Journal of Public Health Policy

, Volume 40, Issue 1, pp 66–75 | Cite as

A public health framework for the regulation of marketing

  • Anthony BiglanEmail author
  • Mark Van Ryzin
  • Erika Westling


Cross-sectional, longitudinal, and experimental studies have found a link between youth exposure to cigarette marketing and youth initiation of smoking. These decisive research findings led to regulations of cigarette marketing to youth—including no television or radio ads, prohibitions on the use of cartoons, bans on transit and billboard advertisements, and disallowing tobacco brand sponsorships of sporting events or concerts. Similar products that may cause more harm than benefits include alcohol, electronic cigarettes, and opioids. We review the evidence linking problematic use of these products with exposure to marketing and discuss standards for assessing the potential harmfulness of marketing. We next address how public health agencies might apply regulatory principles to these harmful products similar to those applied to cigarette advertising, in the advancement of public health.


Tobacco E-cigarettes Marketing Public health regulations Adolescent health 



The National Institute on Drug Abuse (R33 DA035640 and R03CA206551) of the National Institute of Health and the Food and Drug Administration Center for Tobacco Products (CTP) supported the authors during their work on this manuscript. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institute of Drug Abuse, National Institute of Health, or the Food and Drug Administration.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All of the authors declare no conflicts of interest.


  1. 1.
    Centers for Disease Control & Prevention. Fast facts: diseases and death; 2017.
  2. 2.
    Wynder EL, Graham EA. Tobacco smoking as a possible etiologic factor in bronchogenic carcinoma. JAMA. 1950;143:329–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    World Health Organization. Media Centre. Tobacco fact sheet; 2017. Accessed 24 Jan 2018.
  4. 4.
    United States v. Philip Morris Inc., Civil Action No. 99-CV-02496GK (D.D.C.) Memorandum opinion 2002.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    National Cancer Institute. The role of the media in promoting and reducing tobacco use. Tobacco Control Monograph 19. Bethesda, MD: USDHHS, June 2008.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Pierce JP, Choi WS, Gilpin EA, Farkas AJ, Berry CC. Tobacco industry promotion of cigarettes and adolescent smoking. JAMA. 1998;279:511–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Heckman JJ, Flyer F, Loughlin C. An assessment of causal inference in smoking initiation research and a framework for future research. Econ Inq. 2008;46:37–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Moodie C, Ford A, Mackintosh AM, Hastings G. Young people’s perceptions of cigarette packaging and plain packaging: an online survey. Nicotine Tob Res. 2011;14:98–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Truth Initiative. What do tobacco advertising restrictions look like today?; 2017. Accessed 24 Jan 2018.
  10. 10.
    Kann L, McManus T, Harris WA, et al. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance, US, 2015. MMWR. 2016;65:1–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Arrazola RA, Singh T, Corey CG, et al. Tobacco use among middle and high school students, US, 2011–14. MMWR. 2015;64:381–5.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    US Department of Health & Human Services. E-cigarette use among youth and young adults. A report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: USDHHS; 2016.
  13. 13.
    Rubinstein ML, Delucchi K, Benowitz NL, Ramo DE. Adolescent exposure to toxic volatile organic chemicals from e-cigarettes. Pediatrics. 2018;141(4):e20173557.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Primack BA, Soneji S, Stoolmiller M, Fine MJ, Sargent JD. Progression to traditional cigarette smoking after electronic cigarette use among U.S. adolescents and young adults. JAMA. Pediatrics. 2015. Scholar
  15. 15.
    Westling E, Rusby JC, Crowley R, Light JM. Electronic cigarette use by youth: Prevalence, correlates, and use trajectories from middle to high school. J Adol Health. 2017;
  16. 16.
    Glantz SA, Bareham DW. E-Cigarettes: use, effects on smoking, risks, and policy implications. Annu Rev Public Health. 2018. Scholar
  17. 17.
    Collins L, Glasser AM, Abudayyeh H, Pearson JL, Villanti AC. E-cigarette marketing and communication: how E-cigarette companies market e-cigarettes and the public engages with e-cigarette information. Nicotine Tob Res. 2018. Scholar
  18. 18.
    Duke JC, Lee YO, Kim AE, Watson KA, Arnold KY, Nonnemaker JM, Porter L. Exposure to electronic cigarette television advertisements among youth and young adults. Pediatrics. 2014. Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kim AE, Arnold KY, Makarenko O. E-cigarette advertising expenditures in the U.S. 2011–12. Am J Prev Med. 2014;46:409–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Dai H, Hao J. Exposure to advertisements and susceptibility to electronic cigarette use among youth. J Adolesc Health. 2016. Scholar
  21. 21.
    Farrelly MC, Duke JC, Crankshaw EC, Eggers ME, Lee YO, Nonnemaker JM, Kim AE, Porter L. A randomized trial of the effect of e-cigarette TV advertisements on intentions to use e-cigarettes. Am J Prev Med. 2015. Scholar
  22. 22.
    Pitkänen T, Lyyra A-L, Pulkkinen L. Age of onset of drinking and the use of alcohol in adulthood: a follow-up study from age 8–42 for females and males. Addict. 2005. Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hingson RW, Zha W. Age of drinking onset, alcohol use disorders, frequent heavy drinking, and unintentionally injuring oneself and others after drinking. Pediatrics. 2009. Scholar
  24. 24.
    USCDC. Youth exposure to alcohol advertising on television, 25 markets, US, 2010. MMWR. 2013;62:877–80.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Federal Trade Commission. Self-regulation in the alcohol industry. Washington DC: FTC; 2014.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Noel JK, Babor TF, Robaina K. Industry self-regulation of alcohol marketing: a systematic review of content and exposure research. Addiction. 2017. Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ross CS, Ostroff J, Jernigan DH. Evidence of underage targeting of alcohol advertising on television in the United States: lessons from the Lockyer v. Reynolds decisions. J Public Health Policy. 2014. Scholar
  28. 28.
    Siegel M, Kurland RP, Castrini M, Morse C, de Groot A, Retamozo C, Roberts SP, Ross CS, Jernigan DH. Potential youth exposure to alcohol advertising on the internet: a study of internet versions of popular television programs. J Subst Use. 2016. Scholar
  29. 29.
    Foster SE, Vaughan RD, Foster WH, Califano JA. Estimate of the commercial value of underage drinking and adult abusive and dependent drinking to the alcohol industry. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2006. Scholar
  30. 30.
    Grube JW, Waiters E. Alcohol in the media: content and effects on drinking beliefs and behaviors among youth. Adolesc Med Clin. 2005;16:327–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ross CS, Maple E, Siegel M, DeJong W, Naimi TS, Ostroff J, Padon AA, Borzekowski DL, Jernigan DH. The relationship between brand-specific alcohol advertising on television and brand-specific consumption among underage youth. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2014. Scholar
  32. 32.
    Van den Bulck J, Beullens K. Television and music video exposure and adolescent alcohol use while going out. Alcohol Alcohol. 2005;40:249–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Compton WM, Jones CM, Baldwin GT. Relationship between nonmedical prescription-opioid use and heroin use. N Engl J Med. 2016. Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hedegaard H, Warner M, Miniño AM. Drug overdose deaths in the US, 1999–2015. USDHHS; 2017. Accessed 25 Mar 2018.
  35. 35.
    Keefe PR. The family that built an empire of pain. The New Yorker, October 2017. Accessed 10 Apr 2018.
  36. 36.
    Kasza KA, Hyland AJ, Brown A, Siahpush M, Yong HH, McNeill AD, Li L, Cummings KM. The effectiveness of tobacco marketing regulations on reducing smokers’ exposure to advertising and promotion: findings from the ITC Four Country Survey. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2011. Scholar
  37. 37.
    Saffer H, Chaloupka F. The effect of advertising bans on tobacco consumption. J Health Econ. 2000. Scholar
  38. 38.
    Brien SE, Ronksley PE, Turner BJ, Mukamal KJ, Ghali WA. Effect of alcohol consumption on biological markers associated with risk of coronary heart disease: systematic review and meta-analysis of interventional studies. BMJ. 2011. Scholar
  39. 39.
    National Public Radio. 15 years later, where did all the cigarette money go? October 13, 2013. Accessed 20 Jul 2018.
  40. 40.
    Maloney J, Chaudhuri S. Against all odds, the U.S. tobacco industry is rolling in money. Wall Street Journal; 2017. Accessed 15 Aug 2018.

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Limited 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anthony Biglan
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mark Van Ryzin
    • 1
  • Erika Westling
    • 1
  1. 1.Oregon Research InstituteEugeneUSA

Personalised recommendations