Advertisement

Beyond diffusion: cyclical translation of international rule-of-law commission models in Guatemala

  • Lisbeth Zimmermann
Article

Abstract

According to the prevailing diffusion approaches, norms and institutional models in the international realm emerge and are diffused through transnational advocacy networks. According to localisation research, they are adopted and changed by local actors, who adjust them to fit their interests and normative context. Neither approach takes into account the cyclical element of translation. Rather, they both present unidirectional models of diffusion. Focusing on Guatemala, this article shows how institutional models for international rule-of-law commissions in post-conflict states were translated in a cyclical process between different domestic and international contexts. It outlines two modes of cycles in this process: (1) norm application and (2) international norm change.

Keywords

Guatemala International Commission against Impunity in Guatemala (CICIG) localisation norm diffusion rule-of-law promotion translation 

Notes

Acknowledgements

I would like to thank Anton Peez and the three anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments. This article draws on empirical material presented in Global Norms with a Local Face: Rule-of-Law Promotion and Norm Translation (Cambridge University Press, 2017). I gratefully acknowledge the permission to reproduce this material by Cambridge University Press.

References

  1. Acharya, Amitav (2004) ‘How Ideas Spread: Whose Norms Matter? Norm Localization and Institutional Change in Asian Regionalism’, International Organization 58(2): 239–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Acharya, Amitav (2011) ‘Norm Subsidiarity and Regional Orders: Sovereignty, Regionalism, and Rule-Making in the Third World’, International Studies Quarterly 55(1): 95–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Acharya, Amitav (2013) ‘The R2P and Norm Diffusion: Towards A Framework of Norm Circulation’, Global Responsibility to Protect 5(4): 466–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Azpuru, Dinorah, Carlos Mendoza, Evelyn Blanck and Ligia Blanco (2004) Democracy Assistance to Post-Conflict Guatemala. Finding a Balance between Details and Determinants, The Hague: Netherlands Institute of International Relations Clingendael.Google Scholar
  5. Börzel, Tanja A. and Thomas Risse (2013) ‘Human Rights in Areas of Limited Statehood: The New Agenda’, in Thomas Risse, Stephan Ropp and Kathryn Sikkink, eds, The Persistent Power of Human Rights: From Commitment to Compliance, 63–84, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Briscoe, Ivan and Martín Rodríguez Pellecer (2010) ‘A State under Siege: Elites, Criminal Networks and Institutional Reform in Guatemala’, The Hague: Clingendael Institute, available at http://www.clingendael.nl/publications/2010/20100913_cru_publication_ibriscoe.pdf (last accessed on 10 January, 2015).
  7. Briscoe, Ivan and Marlies Stappers (2012) ‘Breaking the Wave: Critical Steps in the Fight against Crime in Guatemala’, The Hague: Clingendael Institute, available at http://www.clingendael.nl/publications/2012/20120100_briscoe_breaking.pdf (last accessed on 10 January, 2016).
  8. Capie, David (2008) ‘Localization as Resistance: The Contested Diffusion of Small Arms Norms in Southeast Asia’, Security Dialogue 39(6): 637–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Carothers, Thomas (1998) ‘The Rule of Law Revival’, Foreign Affairs 77(2): 95–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Castresana, Carlos (2004) ‘La ONU en la lucha contra la impunidad en Guatemala’ [The UN in the fight against impunity in Guatemala], Papeles 87: 105–12.Google Scholar
  11. Checkel, Jeffrey T. (1999) ‘Norms, Institutions, and National Identity in Contemporary Europe’, International Studies Quarterly 43(1): 83–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chorev, Nitsan (2012) ‘Changing Global Norms through Reactive Diffusion: The Case of Intellectual Property Protection of AIDS Drugs’, American Sociological Review 77(5): 831–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. CICIACS Agreement (2004) Agreement between the United Nations and the Government of Guatemala for the Establishment of a Commission for the Investigation of Illegal Groups and Clandestine Security Organizations in Guatemala (CICIACS), New York City, available at http://www.un.org/News/dh/guatemala/ciciacs-eng.pdf (last accessed on 6 November, 2014).
  14. CICIG Agreement (2006) Agreement between the United Nations and the State of Guatemala on the Establishment of an International Commission Against Impunity in Guatemala (‘CICIG’), New York City, available at http://www.cicig.org/uploads/documents/mandato/cicig_acuerdo_en.pdf (last accessed on 6 November, 2014).
  15. Corte de Constitucionalidad de Guatemala (2004) Opinión consultiva [Advisory opinion], Expediente No. 1250-2004.Google Scholar
  16. Cortell, Andrew P. and James W. Davis (2000) ‘Understanding the Domestic Impact of International Norms: A Research Agenda’, International Studies Review 2(1): 65–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Deitelhoff, Nicole and Lisbeth Zimmermann (2013) ‘Things We Lost in the Fire: How Different Types of Contestation Affect the Validity of International Norms’, Frankfurt: PRIF Working Paper No. 18, available at http://hsfk.de/fileadmin/downloads/PRIF_WP_18.pdf (last accessed on 12 November, 2014).
  18. Dickinson, Laura A. (2003) ‘The Promise of Hybrid Courts’, American Journal of International Law 97(2): 295–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Engelkamp, Stephan, Katharina Glaab and Judith Renner (2014) ‘Office Hours: How (Critical) Norm Research Can Regain Its Voice’, World Political Science Review 10(1): 33–61.Google Scholar
  20. Epstein, Charlotte (2012) ‘Stop Telling Us How to Behave: Socialization or Infantilization?’, International Studies Perspectives 13(2): 135–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Epstein, Charlotte (2014) ‘The Postcolonial Perspective: An Introduction’, International Theory 6(2): 294–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Estrada, Rodrigo (2007) ‘Intensa Jornada concluye con aprobación’ [Intense day ends with approbation], El Periódico (2 August): 2–3.Google Scholar
  23. Faundez, Julio (2005) ‘The Rule of Law Enterprise: Promoting a Dialogue Between Practitioners and Academics’, Democratization 12(4): 567–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Finnemore, Martha and Kathryn Sikkink (1998) ‘International Norm Dynamics and Political Change’, International Organization 52(4): 887–917.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Flockhart, Trine (2005) ‘Complex Socialization and the Transfer of Democratic Norms’, in Trine Flockhart, ed., Socializing Democratic Norms: The Role of International Organizations for the Construction of Europe, 43–62, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ganovsky-Larsen, Simon (2007) ‘La CICIACS: Defensores de Derechos Humanos y el Estado de Derecho en la Pos-Guerra’ [The CICIACS: Human rights defenders and the rule of law in a post-conflict context], Guatemala City: GAM.Google Scholar
  27. Halliday, Terence C. (2009) ‘Recursivity of Global Normmaking: A Sociolegal Agenda’, Annual Review of Law and Social Science 5(1): 263–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Halliday, Terence C. and Bruce G. Carruthers (2007) ‘The Recursivity of Law: Global Norm Making and National Lawmaking in the Globalization of Corporate Insolvency Regimes’, American Journal of Sociology 112(4): 1135–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hudson, Andrew and Alexandra W. Taylor, (2010) ‘The International Commission against Impunity in Guatemala: A New Model for International Criminal Justice Mechanisms’, Journal of International Criminal Justice 8: 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Impunity Watch, Centro Internacional para la Justicia Transicional, Plataforma Holandesa contra la Impunidad (2010) Cambiar la cultura de la violencia por la culutra de la vida [Changing a culture of violence to a culture of life], Guatemala City: F&G Editores.Google Scholar
  31. International Crisis Group (2011) ‘Learning to Walk without a Crutch: An Assessment of the International Commission against Impunity in Guatemala’, Latin America Report No. 36.Google Scholar
  32. International Crisis Group (2016) ‘From Crutch to Catalyst? The International Commission against Impunity in Guatemala’, Latin America Report No. 56.Google Scholar
  33. Jetschke, Anja and Jürgen Rüland (2009) ‘Decoupling Rhetoric and Practice: the Cultural Limits of ASEAN Cooperation’, Pacific Review 22(2): 179–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Joachim, Jutta (2003) ‘Framing Issues and Seizing Opportunities: The UN, NGOs, and Women’s Rights’, International Studies Quarterly 47: 247–74.Google Scholar
  35. Job, Brian L. and Anastasia Shesterinina (2014) ‘China as a Global Norm-Shaper: Instutionalization and Implementation of the Responsibility to Protect’, in Alexander Betts and Phil Orchard, eds, Implementation & World Politics, 144–59, Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Jonas, Susanne (2000) Of Centaurs and Doves: Guatemala’s Peace Process, Boulder: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  37. Keck, Margaret E. and Kathryn Sikkink, (1998) Activists Beyond Borders: Advocacy Networks in International Politics, Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Krook, Mona Lena and Jacqui True (2012) ‘Rethinking the Life Cycles of International Norms: The United Nations and the Global Promotion of Gender Equality’, European Journal of International Relations 18(1): 103–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. López, Julie (2010) ‘Guatemala’s Crossroads: Democratization of Violence and Second Chances’, Washington: Woodrow Wilson Center, available at http://www.wilsoncenter.org/sites/default/files/Lopez.Guatemala.pdf (last accessed on 10 January, 2014).
  40. López, Olga (2006) ‘La Ciciacs será CICIG’ [The Ciciacs will be CICIG], Prensa Libre (12 December), available at http://www.prensalibre.com/noticias/Ciciacs-Cicig_0_133187386.html (last accessed on 15 November, 2014).
  41. Magen, Amichai, Thomas Risse and Michael McFau, eds. (2009) Promoting Democracy and the Rule of Law: American and European Strategies, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  42. Mani, Rama (2008) ‘Exploring the Rule of Law in Theory and Practice’, in Agnès Hurwitz and Reyko Huang, eds, Civil War and the Rule of Law, 21–45, Boulder: Lynne Rienner.Google Scholar
  43. Méndez Villaseñor, Claudia (2003a) ‘Califican de ilegal plan de la ONU sobre Ciciacs’ [Judging the UN plan on CICIACS to be illegal], Prensa Libre (24 October), available at http://www.prensalibre.com/noticias/Califican-ilegal-plan-ONU-Ciciacs_0_76793432.html (last accessed on 12 November, 2014).
  44. Méndez Villaseñor, Claudia (2003b) ‘Creación de Ciciacs va a paso lento’ [The creation of Cicias goes slowly], Prensa Libre (16 September), available at http://www.prensalibre.com/noticias/Creacion-Ciciacs-va-paso-lento_0_76192460.html (last accessed on 12 November, 2014).
  45. Méndez Villaseñor, Claudia (2003c) ‘Piden investigar a grupos represores’ [They ask for an investigation of repressive groups], Prensa Libre (17 January): 6.Google Scholar
  46. Morales, Isaías (2016) ‘Un grupo de mexicanos pide que la ONU integre un organismo anticorrupción’ [A group of Mexicans ask the UN to create an anti-corruption organisation], Mundiario (28 August), available at http://www.mundiario.com/articulo/politica/grupo-mexicanos-pide-onu-integre-organismo-anticorrupcion/20160828025200066404.html (last accessed on 19 September, 2016).
  47. Morlino, Leonardo (2009) ‘Are there Hybrid Regimes? Or Are They Just an Optical Illusion?’, European Political Science Review 1(2): 273–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. OAS (2016) ‘Misión de Apoyo contra la Corrupción y la Impunidad en Honduras (MACCIH)’ [Mission to Support the Fight against Corruption and Impunity in Honduras], available at https://www.oas.org/documents/spa/press/Mision-Apoyo-contra-Corrupcion-Impunidad-Honduras-MACCIH.pdf (last accessed on 1 March, 2016).
  49. Panth, Sabina (2011) ‘Changing Norms is Key to Fighting Everyday Corruption, Communication for Governance and Accountability Program (CommGAP)’, Washington: World Bank, available at http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTGOVACC/Resources/ChangingNormsAnnexFinal.pdf (last accessed on 5 May, 2015).
  50. Paris, Roland (2004) At War’s End: Building Peace after Civil Conflict, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Peacock, Susan C. and Adriana Beltrán (2003) ‘Hidden Powers in Post-Conflict Guatemala. Illegal Armed Groups and the Forces Behind them’, Washington: Washington Office on Latin America.Google Scholar
  52. Pérez, Sonia D. (2004) ‘CC: Ciciacs discrepa con la Constitución’ [Constitutional Court: Cicias deviates from constitution], Prensa Libre (8 August): 2.Google Scholar
  53. Prantl, Jochen and Ryoko Nakano (2011) ‘Global Norm Diffusion in East Asia: How China and Japan Implement the Responsibility to Protect’, International Relations 25(2): 204–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Preti, Humberto (2006) ‘Con toda claridad’ [With all clarity], Prensa Libre (16 December), available at http://www.prensalibre.com/opinion/MACROSCOPIObrCon-toda-claridad_0_133186828.html (last accessed on 15 November, 2014).
  55. Price, Richard (1998) ‘Reversing the Gun Sights: Transnational Civil Society Targets Land Mines’, International Organization 52(3): 613–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Ragin, Charles C. and Lisa M. Amoroso (2011) Constructing Social Research: The Unity and Diversity of Method, second edition, Los Angeles: Sage.Google Scholar
  57. Rajagopal, Balakrishnan (2008) ‘Invoking the Rule of Law: International Discourses’, in Agnès Hurwitz and Reyko Huang, eds, Civil War and the Rule of Law: Security, Development, Human Rights, 49–67, Boulder: Lynne Rienner.Google Scholar
  58. Renteria, Nelson (2015) ‘El Salvador Rejects U.N.-backed Anti-Graft Body, Backs Milder Plan’, Reuters (22 October), available at http://uk.reuters.com/article/uk-el-salvador-corruption-idUKKCN0SG2E620151022 (last accessed on 1 March, 2016).
  59. Risse, Thomas, Stephan C. Ropp and Kathryn Sikkink, eds (1999) The Power of Human Rights: International Norms and Domestic Change, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  60. Risse, Thomas, Stephan C. Ropp and Kathryn Sikkink, eds (2013) The Persistent Power of Human Rights: From Commitment to Compliance, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  61. Samayoa, Claudia (2004) El rostro del terror. Análisis de los ataques en contra de Defensores de Derechos Humanos del 2000 al 2003, Guatemala Ciudad: Coalición para la CICIACS.Google Scholar
  62. Schünemann, Julia (2010a) ‘“Looking the Monster in the Face”: The International Commission against Impunity in Guatemala and the “Rule of Law-builders Contract”’, Madrid: FRIDE.Google Scholar
  63. Schünemann, Julia (2010b) ‘Reform Without Ownership? Dilemmas in Supporting Security and Justice Sector Reform in Honduras’, Madrid: Fride.Google Scholar
  64. SEDEM (2004) CICIACS: Sistematización de un proceso [CICIACS: Systematisation of a process], Guatemala City.Google Scholar
  65. Sheldon, Oliver (2016) ‘Fighting corruption and impunity in Honduras’, Global Risk Insights (8 February), available at http://globalriskinsights.com/2016/02/fighting-corruption-and-impunity-in-honduras/(last accessed on 19 September, 2016).
  66. Sikkink, Kathryn (2008) ‘From Pariah State to Global Protagonist: Argentina and the Struggle for International Human Rights’, Latin American Politics and Society 50(1): 1–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Sikkink, Kathryn (2014) ‘Latin American Countries as Norm Protagonists of the Idea of International Human Rights’, Global Governance: A Review of Multilateralism and International Organizations 20(3): 389–404.Google Scholar
  68. Tabory, Sam (2015) ‘El Salvador Should Consider “CICIG”-Like Body: US Official’, Insight Crime (9 July), available at http://www.insightcrime.org/news-briefs/el-salvador-cicig-impunity-thomas-shannon (last accessed on 1 March, 2016).
  69. Thakur, Ramesh and Thomas G. Weiss (2009) ‘R2P: From Idea to Norm and Action?’, Global Responsibility to Protect 1(1): 22–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. UN General Assembly (2008) Report of the Secretary-General: The Rule of Law at the National and International Levels, A/63/64.Google Scholar
  71. United Nations Security Council (1994) Report of the Joint Group for the Investigation of Politically Motivated Illegal Armed Groups in El Salvador, S/1994/090.Google Scholar
  72. United Nations Security Council (2004) The Rule of Law and Transitional Justice in Conflict and Post-conflict Societies, S/2004/616.Google Scholar
  73. Wade, Christine (2015) ‘By Design, Honduras’ Anti-Graft Mission Won’t Actually Fight Corruption’, World Politics Review (4 November), available at http://www.worldpoliticsreview.com/articles/17124/by-design-honduras-anti-graft-mission-won-t-actually-fight-corruption (last accessed on 19 September, 2016).
  74. Werle, Gerhard and Florian Jeßberger (2014) Principles of International Criminal Law, third edition, Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  75. Wiener, Antje (2008) The Invisible Constitution of Politics: Contested Norms and International Encounters, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Wiener, Antje (2014) A Theory of Contestation, Heidelberg: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Williams, Paul D. (2009) ‘The “Responsibility to Protect”, Norm Localisation, and African International Society’, Global Responsibility to Protect 1(3): 392–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Williams, Sarah (2012) Hybrid and Internationalised Criminal Tribunals: Selected Jurisdictional Issues, Oxford: Hart.Google Scholar
  79. WOLA (2008) ‘Advocates Against Impunity. A Case Study on Human Rights Organizing in Guatemala’, Washington: WOLA.Google Scholar
  80. WOLA (2015) ‘The CICIG: An Innovative Instrument for Fighting Criminal Organizations and Strengthening the Rule of Law’, 6/2015, Washington: WOLA.Google Scholar
  81. Wunderlich, Carmen (2013) ‘Theoretical Approaches in Norm Dynamics’, in Harald Müller and Carmen Wunderlich, eds, Norm Dynamics in Multilateral Arms Control: Interests, Conflicts, and Justice, 20–48, Atlanta: Georgia University Press.Google Scholar
  82. Zimmermann, Lisbeth (2016) ‘Same Same or Different? Norm Diffusion Between Resistance, Compliance, and Localization in Post-Conflict States’, International Studies Perspectives 17(1): 98–115.Google Scholar
  83. Zimmermann, Lisbeth (2017) Global Norms with a Local Face: Rule-of-Law Promotion and Norm Translation, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  84. Zimmermann, Lisbeth (n.d.) ‘More for less: The interactive translation of global norms in post-conflict Guatemala’, International Studies Quarterly (forthcoming).Google Scholar
  85. Zinecker, Heidrun (2009) ‘Regime-Hybridity in Developing Countries: Achievements and Limitations of New Research on Transitions’, International Studies Review 11(2): 302–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Zwingel, Susanne (2012) ‘How Do Norms Travel? Theorizing International Women’s Rights in Transnational Perspective’, International Studies Quarterly 56(1): 115–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

List of interviews

  1. Personal interview with staff of an American NGO, 26 January, 2010, Washington D.C.Google Scholar
  2. Personal interview with CICIG staff, 29 March, 2010, Guatemala City.Google Scholar
  3. Personal interview with a member of CICIACS support coalition, 18 July, 2012, Guatemala City.Google Scholar
  4. Personal interview with a former Guatemalan government official, 22 and 26 July, 2012, Guatemala City.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Macmillan Publishers Ltd 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Peace Research Institute Frankfurt (PRIF/HSFK)Frankfurt am MainGermany

Personalised recommendations