Skip to main content
Log in

Persistence of informal networks and liberal peace-building: evidence from Bosnia and Herzegovina

Journal of International Relations and Development Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

Informal networks persist after conflict and undermine liberal peace-building. While these adverse effects are well-known, how informal networks survive beyond conflict is less understood. Scholars explain informal networks’ persistence by their stability and cohesion, attributed to solidarity of ascriptive bonds such as ethnic ties. In these accounts, networks are approached as actors and not as relational structures. We address this gap in the peace-building scholarship and conduct a longitudinal study of relations within an informal network in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Drawing on the political approach to networks, and applying Social Network Analysis, we investigate actors’ relational power and reveal how network actors use their connections to create strategic coalitions and opportunistic collaborations enabling them to exploit different stages of the peace-building process. We demonstrate that unequal distribution of relational power creates vested interests in sustaining the network and in seeking access to it, and how dynamic reconstitution of relational power within the network ensures continuity of network action from war to peace. From a policy perspective, this structural account of informal network persistence suggests a need for a better understanding of the dynamics among co-ethnics within an informal network that allows network members to subvert efforts to counter informality and undermines post-conflict institution-building.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Institutional subscriptions

Fig. 1

Notes

  1. While the former leads to a normative study of multi-actor entities as delegated agents, the latter focuses the empirical study on opportunitiess and constraints residing in the relations between network members (Kahler 2009).

  2. Conversely, factionalism in the ethnic body politic that is observable ought not to assume the discontinuity of all connections between members of different factions, which also requires empirical verification.

  3. For example, in the Bosnian Croat case, scholars detail the continuity of actors who are prominent actors both in the conflict and the post-conflict phase (Zdeb 2016; Grandits 2007). However, public prominence of these individuals does not attest to the existence of ties with other actors, or to the durability of those ties from war to peace.

  4. The concept has been criticised for its lack of precision in capturing locally specific manifestations (Hale 2011; Mkandawire 2015; Ilkhamov 2007; Semenova 2018), and its narrow understanding as a transactional phenomenon (Piliavsky 2014).

  5. According to Jackson and Nexon (1999), focusing on interaction among actors and its effects allows us to imagine that a process is mutable in space and time, as are the mechanisms to promote it.

  6. This is explicitly demonstrated by the anthropological studies, e.g. Piliavsky (2014) and Meagher (2005).

  7. However, this claim, too, has not been put to the empirical test by analysing network ties.

  8. On the periodisation of the war-to- peace continuum, see: Ghani and Lockhart (2008), Paris (2004), Doyle and Sambanis (2006).

  9. On the support of the Bosnian Croat autonomy project in Grude and several other towns in Western Herzegovina, see Grandits (2007). This support was manifested vividly during the events surrounding the raid of the Hercegovačka Banka offices by SFOR troops on 6 April, 2001, in those towns, Grude included. A group of around 1,000 Grude citizens, led by local war veterans, clashed with SFOR soldiers in the attempt to prevent the search of the Bank’s local office, wounding one of SFOR soldiers and holding hostage some ten of them for several hours. Three vehicles belonging to SFOR and Bosnia and Herzegovina Federation Ministry of Interior were damaged during the riots, the main transport routes in and out of the city were blocked, and local schools closed. Source: https://www.grude-online.info/16-godina-od-“terorističkog”-napada-jajima-na-SFOR-u-Grudama/ (last accessed on 20 November, 2020).

  10. These are: Banke u Bosni i Hercegovini, Dani, Dnevni avaz, Dnevni list, Feral tribune, Global, Globus, Infokom, Jutarnji list, Ljiljan, Nacional, Nezavisne novine, Oslobodjenje, Reporter, Slobodna Bosna, Slobodna Dalmacija, Start, Večernji list, and internet portals: index.hr, bhmagazin.com and aim.org.

  11. A number of these interviews were repeated two or three times to verify and follow up on information as it emerged during the research process.

  12. In establishing network boundaries and limiting the number of actors to 36 was ultimately guided by judgement sampling (Acedo et al. 2006).

  13. However, we should note that density figures here are included for descriptive purposes. To make inferences about how the changing nature of exchanges affects the network characteristics in terms of power relations, we need to consult centrality measures.

  14. According to Foster (1978–1979), the structural transformation inside the networks is a result of internal power dynamics.

  15. Network analysts have traditionally associated power with centrality measures because more central actors can obtain better bargains in exchanges, access and disseminate information, and connect to others (Hafner-Burton et al. 2009; Hanneman and Riddle 2005).

  16. Modelled with an ‘attenuation factor (B)’ with positive values (between 0 and 1), while higher scores in absolute value reflect an actor’s network wide influence from having many and right kind of connections (Bonacich 1987).

  17. Modelled with an ‘attenuation factor (B)’ with negative values (between 0 and -1), while centrality scores reflect power a network member derives from connecting actors dependent on him (Bonacich 1987).

  18. We used UCINET SNA software to calculate network measures (Borgatti, Everett and Freeman 2002). For ethical reasons we anonymised the data presented in Tables 2‒4. The coding was done according to an individual’s primary affiliation: M-military; P-civilian government; E-economic; S-civil society.

  19. The selected nodes differ for each SNA measure. Among actors with similar scores, we select those that best illustrate a given dynamic.

  20. www.sudbih.gov.ba/files/docs/presude/2005/Jelavic_ENG_KPV_10_04.pdf (last accessed on 10 January, 2016).

  21. See, for example, Duffield (2002b); King (2001); Berdal (2009); Andreas (2004); Jung (2003).

  22. The HVO armed force was formally integrated into Bosnia and Herzegovina Federation Defense structures and funded by public revenue raised in Bosnia and Herzegovina and by donations from Croatia.

  23. www.sudbih.gov.ba/files/docs/presude/2004/Prce_ENG_KPV_13_04.pdf (last accessed on 10 January, 2016).

  24. ‘Tajni računi za pljačku državnog proračuna’, www.bhmagazin.com/bih/2296-afera-hercegovacka-banka-tajni-racuni-za-pljacku (last accessed on 23 June, 2017).

  25. http://www.slobodanpraljak.com/MATERIJALI/SVJEDOCI/BATINIC%20ZDRAVKO?65.pdf (last accessed on 15 March, 2016).

  26. http://www.tuzilastvobih.gov.ba/?opcija=presude&godina=2004&odjel=2&jezik=h (last accessed on 20 May, 2016).

  27. Sudjenje akterima hrvatske samouprave, http://www.index.hr/vijesti/clanak/sudjenje-akterima-hrvatske-samouprave-u-bih-krajem-godine/223013.aspx?mobile=false (last accessed on 20 February, 2017).

  28. http://www.tuzilastvobih.gov.ba/?opcija=presude&godina=2004&odjel=2&jezik=h (last accessed on 10 January, 2016).

  29. www.sudbih.gov.ba/files/docs/presude/2004/Prce_ENG_KPV_13_04.pdf (last accessed on 15 January, 2016).

  30. Ibid.

  31. Also, for a discussion of research methods and the study of peace, with a particular focus on state-building, see Woodward et al. (2012).

  32. We credit our colleague Nathaniel Olin for this quote.

References

  • Acedo, Francisco J., Carmen Barroso, Christóbal Casanueva and Jóse L. Galán (2006) ‘Co‐Authorship in Management and Organizational Studies: An Empirical and Network Analysis’, Journal of Management Studies 43: 957‒83.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • AIM. 2001. ‘Zlatni računi nepostojećih firmi [Golden accounts of non-existent firms] (18 December).

  • Alley, Roderic (2015) ‘Regimes that Obstruct: A Problem of Institutional Refurbishment Following Internal Confict’, Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding 9(1): 112‒33.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Andreas, Peter (2004) ‘The Clandestine Political Economy of War and Peace in Bosnia’, International Studies Quarterly 48: 29‒51.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Autesserre, Severin (2014) Peaceland: Conflict Resolution and the Everyday Politics of International Intervention, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Barma, Naazneen H. (2017) The Peace-building Puzzle: Political Order in Post-Conflict States, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Basu, Aparna (2014) ‘Social Network Analysis: A Methodology for Studying Terrorism’, in Mrutyunjaya Panda, Satchidananda Dehuri and Gi-Nam Wang, eds, Social Networking: Mining, Visualization, and Security, 215‒42, New York: Springer.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Bećiragić, Sanjin. 2001. ‘Hercegovci bježe iz vojske’ [Herzegovinians leave the army], Dani (23 March).

  • Belloni, Roberto and Francesco Strazzari (2014) ‘Corruption in Post-conflict Bosnia-Herzegovina: A Deal Among Friends’, Third World Quarterly 35(5): 855‒71.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Berdal, Mats (2009) Building Peace after War, Abingdon: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bignami-Van Assche, Simona (2005) ‘Network Stability in Longitudinal Data: A Case Study from Rural Malawi’, Social Networks 27(3): 231‒47.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bojicic-Dzelilovic, Vesna (2006) ‘Peace on Whose Terms? War Veterans’ Associations in Bosnia-Hercegovina’, in Edward Newman and Oliver Richmond, eds, Challenges to Peacebuilding: Managing Spoilers During Conflict Resolution, 200‒19, Tokyo: UNU Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bojicic-Dzelilovic, Vesna and Denisa Kostovicova (2012) ‘Locating Power in State-Building: The Conflict Network Perspective’, Südosteuropa 60(4): 591‒602.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bonacich, Phillip (1987) ‘Power and Centrality: A Family of Measures’, American Journal of Sociology 92(5): 1170‒82.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Borgatti, Stephen P. and Martin G. Everett (2000) ‘Models of Core/Periphery Structures’, Social Networks 21: 375–95.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Börzel, Tanja A. and Thomas Risse (2015) ‘Dysfunctional State Institutions, Trust, and Governance in Areas of Limited Statehood’, Regulation and Governance 10: 2149‒60.

    Google Scholar 

  • Brković, Čarna (2016) ‘Flexibility of Veze/Štele: Negotiating Social Protection’, in Stef Jansen, Čarna Brković and Vanja Čelebičić, eds, Negotiating Social Relations in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Semiperipheral Entanglements, 94‒108, New York and London: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Budescu, David V. (2006) ‘Confidence in Aggregation of Opinions from Multiple Sources’, in Klaus Fiedler and Peter Juslin, eds, Information Sampling and Adaptive Cognition, 327‒54, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Büscher, Karen (2012) ‘Urban Governance Beyond the State: Practices of Informal Urban Regulation in the City of Goma, Eastern D. R. Congo’, Urban Forum 23(4): 483–99.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Burt, Ronald J. and Nan Lin (1977) ‘Network Time Series from Archival Records’, Sociological Methodology 8: 224‒54.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Carayannis, Tatiana (2003) ‘The Complex Wars of the Congo: Towards a New Analytic Approach’, Journal of Asian and African Studies 38(2‒3): 232‒55.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Carayannis, Tatiana, Vlassenroot Koen, Hoffmann Kasper and Aaron Pangburn (2018) ‘Competing Networks and Political Order in the DRC: A Literature Review on the Logics of Public Authority and International Intervention’, London: London School of Economics and Political Science.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chayes, Sarah (2015) Thieves of States: Why Corruption Threatens Global Security, New York and London: W.W. Norton & Company.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cheng, Cristine S. and Dominik Zaum, eds (2012) Corruption and Post-conflict Peace-building: Selling the Peace?, Abingdon: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Christia, Fotini (2008) ‘Following the Money: Muslim versus Muslim in Bosnia’s Civil War’, Comparative Politics 40(4): 461‒80.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cook, Karen S., Richard M. Emerson, Mary R. Gilmore and Toshio Yamagishi (1983) ‘The Distribution of Power in Exchange Networks: Theory and Experimental Results’, American Journal of Sociology 89(2): 275‒305.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cook, Karen and Joseph Whitmeyer (1992) ‘Two Approaches to Social Structure: Exchange Theory and Network Analysis’, Annual Review of Sociology 18: 109‒27.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cox, Michaelene (2009) Social Capital and Peace-building: Creating and Restoring Conflict with Trust and Social Networks, London: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Donais, Timothy (2005) The Political Economy of Peace-building in Post-Dayton Bosnia, London and New York: Routledge.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Doyle, Michael W. and Nicholas Sambanis (2006) Making War and Building Peace: United Nations Operations, Princeton: Princeton University Press.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Duffield, Mark (2002a) ‘Social Reconstruction and the Radicalization of Development’, Development and Change 33(5): 1049‒71.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Duffield, Mark (2002b) ‘War as a Network Enterprise: The New Security Terrain and its Implications’, Cultural Values 6(1‒2): 153‒65.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dziedzic, Michael, ed. (2016) Criminalized Power Structures: The Overlooked Enemies of Peace, Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dziedzic, Michael, Rozen Laura and Phil William (2002) ‘Lawless Rule versus Rule of Law in the Balkans’, Washington: USIP Special Report.

    Google Scholar 

  • Đuričić, Vuk. 2006. ‘Kako su hrvatski gradjani obogatili HDZ-ovu elitu’ [How Croatian citizens made HDZ elite rich], Slobodna Dalmacija (26 March).

  • Eaton, Tim et al. (2019) Conflict Economies in the Middle East and North Africa, London: Chatham House.

    Google Scholar 

  • Efendić, Adnan, Pugh Geoff and Nick Adnett (2011) ‘Confidence in Formal Institutions and Reliance on Informal Institutions in Bosnia-Herzegovina: An Empirical Investigation Using Survey Data’, Economics of Transition 19(3): 521‒40.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Eilstrup-Sangiovanni, Mette and Jones Calvert (2008) ‘Assessing the Dangers of Illicit Networks: Why al-Qaida May Be Less Threatening Than Many Think’, International Security 33(2): 7‒44.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fazlić, Mirsad and Suzana Mijatović. 2004. ‘Jelavićeva grupa tereti se da je nezakonito potrošila 216 miliona maraka koje je Hrvatska uplaćivala Hrvatima u BiH’ [Jelavic’s group charged with unlawful spending of 216 million marks sent to Croats in Bosnia and Herzegovina], Slobodna Bosna (29 January).

  • Feige, Edgar and Katarina Ott, eds (1999) Underground Economies in Transition: Unrecorded Activity, Tax Evasion, Corruption and Organized Crime, Aldershot Hants: Edgar Elgar.

    Google Scholar 

  • Foster, Brian L. 1978–1979. ‘Formal Network Studies and the Anthropological Perspective. Social Networks 1(3): 241‒55.

  • Fuji Lee, Ann (2008) ‘The Power of Local Ties: Popular Participation in the Rwandan Genocide’, Security Studies 17(3): 568‒97.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gerring, John (2008) ‘Case Selection for Case-study Analysis: Qualitative and Quantitative Techniques’, in Box-Steffensmeier, Janet M., Henry E. Brady and David Collier, eds, The Oxford Handbook of Political Methodology, 645‒85, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • George, Alexander L. and Andrew Bennett (2005) Case Studies and Theory Development in the Social Sciences, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ghani, Ashraf and Claire Lockhart (2008) Fixing Failed States: A Framework for Rebuilding a Fractured World, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Goldsmith, Andrew and Georgia Lysaght (2012) ‘Illicit Networks Workshop’, Crime, Law and Social Change 57: 123–27.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gordy, Eric (2018) ‘Gaps between Formal and Informal Practices in Southeast European States’, Regional Studies of Russia, Eastern Europe and Central Asia 7(12): 3‒8.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Grandits, Hannes (2007) ‘The Power of “Armchair Politicians”: Ethnic Loyalty and Political Factionalism among Herzegovinian Croats’, in Xavier Bougarel, Helms Elissa and Gerd Dujizings, eds, The New Bosnian Mosaic, Identities, Memories and Moral Claims in a Post-war Society, 101‒23, Ashgate: Aldershot.

    Google Scholar 

  • Granovetter, Mark (1985) ‘Economic Action and Social Structure: The Problem of Embeddedness’, American Journal of Sociology 91(3): 481‒510.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Granovetter, Mark (1973) ‘The Strength of Weak Ties’, American Journal of Sociology 78(6): 1360‒80.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hafner-Burton, Emilie, Miles Kahler and Alexander H. Montgomery (2009) ‘Network Analysis for International Relations’, International Organization 63: 559‒92.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hale, Henry (2011) ‘Formal Constitutions in Informal Politics: Institutions and Democratization in Post-Soviet Eurasia’, World Politics 63(4): 581‒617.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hanneman, Robert A. and Mark Riddle (2005) Introduction to Social Network Methods, Riverside CA: University of California.

    Google Scholar 

  • Harkness, Kristen A. (2016) ‘The Ethnic Army and the State: Explaining Coup Traps and the Difficulties of Democratization in Africa’, Journal of Conflict Resolution 60(4): 587‒616.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Harvey, Nigel, Fergus Bolger and Alastair McClelland (1994) ‘On the Nature of Expectations’, British Journal of Psychology 85: 203‒30.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Helfstein, Scott and Dominick Wright (2011) ‘Covert or Convenient? Evolution of Terror Attack Networks’, Journal of Conflict Resolution 55(5): 785‒813.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Heupel, Monika (2006) ‘Shadow Trade War Economies and their Challenge to Peace-building’, Journal of International Relations and Development 9(2): 140‒69.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jackson, Patrick and Daniel Nexon (1999) ‘Relations before States: Substances, Processes and the Study of Politics’, European Journal of International Relations 5(3): 291‒332.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jackson, Patrick and Daniel Nexon (2019) ‘Reclaiming the Social: Relationalism in Anglophone International Studies’, Cambridge Review of International Affairs 32(5): 592‒600.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jansen, Stef (2015) Yearnings in the Meantime: ‘Normal Lives’ and the State in a Sarajevo Apartment Complex, New York and Oxford: Berghan.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Jelinić, Berislav. 2003. ‘Hercegovački Franjevci su sudjelovali u otimačini novca iz hrvatskog proračuna’ [Herzegovinian Franciscans were involved in stealing money from the Croatian budget], Nacional (2 May).

  • Ilkhamov, Alisher (2007) ‘Neopatrimonialism, Interest Groups and Patronage Networks: The Impasses of the Governance System in Uzbekistan’, Central Asian Survey 26(1): 65‒84.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jones, Lee (2010) ‘(Post)-colonial State-building and State Failure in East Timor: Bringing Social Conflict Back In’, Conflict, Security and Development 10(4): 547‒75.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jukić, Želimir. 2001. ‘Kraj hrvatske samouprave’ [The end of Croatian self-rule], AIM (15 November).

  • Jung, Dietrich, ed. (2003) Shadow Globalization, Ethnic Conflicts and New Wars: A Political Economy of Intra-state Wars, Routledge: London and New York.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kahler, Miles (2009) ‘Networked Politics: Agency, Power, and Governance’, in Kahler Miles, ed., Networked Politics: Agency, Power and Governance, 1‒20, Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kaldor, Mary (1999) New and Old Wars: Organized Violence in a Global Era, Oxford: Polity Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kapferer, Bruce (1969) ‘Norms and the Manipulation of Relationships in a Work Context’, in Clyde Mitchell, ed., Social Networks in Urban Situations: Analysis of Personal Relationships in Central African Towns, 181‒245, Manchester: Manchester University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Karup-Druško, Dženana. 2010. ‘Spavači u registru branitelja’ [Sleepers in the defenders’ registry], Dani (16 April).

  • Kleibrink, Alexander (2015) Political Elites and Decentralization Reforms in the Post-socialist Balkans ‒ Regional Patronage Networks in Croatia and Serbia, Houndmills Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kilavuz, Idil (2009) ‘The Role of Networks in Tajikstan’s Civil War: Network Activation and Violence Specialists’, Journal of Nationalism and Ethnicity 37(5): 693‒717.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kim, Hyejin (2010) International Ethnic Networks and Intra-Ethnic Conflict: Koreans in China, New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • King, Charles (2001)’ The Benefits of Ethnic War: Understanding Eurasia’s Unrecognized States’, World Politics 53(4): 524‒52.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kingston, Paul and Ian S. Spears (2004) States-within-States: Incipient Political Entities in the Post-Cold War Era, New York and Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Knoke, David and Ronald S. Burt (1983) ‘Prominence’, in Burt Ronald and Minor Michael, eds, Applied Network Analysis, 195‒222, Beverly Hills: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  • Krackhardt, David (1992) ‘The Strength of Strong Ties: The Importance of Philos in Organizations’, in Nitin Nohria and Robert G. Eccles, eds, Networks and Organizations: Structure, Form, and Action, 216‒39, Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kurtenbach, Sabine (2010) ‘Why is Liberal Peace-building Difficult? Some Lessons from Latin America’, European Review of American and Caribbean Studies 88: 95‒110.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lake, David A. and Wendy H. Wong (2009) ‘The Politics of Networks: Interests, Power, and Human Rights Norms’, in Miles Kahler, ed., Networked Politics: Agency, Power and Governance, 127‒51, Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mac Ginty, Robert (2011) International Peace-building and Local Resistance: Hybrid Forms of Peace, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Mac Ginty, Robert and Oliver P. Richmond (2013) ‘The Local Turn in Peace building: A Critical Agenda for Peace’, Third World Quarterly 34(5): 763‒83.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Maley, William (2013) ‘Statebuilding in Afghanistan: Challenges and Pathologies’, Central Asian Survey 32(3): 255‒70.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Malić, Gordan. 2005. ‘HDZ-ov hercegovački holding: Teškom mehanizacijom do lake zarade’ [HDZ’s Herzegovina holding: Heavy mechanisation for easy money], Dani (14 October).

  • Malić, Gordan. 2001. ‘Ko su najmoćniji Hrvati’ [Who are the most powerful Croats], Dani (13April).

  • McDoom, Omar S. (2014) ‘Antisocial Capital: A Profile of Rwandan Genocide Perpetrators’ Social Networks’, Journal of Conflict Resolution 58(5): 865‒93.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Meagher, Kate (2005) ‘Social Capital or Analytical Liability: Social Networks and African Informal Economies’, Global Networks 5(3): 217‒38.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mijatović, Suzana. 2005. ‘Sudjenje Jelaviću: Ko je dijelio novac’ [Jeavic trial: who handed out the moneys], Slobodna Bosna (5 May).

  • Mijatović, Suzana. 2004. ‘Fra Ivan Ševo jedan je od najutjecanijih i najbogatijih ljudi u Hercegovini’ [Fra Ivan Ševo is one of the most influential and richest people in Herzegovina], Slobodna Bosna (19 February).

  • Mkandawire, Thandika (2015) ‘Neopatrimonialism and the Political Economy of Economic Performance in Africa: Critical Reflections’, World Politics 67(3): 563‒612.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Münkler, Herfried (2004) The New Wars, Cambridge: Polity.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nitzschke, Heiko and Kaysie Studdard (2005) ‘The Legacies of War Economies: Challenges and Options for Peacemaking and Peace-building’, International Peacekeeping 12(2): 222‒39.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Osei, Anja (2015) ‘Elites and Democracy in Ghana: A Social Network Approach’, African Affairs 114(457): 529‒54.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Padget, John F. and Christopher K. Ansell (1993) ‘Robust Action and the Rise of the Medici, 1400‒1434’, American Journal of Sociology 98(6): 1259‒319.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Palma, Oscar (2015) ‘Transnational Networks of Insurgency and Crime: Explaining the Spread of Commercial Insurgencies Beyond State Borders’, Small Wars and Insurgencies 26(3): 476‒96.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Paris, Roland (2004) At War’s End: Building Peace after War, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Pavan, Elena (2012) Frames and Connections in the Governance of Global Communications: A Network Study of the International Governance Forums, Lantham: Lexington Books.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pavić, Snjezana. 2002. ‘Hercegovačka banka baratala isključivo novcem iz Hrvatske’ [Hercegovačka bank dealt with Croatian money exclusively], Jutarnji list (19 December).

  • Pearlman, Wendy and Kathleen Gallagher-Cunningham (2012) ‘Nonstate Actors, Fragmentation, and Conflict Processes’, Journal of Conflict Resolution 56(1): 3‒15.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Peterson, Jenny H. (2015) Building a Peace Economy? Peace-building and the Development-Security Industry, Manchester: Manchester University Press.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Philip, Mark (2008) ‘Peace-building and Corruption’, International Peacekeeping 15(3): 310‒27.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Piliavsky, Anastasia, ed. (2014) Patronage as Politics in South Asia, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pugh, Michael (2002) ‘Postwar Political Economy in Bosnia and Herzegovina: The Spoils of Peace’, Global Governance 8(4): 467‒82.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Raab, Jörg and Milward H. Brinton (2003) ‘Dark Networks as Problems’, Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 13(3): 413‒39.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rayemeakers, Timothy (2013) ‘Post-war Conflict and Market for Protection: The Challenges to Congo’s Hybrid Peace’, International Peacekeeping 20(5): 600‒17.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Reno, William (2007) ‘Patronage Politics and the Behavior of Armed Groups’, Civil Wars 9(4): 324‒42.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Reno, William (2009) ‘Understanding Criminality in West African Conflicts’, International Peacekeeping 16(1): 47‒61.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Semenova, Elena (2018) ‘Conclusion: Do Patron-Client Relationships Affect Complex Societies’, in Ledeneva Alena et al., eds, The Global Encyclopedia of Informality, 403‒408, London: UCL Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sexsmith, Kathleen (2009) ‘Violent Conflict and Social Transformation: An Institutionalist Approach to the Role of Informal Economic Networks’, European Journal of Development Research 21(1): 81‒94.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sharan, Timor (2011) ‘The Dynamics of Elite Networks and Patron-client Relations in Afghanistan’, Europe-Asia Studies 63(6): 1109‒27.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Smicek, Nick (2010) ‘Conflict Networks: Collapsing the Global into the Local’, Journal of Critical Globalisation Studies 2: 9‒30.

    Google Scholar 

  • Staniland, Paul (2012) ‘Organizing Insurgency: Networks, Resources, and Rebellion in South Asia’, International Security 37(1): 142‒77.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Staub, Ervin (2013) Positive Social Behavior and Morality: Social and Personal Influences, London: Elsevier.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stewart, Rory and Gerald Knaus (2011) Can Intervention Work?, New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stock, James H and Mark Watson (2004) ‘Combination Forecasts of Output Growth in a Seven Country Data Set’, Journal of Forecasting 22: 405‒30.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Studdard, Kaysie (2004) ‘War Economies in a Regional Context: Overcoming the Challenges of Transformation’, Washington DC: International Peace Academy, IPA Policy Report.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stuvøy, Kirstie (2002) ‘War Economy and the Social Order of Insurgencies: Analysing the Internal Structure of UNITA’s War Economy’, Oslo: Norwegian University of Life Sciences.

    Google Scholar 

  • Suljagić, Emir. 2004. ‘Hrvatsko vijeće obmane’ [Croatian council of deception], Dani (30 January).

  • Suljagić, Emir. 2002. ‘Čija je Tudjmanova mapa’ [Whose is Tudjman’s map], Dani (14 June).

  • Šoštarić, Egon. 2004. ‘Ljubo Ċesić Rojs neće biti izručen u Bosnu, ali će mu se suditi u Hrvatskoj’ [Ljubo Ċesić Rojs will not be extradicted to Bosnia, but will go on trial in Croatia], Nacional (2 March).

  • Talmud, Ilan and Shaul Mishal (2000) ‘The Network State: Triangular Relations in Middle Eastern Politics’, Journal of Contemporary Sociology 37(2): 175‒97.

    Google Scholar 

  • Toal, Gerard and Carl T. Dahlman (2011) Bosnia Remade: Ethnic Cleansing and its Reversal, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Wasserman, Stanley and Katherine Faust (1994) Social Network Analysis: Methods and Applications, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Wennmann, Achim (2009) ‘Getting Armed Groups to the Table: Peace Processes, the Political Economy of Conflict and the Mediated State’, Third World Quarterly 30(6): 1123‒38.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wimmer, Andreas (2013) Ethnic Boundary Making: Institutions, Power, Networks, New York: Oxford University Press.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • White, Kevin S. and Susan C. Watkins (2000) ‘Accuracy, Stability and Reciprocity in Informal Conversational Networks in Rural Kenya’, Social Networks 22: 337–55.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wood, Elisabeth J. (2008) ‘The Social Processes of Civil War: The Wartime Transformation of Social Networks’, Annual Review of Political Science 11: 539‒61.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Woodward, Susan L., Kostovicova Denisa and Vesna Bojicic-Dzelilovic (2012) ‘Introduction: Methodology and the Study of State-Building in the Western Balkans’, Südosteuropa 60(4): 469‒71.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zdeb, Aleksandra (2016) ‘The Need to Have Something “Of Their Own”: Croat Parallel Institutions in Bosnia and Herzegovina’, Swiss Political Science Review 22(4): 545‒64.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yin, Robert K. (2009) Case Study Research Design and Methods, fourth edition, Los Angeles: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors thank anonymous reviewers and editors for their useful comments. We are grateful to our research participants for sharing their insights and for being generous with their time.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Vesna Bojicic-Dzelilovic.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Bojicic-Dzelilovic, V., Kostovicova, D. & Suerdem, A.K. Persistence of informal networks and liberal peace-building: evidence from Bosnia and Herzegovina. J Int Relat Dev 25, 182–209 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1057/s41268-021-00220-4

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1057/s41268-021-00220-4

Keywords

Navigation