Near-repeat shootings in contemporary Sweden 2011 to 2015

  • Joakim Sturup
  • Amir Rostami
  • Manne Gerell
  • Anders Sandholm
Original Article

DOI: 10.1057/s41284-017-0089-y

Cite this article as:
Sturup, J., Rostami, A., Gerell, M. et al. Secur J (2017). doi:10.1057/s41284-017-0089-y


The concept of near-repeat patterns illustrates how crimes are clustered in space and time, with a crime event often shortly followed by another crime nearby. This study aims first to describe the frequency in shootings; second, to analyse the patterns of near-repeat shootings; and third, to validate a near-repeat calculator in the three largest cities in Sweden. Data were geocoded from three registries on shootings administered by the police departments in Stockholm, Gothenburg and Malmö from 2011 to 2015, and were analysed using a free near-repeat calculator. There were 948 shootings, 378 of which involved at least one injury or death (40%). The relative risk of firearm-perpetrated homicides was almost 2.5 times higher in Malmö compared to Stockholm, but almost half of the shootings occurred in Stockholm. Near-repeat patterns were found with a significantly increased risk of a new shooting in all three cities, but were weaker in Gothenburg.


Near-repeat Shootings Firearms Guns Gangs 

Copyright information

© Macmillan Publishers Ltd 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joakim Sturup
    • 1
  • Amir Rostami
    • 2
  • Manne Gerell
    • 3
  • Anders Sandholm
    • 4
  1. 1.Centre for Psychiatry Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutetand National Board of Forensic MedicineHuddingeSweden
  2. 2.Department of SociologyStockholm University and Institute for Future StudiesStockholmSweden
  3. 3.Malmö UniversityMalmöSweden
  4. 4.Swedish National PoliceStockholmSweden

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