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Table 4 Logistic multilevel regression predicting attending public meetings in last 12 months

From: Blame and contention: how perceptions of the government’s role in the economic crisis shape patterns of political action

  (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)
Age   − 0.00 (0.00) − 0.00 (0.00) − 0.00 (0.00) − 0.00 (0.00) − 0.00 (0.00) − 0.00 (0.00)
Male   0.35*** (0.06) 0.36*** (0.06) 0.35*** (0.06) 0.36*** (0.06) 0.36*** (0.06) 0.36*** (0.06)
Education (low)   − 0.17* (0.07) − 0.18* (0.07) − 0.17* (0.07) − 0.17* (0.07) − 0.18* (0.07) − 0.17* (0.07)
Manual occupation   − 0.08 (0.07) − 0.09 (0.07) − 0.08 (0.07) − 0.09 (0.07) − 0.09 (0.07) − 0.09 (0.07)
Unemployed   0.01 (0.09) 0.01 (0.09) 0.01 (0.09) 0.01 (0.09) 0.00 (0.09) 0.01 (0.09)
Political interest   0.96*** (0.09) 0.96*** (0.09) 0.96*** (0.09) 0.96*** (0.09) 0.96*** (0.09) 0.96*** (0.09)
Internal political efficacy   1.06*** (0.09) 1.07*** (0.09) 1.06*** (0.09) 1.07*** (0.09) 1.06*** (0.09) 1.07*** (0.09)
External political efficacy   − 0.13 (0.08) − 0.15 (0.08) − 0.14 (0.08) − 0.15 (0.08) − 0.16 (0.08) − 0.15 (0.08)
Party attachment   0.38*** (0.03) 0.39*** (0.03) 0.39*** (0.03) 0.39*** (0.03) 0.39*** (0.03) 0.39*** (0.03)
Left–right values   − 0.06*** (0.02) − 0.05*** (0.02) − 0.06*** (0.02) − 0.05*** (0.02) − 0.05*** (0.02) − 0.05*** (0.02)
Libertarian–authoritarian values   − 0.07*** (0.02) − 0.07*** (0.02) − 0.07*** (0.02) − 0.07*** (0.02) − 0.07*** (0.02) − 0.07*** (0.02)
Organisational memberships   0.18*** (0.01) 0.19*** (0.01) 0.18*** (0.01) 0.19*** (0.01) 0.19*** (0.01) 0.19*** (0.01)
Unemployment rate   0.02** (0.01) 0.02* (0.01) 0.02** (0.01) 0.02* (0.01) 0.02* (0.01) 0.02* (0.01)
GDP growth   − 0.10 (0.10) − 0.11 (0.10) − 0.10 (0.10) − 0.11 (0.10) − 0.11 (0.10) − 0.11 (0.10)
Social spending   − 0.04 (0.04) − 0.05 (0.04) − 0.05 (0.04) − 0.05 (0.04) − 0.05 (0.04) − 0.05 (0.04)
Tax wedge   0.01 (0.02) 0.01 (0.01) 0.01 (0.01) 0.01 (0.01) 0.01 (0.01) 0.01 (0.01)
Disproportionality index   − 0.01 (0.02) − 0.01 (0.02) − 0.01 (0.02) − 0.01 (0.02) − 0.01 (0.02) − 0.01 (0.02)
Relative deprivation   0.13* (0.06) 0.11 (0.06) 0.13* (0.06) 0.11 (0.06) − 0.19 (0.15) 0.12 (0.08)
Unsatisfied with how government deals with unemployment    0.18* (0.07)   0.18* (0.07) 0.09 (0.08) 0.18* (0.07)
Blames government for economic difficulties     0.03 (0.06) 0.01 (0.06) 0.01 (0.06) 0.03 (0.08)
Relative deprivation × unsatisfied with how government deals with unemployment       0.35* (0.16)  
Relative deprivation × blames government for economic difficulties        − 0.03 (0.11)
Constant − 2.28*** (0.11) − 4.01*** (0.80) − 4.05*** (0.79) − 4.01*** (0.79) − 4.04*** (0.78) − 3.99*** (0.79) − 4.05*** (0.78)
N 17,667 17,667 17,667 17,667 17,667 17,667 17,667
Log likelihood − 5552.05 − 4691.63 − 4688.33 − 4691.47 − 4688.30 − 4685.82 − 4688.25
AIC 11,108.09 9423.27 9418.65 9424.93 9420.59 9417.64 9422.50
BIC 11,123.65 9578.86 9582.02 9588.30 9591.74 9596.56 9601.43
Sigma u 0.31 0.18 0.17 0.18 0.17 0.17 0.17
Rho 0.03 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01
  1. Standard errors in parentheses
  2. p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001