notwithstanding the constitution—on top of the legal hierarchy. Next, there is a Royal Decree and subsequent a Ministerial Decree. Both Decrees are an initiative of the government that does not need to be approved by the parliament; the difference between both Decrees lays in the fact that a Royal Decree needs to be signed by the King and secondly by a member of the Government. In total 45 Royal and/or Ministerial Decree’s are drafted in order to describe the modalities for specific private securities activities as set out in the Private Security Law of 2017.

  4. 4.

    All cited articles from these legal frameworks are a translation from the official text published in the Official Journal of the Kingdom of Belgium (Het Belgisch Staatsblad/Le Moniteur Belge).

  5. 5.

    Art. 5 3°, 4° and 5° describes three exceptions. Discussing in detail these exceptions will go beyond the scope and objective of this article.

  6. 6.

    A secured room is a room at a stopping point which needs to be specially designed in order to receive a CIT-crew (Cf. infra).

  7. 7.

    One hundred and twenty-one cross-pavement attacks in 2016 and 154 in 2017 (ESTA 2018).

  8. 8.

    The other four categories are in brief (1) the transport coins coming from parking metres and the so-called ‘light CIT’ (small amount of notes), (3) the transport of notes without an IBNS is used but which is protected by the police, (4) the CIT-escort of a transport conducted by a third party and (5) ATM replenishments and interventions on ATM’s.

  9. 9.

    ‘Coins’

  10. 10.

    ‘Neutralisation system’

References

  1. Button, M. 2007. Assessing the Regulation of Private Security across Europe. European Journal of Criminology 4 (1): 109–128.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Button, M., and B. George. 2006. Regulation of security: New models for analysis. In Handbook of Security, ed. M. Gill, 563–585. London: Palgrave.

    Google Scholar 

  3. CIT Committee. 2016. Applicable transport arrangements in the euro-area Member States Article 13(5) and countries having signed Monetary Agreements with the EU (Andorra, Monaco, San Marino and the Vatican, Regulation (EU) No 1214/2011.

  4. Clarke, R.V. 1997. Introduction. In Situational crime prevention successful case studies, ed. R.V. Clarke, 2–43. New York: Harrow and Heston.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Clarke, R.V. 2005. Seven misconceptions of situational crime prevention. In Handbook of crime prevention and community safety, ed. N. Tilley, 39–70. Devon: Willan Publishing.

    Google Scholar 

  6. COESS. 2010. Private security in Belgium: An inspiration for Europe?. Wemmel: COESS (Third White Paper).

    Google Scholar 

  7. COESS and UNI-Europa. 2004. A comparative overview of the legislations governing the Cash in Transit private industry in the 15 EU members. Wemmel: COESS (Joint Report).

    Google Scholar 

  8. COESS and UNI-Europa. 2006. Overview of the legislations governing Cash in Transit (private security) in 10 new EU Member States who joined EU on 1st May 2004. Wemmel: COESS (Joint Report).

    Google Scholar 

  9. Cohen, L.E., and M. Felson. 1979. Social change and crime rate trends: A routine activity approach. American Sociological Review 44: 588–608.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Cools, M. 1998. Private opsporing in een criminologische markt. In Nieuwe sporen, het actieterrein van de particuliere recherche in België en Nederland, ed. M. Cools and H. Haelterman, 15–42. Kluwer Editorial: Diegem.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Cools, M. 2000. De criminoloog en de private veiligheidszorg. In Criminologie. De Wetenschap. De Mens, ed. Decorte, T. et al., 203–216. Brussel: Politeia.

  12. Currency News. 2018. European CIT attack increase, net losses drop. Currency News 16 (6): 7.

    Google Scholar 

  13. De Waard, J. 1999. The private security industry in international perspective. European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research 7: 143–174.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. ESTA. 2018. ESTA Business Conference, Exhibition and General Assembly. ESTA Conference 13–14 May, Budapest, Hungary.

  15. Farrell, G., A. Tseloni, J. Mailley, and N. Tilley. 2008. The crime drop and the security hypothesis. British Society of Criminology Newsletter 62: 17–21.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Farrell, G., A. Tseloni, J. Mailley, and N. Tilley. 2011. The crime drop and the security hypothesis. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 48: 147–175.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Gill, M. 2001. The craft of robbers of cash-in-transit vans: Crime facilitators and the entrepreneurial approach. International Journal of the Sociology of Law 29: 227–291.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Hollis, M., M. Felson, and B. Welsh. 2013. The capable guardian in routine activities theory: A theorical and conceptual reappraisal. Crime Prevention and Community Safety 15: 65–79.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Koninklijk besluit van 7 April 2003 houdende regeling van bepaalde methodes bij het toezicht op en de bescherming bij het vervoer van waarden en betreffende de technische kenmerken van de voertuigen voor waardevervoer, Belgisch Staatsblad, 29/04/2003.

  20. Koninklijk besluit van 8 juni 2007 tot wijziging van het koninklijk besluit van 7 April 2003 houdende regeling van bepaalde methodes bij het toezicht op en bescherming bij het vervoer van waarden en betreffende de technische kenmerken van de voertuigen voor waardevervoer, Belgisch Staatsblad, 03/07/2007.

  21. Koninklijk besluit van 18 maart 2014 tot bepaling van de goederen, andere dan geld, die omwille van hun kostbaar karakter of hun bijzondere aard aan bedreiging onderhevig zijn, Belgische Staatsblad, 08/04/2014.

  22. Ministrieel Besluit van 3 maart 1997 houdende de goedkeuringsprocedure van de beveiligingssystemen van waarden, Belgische Staatsblad, 7/04/1997.

  23. M.v.T. bij het wetontwerp tot regeling van de private en bijzondere veiligheid, Parl. St., Kamer, 2016-2017, nr. 2388/001.

  24. Omzendbrief betreffende het koninklijk besluit houdende bepaalde regels ter beveiliging van het waardevervoer, Belgisch Staatsblad, 22/09/2001.

  25. Proceedings, Parliamentary. 2012. Question of the parliament towards the Minster of Internal Affairs 0208: 5.

    Google Scholar 

  26. Regulation (EU) No. 1214/2011 on the professional cross-border transport of euro cash by road between euro area Member States.

  27. Smith, L., and E. Louis. 2010. Cash in transit armed robbery in Australia. Trends & Issues in crime and criminal justice 397: 1–6.

    Google Scholar 

  28. Tseloni, A., G. Farrel, R. Thompson, E. Evans, and N. Tilley. 2017. Domestic burglary drop and the security hypothesis. Crime Science 6: 1–16.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Van Steden, R., and R. Sarre. 2007. The growth of private security: Trends in the European Union. Security Journal 20: 222–235.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Wet van 2 oktober 2017 tot regeling van de private en bijzondere veiligheid, Belgisch Staatsblad, 31/10/2017.

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Olivier Maes.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Hardyns, W., Cools, M. & Maes, O. A critical approach of cash-in-transit regulation and organisation from a situational crime prevention perspective. Secur J 33, 515–530 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1057/s41284-019-00188-4

Download citation

Keywords

  • Cash-in-transit
  • Situational crime prevention
  • Security
  • Offender
  • Opportunity