Inspired by theories of environmental criminology, this paper is concerned with the criminogenic potential of football matches. Do matches generate patterns of crime within grounds and beyond them? If so, over what period and over what distance are these effects produced? Police-recorded data for five football stadia for a 6-year timeframe (2005–2010) are examined using non-parametric permutation tests. The spatial extent of any patterns are quantified and used to further examine differences in the temporal distribution of crime and incidents. Change in the spatial distribution of crime and incidents occurred around all five stadia and did so during those periods when the ambient population was elevated on match days. The results provide further support for theories of environmental criminology, suggesting that there is a higher risk of crime and incidents in the areas immediately around stadia during the hours when matches take place.
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Kurland, J., Tilley, N. & Johnson, S.D. Football pollution: an investigation of spatial and temporal patterns of crime in and around stadia in England. Secur J 31, 665–684 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1057/s41284-017-0123-0
- Spatio-temporal crime patterns
- Football-related crime
- Environmental criminology