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Table 5 Logistic multilevel regression predicting participating in demonstrations in last 12 months

From: Blame and contention: how perceptions of the government’s role in the economic crisis shape patterns of political action

  (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)
Age   − 0.01*** (0.00) − 0.01*** (0.00) − 0.01*** (0.00) − 0.01*** (0.00) − 0.01*** (0.00) − 0.01*** (0.00)
Male   − 0.02 (0.05) − 0.01 (0.05) − 0.02 (0.05) − 0.01 (0.05) − 0.01 (0.05) − 0.01 (0.05)
Education (low)   − 0.08 (0.07) − 0.08 (0.07) − 0.07 (0.07) − 0.07 (0.07) − 0.07 (0.07) − 0.07 (0.07)
Manual occupation   0.06 (0.06) 0.06 (0.06) 0.06 (0.06) 0.06 (0.06) 0.06 (0.06) 0.06 (0.06)
Unemployed   − 0.26** (0.08) − 0.26** (0.08) − 0.26** (0.08) − 0.26** (0.08) − 0.26** (0.08) − 0.26** (0.08)
Political interest   0.67*** (0.07) 0.68*** (0.07) 0.67*** (0.07) 0.67*** (0.07) 0.67*** (0.07) 0.67*** (0.07)
Internal political efficacy   0.73*** (0.08) 0.74*** (0.08) 0.72*** (0.08) 0.73*** (0.08) 0.73*** (0.08) 0.73*** (0.08)
External political efficacy   − 0.16* (0.08) − 0.17* (0.08) − 0.18* (0.08) − 0.19* (0.08) − 0.19* (0.08) − 0.19* (0.08)
Party attachment   0.17*** (0.03) 0.17*** (0.03) 0.17*** (0.03) 0.17*** (0.03) 0.17*** (0.03) 0.17*** (0.03)
Left–right values   − 0.18*** (0.02) − 0.17*** (0.02) − 0.18*** (0.02) − 0.18*** (0.02) − 0.18*** (0.02) − 0.18*** (0.02)
Libertarian–authoritarian values   − 0.18*** (0.02) − 0.18*** (0.02) − 0.18*** (0.02) − 0.18*** (0.02) − 0.18*** (0.02) − 0.18*** (0.02)
Organisational memberships   0.16*** (0.01) 0.16*** (0.01) 0.16*** (0.01) 0.16*** (0.01) 0.16*** (0.01) 0.16*** (0.01)
Unemployment rate   0.05*** (0.01) 0.05*** (0.01) 0.05*** (0.01) 0.05*** (0.01) 0.05*** (0.01) 0.05*** (0.01)
GDP growth   − 0.24 (0.13) − 0.26 (0.13) − 0.26 (0.14) − 0.27 (0.14) − 0.27 (0.14) − 0.27 (0.14)
Social spending   0.02 (0.05) 0.01 (0.05) 0.02 (0.05) 0.01 (0.05) 0.01 (0.05) 0.01 (0.05)
Tax wedge   0.01 (0.02) 0.01 (0.02) 0.01 (0.02) 0.00 (0.02) 0.00 (0.02) 0.00 (0.02)
Disproportionality index   − 0.01 (0.02) − 0.01 (0.02) − 0.01 (0.02) − 0.01 (0.02) − 0.01 (0.02) − 0.01 (0.02)
Relative deprivation   0.17** (0.06) 0.14* (0.06) 0.15** (0.06) 0.13* (0.06) 0.23 (0.14) 0.16* (0.08)
Unsatisfied with how government deals with unemployment    0.21** (0.08)   0.19* (0.08) 0.23* (0.09) 0.19* (0.08)
Blames government for economic difficulties     0.13* (0.05) 0.11* (0.05) 0.11* 0.14 (0.08)
Relative deprivation × unsatisfied with how government deals with unemployment       − 0.12 (0.15)  
Relative deprivation × blames government for economic difficulties        − 0.05 (0.11)
Constant − 2.22*** (0.20) − 2.70** (1.03) − 2.74** (1.03) − 2.66* (1.05) − 2.70** (1.05) − 2.72** (1.05) − 2.71** (1.05)
N 17,667 17,667 17,667 17,667 17,667 17,667 17,667
Log likelihood − 5877.43 − 5094.72 − 5090.85 − 5091.94 − 5088.80 − 5088.51 − 5088.67
AIC 11,758.86 10,229.45 10,223.70 10,225.89 10,221.60 10,223.03 10,223.34
BIC 11,774.42 10,385.03 10,387.07 10,389.26 10,392.75 10,401.96 10,402.27
Sigma u 0.59 0.24 0.24 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25
Rho 0.10 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02
  1. Standard errors in parentheses
  2. p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001